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Bay County, Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bay County
Bay City Masonic Temple.
Official seal of Bay County
Map of Michigan highlighting Bay County
Location within the U.S. state of Michigan
Map of the United States highlighting Michigan
Michigan's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°43′N 83°56′W / 43.72°N 83.94°W / 43.72; -83.94
Country United States
State Michigan
FoundedFebruary 17, 1857[1][2]
Named forSaginaw Bay
SeatBay City
Largest cityBay City
Area
 • Total631 sq mi (1,630 km2)
 • Land442 sq mi (1,140 km2)
 • Water188 sq mi (490 km2)  30%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total103,856
 • Density236/sq mi (91/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district5th
Websitewww.baycounty-mi.gov

Bay County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2020 Census, the population was 103,856.[3] The county seat is Bay City.[4]

Bay County comprises the Bay City, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area in the Mid/Central Michigan region.

History

19th century

Bay County was created in 1857 from portions of Midland County, Saginaw County, and Arenac County.[1] Its name references that it "surrounds Saginaw Bay."[1] Being only sparsely populated at that time, Arenac County government was unorganized and was attached to Saginaw County for administrative purposes. There was considerable opposition to the creation of Bay County from elected officials in both Saginaw and Midland counties. In 1854, a bill introduced to the state legislature to create Bay County was defeated by a small majority.

In 1857, a new bill was introduced into the legislature. After initial opposition from the representatives of Saginaw and Midland counties, a compromise revision that would present the matter for ratification to the voters of "in said county" was passed by the legislature on February 17, 1857. The matter was put before all the voters of Saginaw and Midland counties and was soundly defeated. However, the population within the boundaries proposed for Bay County approved the measure. The bill passed by the legislature included phrasing, which was deliberately included by the Bay City lawyer Chester H. Freeman, that allowed Bay County to claim ratification. Under the act, the county was to become effective April 20, 1857.

Residents of Bay County held elections for county officials in June 1857. However, Saginaw County did not recognize the organization of the new county government. In the winter of 1858, Freeman secured passage of a bill in the legislature that would have confirmed the organization of Bay County. But the bill was vetoed by the governor. However, a case that went before the Michigan Supreme Court in its May 1858 term settled the matter. In the case, a defendant was tried in a Saginaw County court, but filed a plea for abatement, claiming that the supposed offense was committed in Bay County and was not in the jurisdiction of the Saginaw County court. Freeman had represented the defendant and prepared arguments, but became incapacitated due to illness. At the request of Freeman's wife, Colonel William M. Fenton argued the case before the Michigan Supreme Court, with the result that Bay County was declared a fully organized county.[5]

20th century

In 1978, Bay County became the second Michigan county (after Oakland County) to adopt a County Executive form of government. Act 139 of 1973 provides for an optional unified form of county government under an appointed County Manager or an elected County Executive. With the County Executive, all departments of the county government that are not headed by a separate elected official (e.g. Treasurer, Clerk, Sheriff, etc.) are under the direction of the County Executive. The County Executive also has veto power over the motions and resolutions passed by the County Commission.

Since the adoption of this form of government, Bay County has had four County Executives: Gary Majeske (R) (1979–1989), Kim Higgs (D) (1989–1993), Thomas Hickner (D) (1993–2016), and James Barcia (D).

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 631 square miles (1,630 km2), of which 442 square miles (1,140 km2) is land and 188 square miles (490 km2) (30%) is water.[6] It is the fifth-smallest county in Michigan by land area.

The Saginaw River flows through Bay City while the Kawkawlin River drains much of the central portion of the county. The Pinconning River and Saganing Creek drain the northern portion. The Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron lies to the east, giving the county its name.

Major highways

Interstate 75 (I-75) and U.S. Highway 23 (US 23), which are concurrent within the county, are the major north–south route. North of Bay City, M-13 follows a parallel route a few miles to the east. US 10 has its eastern terminus in Bay City. M-25, M-15, and M-84 enter Bay City from the east, southeast and southwest respectively and terminate in or near the city. M-20 and Business US 10 end at US 10 as they enter the county.

Adjacent counties

Bay County in 1873; a decade later Arenac County was organized from the northern townships seen in this map.[7]
Bay County in 1873; a decade later Arenac County was organized from the northern townships seen in this map.[7]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18603,164
187015,900402.5%
188038,081139.5%
189056,41248.1%
190062,37810.6%
191068,2389.4%
192069,5481.9%
193069,474−0.1%
194074,9817.9%
195088,46118.0%
1960107,04221.0%
1970117,3399.6%
1980119,8812.2%
1990111,723−6.8%
2000110,157−1.4%
2010107,771−2.2%
2020103,856−3.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010-2018[3]

The 2010 United States Census[12] indicates Bay County had a 2010 population of 107,771. This is a decrease of -2,386 people from the 2000 United States Census. Overall, the county had a -2.2% growth rate during this ten-year period. In 2010 there were 44,603 households and 29,116 families in the county. The population density was 243.7 per square mile (94.1 square kilometers). There were 48,220 housing units at an average density of 109.0 per square mile (42.1 square kilometers). The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 91.2% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 4.7% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races.

There were 44,603 households, out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were husband and wife families, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families, and 29.3% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 22.2% under age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93 males.

The 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate[12] indicates the median income for a household in the county was $45,451 and the median income for a family was $52,784. Males had a median income of $31,035 versus $18,294 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,378. About 11.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.7% of those under the age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Saginaw is the controlling regional body for the Catholic Church.[13]

Economy

According to Bay Future, Inc.[14] the top employers in the county are:

Top Employers in Bay County, Michigan
# Employer # of Employees
1 McLaren - Bay Region 2,083
2 The Dow Chemical Company 1,160
3 Delta College 957
4 Michigan Sugar 900

Government

From 1932 to 2012, Bay County voted for the Democratic Party candidate in every Presidential election except for five national Republican landslides: 1952, 1956, 1972, 1980 and 1984. However, the country has turned increasingly Republican in recent elections.

United States presidential election results for Bay County, Michigan[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 33,125 54.97% 26,151 43.40% 979 1.62%
2016 28,328 53.17% 21,642 40.62% 3,304 6.20%
2012 24,911 46.49% 27,877 52.02% 798 1.49%
2008 23,795 41.32% 32,589 56.59% 1,204 2.09%
2004 25,448 44.60% 31,049 54.42% 562 0.98%
2000 22,150 42.90% 28,251 54.71% 1,235 2.39%
1996 16,038 32.33% 27,835 56.12% 5,730 11.55%
1992 16,383 30.14% 26,492 48.74% 11,480 21.12%
1988 20,710 42.13% 28,225 57.42% 217 0.44%
1984 26,198 53.43% 22,597 46.09% 235 0.48%
1980 25,331 46.40% 24,517 44.91% 4,744 8.69%
1976 23,174 46.64% 25,958 52.24% 557 1.12%
1972 23,094 50.08% 21,712 47.08% 1,312 2.84%
1968 18,779 44.12% 21,410 50.30% 2,378 5.59%
1964 11,896 28.52% 29,754 71.34% 56 0.13%
1960 20,909 47.51% 22,998 52.26% 104 0.24%
1956 23,519 60.39% 15,301 39.29% 128 0.33%
1952 20,087 58.40% 14,113 41.03% 196 0.57%
1948 13,321 47.58% 14,349 51.25% 327 1.17%
1944 15,459 49.54% 15,602 50.00% 143 0.46%
1940 14,618 49.41% 14,902 50.37% 67 0.23%
1936 8,729 35.08% 13,789 55.41% 2,367 9.51%
1932 9,816 39.12% 14,708 58.62% 568 2.26%
1928 12,467 56.88% 9,395 42.87% 55 0.25%
1924 14,861 64.75% 5,881 25.62% 2,209 9.62%
1920 13,933 64.93% 7,011 32.67% 516 2.40%
1916 6,708 51.09% 5,996 45.67% 426 3.24%
1912 2,625 23.43% 2,990 26.68% 5,590 49.89%
1908 6,760 58.22% 4,223 36.37% 628 5.41%
1904 7,609 68.25% 3,142 28.18% 397 3.56%
1900 6,462 54.60% 5,081 42.93% 293 2.48%
1896 6,037 48.09% 6,296 50.16% 220 1.75%
1892 4,587 42.96% 5,714 53.51% 377 3.53%
1888 4,378 43.73% 5,386 53.80% 248 2.48%
1884 2,916 35.15% 4,963 59.83% 416 5.02%


Bay County government is set up under Public Act 139 of 1973. This format provides for an elected County Executive who, as chief administrator, has influence over all departments, except those headed by other elected officials. In that manner, the County Executive appoints and supervises all department heads. It is the duty of the County Executive to coordinate all county activities and unify the management of county affairs, enforce all orders, rules and ordinances passed by the Board of Commissioners and all laws enacted by the state. In addition, the County Executive must submit to the Board of Commissioners a recommended budget each year. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, and participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services. The county Board of Commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. Bay County has a Board of Road Commissioners, which consists of three commissioners who are elected and serve six-year staggered terms (one road commissioner elected every two years). The Board is the policy-making body of the Bay County Road Commission and is responsible for establishing budget priorities and managing the annual budget.[16] In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire, building and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.

Elected officials

Board of Commissioners

7 members, elected from districts (six Democrats, one Republican)[17]

District Commissioner Party
1 Marie Ann-Fryzel Fox Democratic
2 Ernie Krygier Democratic
3 Vaughn J. Begick Republican
4 Kim J. Coonan Democratic
5 Thomas M. Herek, Chairman Democratic
6 Kaysey Owczarzak Radtke Democratic
7 Jayme A. Johnson Democratic

Communities

U.S. Census data map showing local municipal boundaries within Bay County.  Shaded areas represent incorporated cities.
U.S. Census data map showing local municipal boundaries within Bay County. Shaded areas represent incorporated cities.

Cities

Charter townships

Civil townships

Unincorporated communities

Former city

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Bibliography on Bay County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  2. ^ "History of Bay County". baycounty-mi.gov.
  3. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on July 4, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. ^ Butterfield, George Ernest; George N. Fuller (2005) [192?]. "County Organization and Government". History of Bay County. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Library. pp. 42–53. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  6. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  7. ^ Kusmierz, Marvin (October 2005). "Michigan Map History Relevant to Bay County, MI". Archived from the original on August 24, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  12. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2012.
  13. ^ "Diocese of Saginaw". saginaw.org.
  14. ^ "Bay County by the Numbers". welcometobaycounty. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
  16. ^ "About the Bay County Board of Road Commissioners".
  17. ^ "Summary Results Report - 2020 General Election" (PDF). Bay County, Michigan. November 4, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2021.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 June 2022, at 04:16
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