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2016 United States presidential election in Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2016 United States presidential election in Michigan

← 2012 November 8, 2016 2020 →
Turnout63%Steady[1]
 
Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg
Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Nominee Donald Trump Hillary Clinton
Party Republican Democratic
Home state New York New York
Running mate Mike Pence Tim Kaine
Electoral vote 16 0
Popular vote 2,279,543 2,268,839
Percentage 47.50% 47.27%

Michigan Presidential Election Results 2016.svg
County Results

President before election

Barack Obama
Democratic

Elected President

Donald Trump
Republican

Results by county showing number of votes by size and candidates by color[2]
Results by county showing number of votes by size and candidates by color[2]
Treemap of the popular vote by county
Treemap of the popular vote by county

The 2016 United States presidential election in Michigan was held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated. Michigan voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote, pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and her running mate Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. Michigan has 16 electoral votes in the Electoral College.[3]

In the general election, Trump unexpectedly won Michigan by a narrow margin of 0.23%, with 47.50% of the total votes over Clinton's 47.27%. This is the narrowest margin of victory in Michigan's history in presidential election, as well as the narrowest margin of any state in the 2016 election. All of Michigan's 16 Electoral College votes were thus assigned to Trump, significantly contributing to his national electoral victory. Trump's victory in Michigan was attributed to overwhelming and underestimated support from working-class voters, a demographic group that had previously tended to vote for the Democratic candidate.[4] By winning Michigan, Trump became the first Republican candidate to win the state since George H. W. Bush in 1988. Michigan also became one of eleven states to vote for Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996 which Hillary Clinton lost.

The Michigan Board of Canvassers certified Trump's lead of 10,704 votes over Clinton, a 0.23% margin, on November 28.[5] The deadline to request a recount was then set for November 30 at 2:00 p.m. That same day, Green Party candidate Jill Stein's campaign requested a hand recount, but the recount was halted December 1 after the state received an objection from Trump representatives.[6] The objection was rejected by Michigan's Bureau of Elections on December 2, and a federal judge ordered the recount to start again on December 5.[7] Finally, the recount was halted on December 7 after a federal judge issued an order to Michigan's Board of Elections, making Trump's win official.[8]

Primary elections

Democratic primary

Democratic primary results by county.  Bernie Sanders   Hillary Clinton
Democratic primary results by county.
  Bernie Sanders
  Hillary Clinton

Results

Four candidates appeared on the Democratic presidential primary ballot:[9]

Michigan Democratic primary, March 8, 2016
Candidate Popular vote Estimated delegates
Count Percentage Pledged Unpledged Total
Bernie Sanders 598,943 49.68% 67 0 67
Hillary Clinton 581,775 48.26% 63 10 73
Uncommitted 21,601 1.79% 0 7 7
Martin O'Malley (withdrawn) 2,363 0.20%
Rocky De La Fuente 870 0.07%
Total 1,205,552 100% 130 17 147
Source: The Green Papers

Republican primary

Four candidates participated in the Republican primary.[10]

Republican primary results by county.  Donald Trump  Ted Cruz  John Kasich
Republican primary results by county.
  Donald Trump
  Ted Cruz
  John Kasich

Debate

Detroit, March 3

Candidate Airtime[11] Polls[12]
Trump 26:40 35.6%
Cruz 19:23 19.8%
Rubio 13:32 17.4%
Kasich 15:20 8.8%

The eleventh debate was held on March 3, 2016, at the Fox Theatre in downtown Detroit, Michigan.[13] It was the third debate to air on Fox News Channel.[14] Special Report anchor Bret Baier, The Kelly File anchor Megyn Kelly and Fox News Sunday host Chris Wallace served as moderators.[15] It led into the Maine, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Idaho, and Hawaii contests. Fox announced that in order for candidates to qualify, they must have at least 3 percent support in the five most recent national polls by March 1 at 5 pm.[16] Ben Carson said on March 2 he would not be attending the debate.[17][18]

Results

Thirteen candidates appeared on the Republican presidential primary ballot:[9]

Michigan Republican primary, March 8, 2016
Candidate Votes Percentage Actual delegate count
Bound Unbound Total
Donald Trump 483,753 36.55% 25 0 25
Ted Cruz 326,617 24.68% 17 0 17
John Kasich 321,115 24.26% 17 0 17
Marco Rubio 123,587 9.34% 0 0 0
Ben Carson (withdrawn) 21,349 1.61% 0 0 0
Uncommitted (withdrawn) 22,824 1.72% 0 0 0
Jeb Bush (withdrawn) 10,685 0.81% 0 0 0
Rand Paul (withdrawn) 3,774 0.29% 0 0 0
Chris Christie (withdrawn) 3,116 0.24% 0 0 0
Mike Huckabee (withdrawn) 2,603 0.20% 0 0 0
Rick Santorum (withdrawn) 1,722 0.13% 0 0 0
Carly Fiorina (withdrawn) 1,415 0.11% 0 0 0
George Pataki (withdrawn) 591 0.04% 0 0 0
Lindsey Graham (withdrawn) 438 0.03% 0 0 0
Unprojected delegates: 0 0 0
Total: 1,323,589 100.00% 59 0 59
Source: The Green Papers

General election

Although won by Democratic candidates in every election since 1992, sometimes by decisive margins, in 2016 Michigan was considered a swing state and received much attention from Republican party candidate Donald Trump. Hillary Clinton's campaign was confident they would win the state, and projected a 5-point win up until election day.[19] Trump was able to win the state for the first time since George H. W. Bush won it in 1988,[20] albeit by a narrow 0.23% margin of victory. On Election Day, Detroit Free Press had prematurely called the state for Clinton at 9:15pm before retracting the call three hours later,[21] an error which had been common in many sources at the 2000 election, in the states of Florida and New Mexico. Donald Trump's upset victory in the state has led to it gaining new status as a swing state, and many experts have cited Michigan as being a crucial state in the 2020 election, although some say it is leaning towards the Democratic Party. Trump's State Campaign was run by Scott Hagerstrom (State Director), CJ Galdes (Deputy State Director), Christopher Morris (Field Director), and Tia Jurkiw (Events Coordinator). [22][23]

Predictions

Source Ranking As of
Los Angeles Times[24] Likely D November 6, 2016
CNN[25] Lean D November 4, 2016
Cook Political Report[26] Lean D November 7, 2016
Electoral-vote.com[27] Lean D November 8, 2016
RealClearPolitics[28] Tossup November 7, 2016
Sabato's Crystal Ball[29] Lean D November 7, 2016
Fox News[30] Lean D November 7, 2016

Polling

Except for losing one poll in August 2015, and tying with Trump in a poll in September 2015, Clinton won every pre-election poll with margins between 4 and 12 points until November 2016. In late October 2016, Clinton's lead narrowed significantly towards the election. Trump also won the last poll conducted on election day 49% to 47%.[31] The average of the last three polls had Clinton leading Trump 47.6% to 45%.[32] Ultimately, Trump's win here was an extreme surprise.

Minor candidates

The following were given write-in status:[33]

Results

2016 United States presidential election in Michigan
Party Candidate Running mate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican Donald Trump Mike Pence 2,279,543 47.50% 16
Democratic Hillary Clinton Tim Kaine 2,268,839 47.27% 0
Libertarian Gary Johnson William Weld 172,136 3.59% 0
Green Jill Stein Ajamu Baraka 51,463 1.07% 0
Constitution Darrell Castle Scott Bradley 16,139 0.33% 0
Independent Evan McMullin (write-in) Mindy Finn 8,177 0.17% 0
Socialist Mimi Soltysik Angela Nicole Walker 2,209 0.05% 0
- Others - 778 0.02% 0
Totals 4,799,284 100.00% 16

Results by county

Final official results from the Michigan Secretary of State.[2]

County Candidate Total
Trump Clinton Johnson Stein (other)
Alcona percent 67.78% 27.94% 2.65% 0.87% 0.76% 100.00%
votes 4,201 1,732 164 54 47 6,198
Alger percent 57.22% 36.81% 3.92% 1.48% 0.58% 100.00%
votes 2,585 1,663 177 67 26 4,518
Allegan percent 61.28% 32.36% 4.50% 1.07% 0.80% 100.00%
votes 34,183 18,050 2,513 596 444 55,786
Alpena percent 61.85% 33.18% 3.39% 1.09% 0.50% 100.00%
votes 9,090 4,877 498 160 73 14,698
Antrim percent 62.35% 32.75% 3.38% 1.07% 0.44% 100.00%
votes 8,469 4,448 459 146 60 13,582
Arenac percent 64.32% 30.98% 3.51% 0.78% 0.42% 100.00%
votes 4,950 2,384 270 60 32 7,696
Baraga percent 61.83% 33.12% 3.04% 1.40% 0.60% 100.00%
votes 2,158 1,156 106 49 21 3,490
Barry percent 63.31% 30.05% 4.70% 1.14% 0.80% 100.00%
votes 19,202 9,114 1,424 346 243 30,329
Bay percent 53.47% 40.85% 4.13% 1.03% 0.52% 100.00%
votes 28,328 21,642 2,189 544 274 52,977
Benzie percent 54.16% 40.16% 3.73% 1.46% 0.49% 100.00%
votes 5,539 4,108 382 149 50 10,228
Berrien percent 53.65% 40.95% 3.83% 0.92% 0.65% 100.00%
votes 38,647 29,495 2,760 662 467 72,031
Branch percent 66.73% 28.65% 3.30% 0.85% 0.47% 100.00%
votes 11,786 5,061 582 151 83 17,663
Calhoun percent 53.47% 41.01% 3.88% 1.08% 0.56% 100.00%
votes 31,494 24,157 2,284 635 332 58,902
Cass percent 63.04% 32.18% 3.33% 0.88% 0.58% 100.00%
votes 14,243 7,270 753 199 130 22,595
Charlevoix percent 59.46% 35.21% 3.65% 1.22% 0.47% 100.00%
votes 8,674 5,137 532 178 68 14,589
Cheboygan percent 63.51% 31.47% 3.39% 1.02% 0.61% 100.00%
votes 8,683 4,302 463 140 84 13,672
Chippewa percent 59.02% 34.80% 3.77% 1.57% 0.83% 100.00%
votes 9,122 5,379 583 243 129 15,456
Clare percent 63.52% 31.74% 3.25% 0.90% 0.60% 100.00%
votes 8,505 4,249 435 120 80 13,389
Clinton percent 53.22% 40.57% 4.64% 0.93% 0.64% 100.00%
votes 21,636 16,492 1,886 379 262 40,655
Crawford percent 63.62% 30.83% 3.90% 0.96% 0.69% 100.00%
votes 4,354 2,110 267 66 47 6,844
Delta percent 60.14% 34.80% 3.57% 0.98% 0.50% 100.00%
votes 11,121 6,436 660 182 93 18,492
Dickinson percent 65.17% 29.80% 3.42% 0.93% 0.68% 100.00%
votes 8,580 3,923 450 123 89 13,165
Eaton percent 49.11% 44.36% 4.66% 1.07% 0.81% 100.00%
votes 27,609 24,938 2,618 602 454 56,221
Emmet percent 56.46% 37.08% 4.29% 1.48% 0.69% 100.00%
votes 10,616 6,972 806 279 129 18,802
Genesee percent 42.88% 52.34% 3.17% 1.12% 0.49% 100.00%
votes 84,175 102,751 6,221 2,193 956 196,296
Gladwin percent 65.14% 30.42% 3.15% 0.70% 0.59% 100.00%
votes 8,124 3,794 393 87 74 12,472
Gogebic percent 54.82% 39.91% 2.91% 1.61% 0.75% 100.00%
votes 4,018 2,925 213 118 55 7,329
Grand Traverse percent 53.14% 40.64% 4.17% 1.47% 0.59% 100.00%
votes 27,413 20,965 2,149 756 306 51,589
Gratiot percent 60.01% 34.41% 4.17% 0.85% 0.56% 100.00%
votes 9,880 5,666 687 140 92 16,465
Hillsdale percent 70.69% 24.07% 3.51% 0.92% 0.81% 100.00%
votes 14,095 4,799 700 184 162 19,940
Houghton percent 54.24% 38.52% 5.36% 1.38% 0.50% 100.00%
votes 8,475 6,018 837 216 78 15,624
Huron percent 67.17% 28.77% 3.00% 0.65% 0.41% 100.00%
votes 10,692 4,579 477 104 65 15,917
Ingham percent 33.45% 60.33% 4.05% 1.41% 0.77% 100.00%
votes 43,868 79,110 5,305 1,846 1,009 131,138
Ionia percent 61.95% 31.10% 5.05% 1.07% 0.84% 100.00%
votes 16,635 8,352 1,355 286 226 26,854
Iosco percent 62.46% 32.52% 3.44% 1.09% 0.49% 100.00%
votes 8,345 4,345 459 146 66 13,361
Iron percent 62.18% 33.91% 2.96% 0.61% 0.34% 100.00%
votes 3,675 2,004 175 36 20 5,910
Isabella percent 48.59% 44.91% 4.30% 1.56% 0.63% 100.00%
votes 12,338 11,404 1,093 396 161 25,392
Jackson percent 57.11% 37.02% 4.16% 1.02% 0.68% 100.00%
votes 39,793 25,795 2,901 713 475 69,677
Kalamazoo percent 40.41% 53.17% 4.47% 1.29% 0.66% 100.00%
votes 51,034 67,148 5,644 1,634 839 126,299
Kalkaska percent 69.24% 25.81% 3.20% 1.34% 0.41% 100.00%
votes 6,116 2,280 283 118 36 8,833
Kent percent 48.08% 45.00% 4.62% 1.30% 1.00% 100.00%
votes 148,180 138,683 14,246 3,996 3,079 308,184
Keweenaw percent 56.76% 36.75% 4.32% 1.39% 0.77% 100.00%
votes 814 527 62 20 11 1,434
Lake percent 59.29% 36.39% 2.85% 0.90% 0.56% 100.00%
votes 3,159 1,939 152 48 30 5,328
Lapeer percent 66.48% 28.18% 3.83% 0.94% 0.57% 100.00%
votes 30,037 12,734 1,730 426 256 45,183
Leelanau percent 49.05% 45.90% 3.46% 1.33% 0.25% 100.00%
votes 7,239 6,774 510 197 37 14,757
Lenawee percent 57.53% 36.46% 4.45% 0.98% 0.58% 100.00%
votes 26,430 16,750 2,044 449 266 45,939
Livingston percent 62.04% 32.48% 4.03% 0.86% 0.59% 100.00%
votes 65,680 34,384 4,266 911 625 105,866
Luce percent 68.09% 26.41% 3.99% 1.12% 0.39% 100.00%
votes 1,756 681 103 29 10 2,579
Mackinac percent 61.41% 34.20% 2.95% 1.10% 0.34% 100.00%
votes 3,744 2,085 180 67 21 6,097
Macomb percent 53.58% 42.05% 3.07% 0.93% 0.38% 100.00%
votes 224,665 176,317 12,862 3,886 1,582 419,312
Manistee percent 54.89% 39.52% 3.62% 1.59% 0.39% 100.00%
votes 6,915 4,979 456 200 49 12,599
Marquette percent 44.41% 48.65% 4.42% 1.77% 0.75% 100.00%
votes 14,646 16,042 1,458 583 247 32,976
Mason percent 57.92% 35.96% 4.09% 1.29% 0.74% 100.00%
votes 8,505 5,281 601 189 109 14,685
Mecosta percent 60.02% 33.94% 4.06% 1.33% 0.64% 100.00%
votes 10,305 5,827 697 229 110 17,168
Menominee percent 62.24% 32.87% 3.26% 1.10% 0.54% 100.00%
votes 6,702 3,539 351 118 58 10,768
Midland percent 56.10% 36.78% 5.21% 0.96% 0.95% 100.00%
votes 23,846 15,635 2,216 407 402 42,506
Missaukee percent 73.61% 21.39% 3.29% 1.01% 0.70% 100.00%
votes 5,386 1,565 241 74 51 7,317
Monroe percent 58.29% 36.19% 4.02% 0.95% 0.54% 100.00%
votes 43,261 26,863 2,985 707 402 74,218
Montcalm percent 63.54% 29.59% 4.95% 1.10% 0.83% 100.00%
votes 16,907 7,874 1,316 292 220 26,609
Montmorency percent 69.83% 25.69% 3.17% 0.88% 0.42% 100.00%
votes 3,498 1,287 159 44 21 5,009
Muskegon percent 46.26% 47.77% 4.07% 1.23% 0.65% 100.00%
votes 36,127 37,304 3,182 964 511 78,088
Newaygo percent 67.02% 27.44% 3.88% 0.87% 0.80% 100.00%
votes 15,173 6,212 878 197 180 22,640
Oakland percent 43.51% 51.62% 3.48% 0.96% 0.42% 100.00%
votes 289,203 343,070 23,154 6,396 2,791 664,614
Oceana percent 60.59% 33.30% 4.12% 0.97% 1.01% 100.00%
votes 7,228 3,973 492 116 121 11,930
Ogemaw percent 65.73% 29.17% 3.40% 1.14% 0.57% 100.00%
votes 6,827 3,030 353 118 59 10,387
Ontonagon percent 60.30% 34.33% 3.74% 0.85% 0.79% 100.00%
votes 2,066 1,176 128 29 27 3,426
Osceola percent 69.15% 25.50% 3.78% 0.90% 0.67% 100.00%
votes 7,336 2,705 401 96 71 10,609
Oscoda percent 69.80% 25.63% 3.44% 0.44% 0.69% 100.00%
votes 2,843 1,044 140 18 28 4,073
Otsego percent 65.93% 28.36% 3.84% 1.30% 0.57% 100.00%
votes 8,266 3,556 482 163 71 12,538
Ottawa percent 61.98% 31.51% 4.43% 0.99% 1.09% 100.00%
votes 88,467 44,973 6,324 1,418 1,552 142,734
Presque Isle percent 62.18% 33.25% 3.28% 0.69% 0.60% 100.00%
votes 4,488 2,400 237 50 43 7,218
Roscommon percent 62.43% 32.87% 3.17% 1.09% 0.44% 100.00%
votes 8,141 4,287 413 142 58 13,041
Saginaw percent 48.21% 47.07% 3.39% 0.83% 0.50% 100.00%
votes 45,469 44,396 3,199 780 476 94,320
Sanilac percent 69.85% 25.32% 3.44% 0.88% 0.51% 100.00%
votes 13,446 4,873 662 170 98 19,249
Schoolcraft percent 61.53% 32.96% 3.97% 0.75% 0.79% 100.00%
votes 2,556 1,369 165 31 33 4,154
Shiawassee percent 56.37% 36.78% 4.87% 1.06% 0.92% 100.00%
votes 19,230 12,546 1,660 362 313 34,111
St. Clair percent 62.88% 31.48% 3.81% 1.36% 0.47% 100.00%
votes 49,051 24,553 2,972 1,062 365 78,003
St. Joseph percent 62.65% 31.68% 3.93% 1.22% 0.52% 100.00%
votes 14,884 7,526 934 290 123 23,757
Tuscola percent 66.30% 28.80% 3.38% 0.86% 0.67% 100.00%
votes 17,102 7,429 872 221 172 25,796
Van Buren percent 53.77% 39.84% 4.45% 1.25% 0.69% 100.00%
votes 17,890 13,258 1,480 417 229 33,274
Washtenaw percent 26.85% 68.13% 3.10% 1.31% 0.61% 100.00%
votes 50,631 128,483 5,840 2,472 1,152 188,578
Wayne percent 29.44% 66.78% 2.42% 1.00% 0.36% 100.00%
votes 228,993 519,444 18,801 7,784 2,816 777,838
Wexford percent 65.37% 29.00% 3.78% 1.26% 0.59% 100.00%
votes 10,000 4,436 579 192 91 15,298
Total percent 47.50% 47.27% 3.59% 1.07% 0.57% 100.00%
votes 2,279,543 2,268,839 172,136 51,463 27,303 4,799,284

Counties that swung from Democratic to Republican

[34]

By congressional district

Trump won 9 of 14 congressional districts.[35]

District Trump Clinton Representative
1st 58% 37% Dan Benishek
Jack Bergman
2nd 55% 38% Bill Huizenga
3rd 52% 42% Justin Amash
4th 59% 35% John Moolenaar
5th 45% 50% Dan Kildee
6th 51% 43% Fred Upton
7th 56% 39% Tim Walberg
8th 51% 44% Mike Bishop
9th 44% 51% Sander Levin
10th 64% 32% Candice Miller
Paul Mitchell
11th 49% 45% David Trott
12th 34% 61% Debbie Dingell
13th 18% 79% John Conyers Jr.
14th 18% 79% Brenda Lawrence

See also

References

  1. ^ "SOS - General Election Voter Registration/Turnout Statistics". Michigan.gov.
  2. ^ a b Michigan Election Results, Michigan Secretary of State, November 28, 2016
  3. ^ "Distribution of Electoral Votes". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  4. ^ Cohn, Nate (November 9, 2016). "Why Trump Won: Working-Class". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  5. ^ Gray, Kathleen; Egan, Paul (November 28, 2016). "Board of Canvassers certifies Trump victory in Michigan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
  6. ^ Keneally, Meghan (December 9, 2016). "Everything you need to know about the election recount efforts". ABC News. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  7. ^ Keneally, Meghan (December 9, 2016). "Everything you need to know about the election recount efforts". ABC News. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  8. ^ "The Latest: Federal judge agrees to end Michigan recount". Associated Press. December 7, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Michigan Secretary of State: March 2016 Primary Information". Michigan.gov.
  10. ^ "Mitt Romney, Donald Trump Share Harsh Words In Competing Speeches". Npr.org.
  11. ^ Sprunt, Barbara. "On The Clock: Trump Still Gets The Most Talking Time". Npr.org. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  12. ^ "RealClearPolitics - Election 2016 - 2016 Republican Presidential Nomination".
  13. ^ Gold, Hadas (February 4, 2016). "Bret Baier, Megyn Kelly, Chris Wallace return for March 3 debate". Politico. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  14. ^ "2016 presidential debate schedule: Dates, times, moderators and topics". Politico.com. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  15. ^ "GOP debate headed to Detroit in March". Detroit News. February 4, 2016.
  16. ^ Feldman, Josh. "Fox News Announces Criteria for Next Week's Big GOP Debate". Mediaite.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  17. ^ "Transcript of the Republican Presidential Debate in Detroit". New York Times. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  18. ^ "Republican debate: candidates pledge to support Trump if needed – as it happened". Guardian. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  19. ^ How Clinton lost Michigan — and blew the election. Politico. 14 December 2016.
  20. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  21. ^ "Free Press Embarrasses Itself with a Premature Call of Clinton Win in Michigan". Deadlinedetroit.com.
  22. ^ "Donald J. Trump for President Campaign Organization 2016 General Election - Michigan". www.p2016.org. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  23. ^ "Forest Hills grad lands big role in national presidential campaign". mlive. September 19, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  24. ^ "Our final map has Clinton winning with 352 electoral votes. Compare your picks with ours". Los Angeles Times. November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  25. ^ Chalian, David (November 4, 2016). "Road to 270: CNN's new election map". CNN. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  26. ^ "2016 Electoral Scorecard". The Cook Political Report. November 7, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  27. ^ "2016 Electoral Map Prediction". Electoral-vote.com. November 8, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  28. ^ "2016 Election Maps - Battle for White House". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  29. ^ Sabato, Larry J. (November 7, 2016). "2016 President". University of Virginia Center for Politics. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  30. ^ "Electoral Scorecard: Map shifts again in Trump's favor, as Clinton holds edge". Fox News. November 7, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  31. ^ https://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/mi/michigan_trump_vs_clinton-5533.html#polls
  32. ^ https://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2016/president/mi/michigan_trump_vs_clinton-5533.html#polls
  33. ^ "Michigan Bureau of Elections : SUBJECT: Write-in Candidates for November 8, 2016 General Election: FINAL LISTING" (PDF). Jalp5dai.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  34. ^ "Trump flipped 12 counties to win Michigan". Detroit News.
  35. ^ "Introducing the 2017 Cook Political Report Partisan Voter Index". The Cook Political Report.

Further reading

External links

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