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1984 United States presidential election in Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1984 United States presidential election in Michigan

← 1980 November 6, 1984 1988 →
Turnout59.3% Decrease[1]
 
Ronald Reagan presidential portrait crop.jpg
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup.jpg
Nominee Ronald Reagan Walter Mondale
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California Minnesota
Running mate George H.W. Bush Geraldine Ferraro
Electoral vote 20 0
Popular vote 2,251,571 1,529,638
Percentage 59.23% 40.24%

Michigan Presidential Election Results 1984.svg
County Results

President before election

Ronald Reagan
Republican

Elected President

Ronald Reagan
Republican

The 1984 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 6, 1984. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose twenty electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States.

Michigan was won by incumbent United States President Ronald Reagan of California, who was running against former Vice President Walter Mondale of Minnesota. Reagan ran for a second time with former C.I.A. Director George H. W. Bush of Texas, and Mondale ran with Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first major female candidate for the vice presidency.

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Transcription

Contents

Partisan background

The presidential election of 1984 was a very partisan election for Michigan, with just over 99 percent of the electorate voting only either Democratic or Republican, though several more parties appeared on the ballot.[2] Nearly every county in Michigan voted in majority for Reagan, a particularly strong turn out in what was at the time a critical swing state. Typical for elections in the 1980s, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan turned out somewhat more Democratic, and the Lower Peninsula turned out almost entirely Republican, with the notable exception of Detroit's highly populated Wayne County.

Michigan weighed in for this election as 0.77 percentage points more Republican than the national average. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Washtenaw County, Genesee County, and Marquette County voted for a Republican Presidential candidate.[3]

Democratic platform

Walter Mondale accepted the Democratic nomination for presidency after pulling narrowly ahead of Senator Gary Hart of Colorado and Rev. Jesse Jackson of Illinois - his main contenders during what would be a very contentious[4] Democratic primary. During the campaign, Mondale was vocal about reduction of government spending, and, in particular, was vocal against heightened military spending on the nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union,[5] which was reaching its peak on both sides in the early 1980s.

Taking a (what was becoming the traditional liberal) stance on the social issues of the day, Mondale advocated for gun control, the right to choose regarding abortion, and strongly opposed the repeal of laws regarding institutionalized prayer in public schools. He also criticized Reagan for what he charged was his economic marginalization of the poor, stating that Reagan's reelection campaign was "a happy talk campaign," not focused on the real issues at hand.[6]

A very significant political move during this election: the Democratic Party nominated Representative Geraldine Ferraro to run with Mondale as Vice-President. Ferraro is the first female candidate to receive such a nomination in United States history. She said in an interview at the 1984 Democratic National Convention that this action "opened a door which will never be closed again,"[7] speaking to the role of women in politics.

Republican platform

Reagan challenging Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!," from the Brandenburg Gate in June, 1987. Reagan's firm stance with the Soviet Union was an important contributor to his 1984 reelection.
Reagan challenging Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!," from the Brandenburg Gate in June, 1987. Reagan's firm stance with the Soviet Union was an important contributor to his 1984 reelection.

By 1984, Reagan was very popular with voters across the nation as the President who saw them out of the economic stagflation of the early and middle 1970's, and into a period of (relative) economic stability.[8]

The economic success seen under Reagan was politically accomplished (principally) in two ways. The first was initiation of deep tax cuts for the wealthy,[9] and the second was a wide-spectrum of tax cuts for crude oil production and refinement, namely, with the 1980 Windfall profits tax cuts.[10] These policies were augmented with a call for heightened military spending,[11] the cutting of social welfare programs for the poor,[12] and the increasing of taxes on those making less than $50,000 per year.[9] Collectively called "Reaganomics", these economic policies were established through several pieces of legislation passed between 1980 and 1987.

These new tax policies also arguably curbed several existing tax loopholes, preferences, and exceptions, but Reaganomics is typically remembered for its trickle down effect of taxing poor Americans more than rich ones. Reaganomics has (along with legislation passed under presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton) been criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession.[13]

Virtually unopposed during the Republican primaries, Reagan ran on a campaign of furthering his economic policies. Reagan vowed to continue his "war on drugs," passing sweeping legislation after the 1984 election in support of mandatory minimum sentences for drug possession.[14] Furthermore, taking a (what was becoming the traditional conservative) stance on the social issues of the day, Reagan strongly opposed legislation regarding comprehension of gay marriage, abortion, and (to a lesser extent) environmentalism,[15] regarding the final as simply being bad for business.

Republican victory

Reagan campaigning in Saginaw, Michigan with Bill Schuette and Jack Lousma
Reagan campaigning in Saginaw, Michigan with Bill Schuette and Jack Lousma

Reagan won the election in Michigan with a decisive 19 percentage point landslide. While Michigan was typically a contested battleground state at the time, with a large black population and a heavy presence of organized labor balanced by a large rural and suburban population, the election results in Michigan are also reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party which took place through the 1980s; called by Reagan the "second American Revolution."[8] This was most evident during the 1984 presidential election. The election of 1984 is the final election where Michigan was won by the Republican Party with a double-digit margin, with George H.W. Bush winning the state with a single-digit margin in 1988. The state then became reliably Democratic between 1992 and Donald Trump's narrow victory in 2016. No Republican candidate has received as strong of support in the American Great Lakes States, at large, post Reagan.

It is speculated that Mondale lost support with voters nearly immediately during the campaign, namely during his acceptance speech at the 1984 Democratic National Convention. There he stated that he intended to increase taxes. To quote Mondale, "By the end of my first term, I will reduce the Reagan budget deficit by two thirds. Let's tell the truth. It must be done, it must be done. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did."[6] Despite this claimed attempt at establishing truthfulness with the electorate, this promise to raise taxes badly eroded his chances in what had already begun as an uphill battle against the charismatic Ronald Reagan.

Reagan also enjoyed high levels of bipartisan support during the 1984 presidential election, both in Michigan, and across the nation at large. Many registered Democrats who voted for Reagan (Reagan Democrats) stated that they had chosen to do so because they associated him with the economic recovery, because of his strong stance on national security issues with Russia, and because they considered the Democrats as "supporting American poor and minorities at the expense of the middle class."[15] These public opinion factors contributed to Reagan's 1984 landslide victory, in Michigan and elsewhere.

Results

1984 United States presidential election in Michigan
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican Ronald Reagan 2,251,571 59.23% 20
Democratic Walter Mondale 1,529,638 40.24% 0
Libertarian David Bergland 10,055 0.26% 0
Independent Lyndon LaRouche 3,862 0.10% 0
Workers World Larry Holmes 1,416 0.04% 0
Citizen's Party Sonia Johnson 1,191 0.03% 0
Socialist Workers Party Melvin Mason 1,049 0.03% 0
Communist Party Gus Hall 1,048 0.03% 0
New Alliance Party Dennis Serrette 665 0.02% 0
Write-Ins 602 0.02% 0
Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 561 0.01% 0
Totals 3,801,658 100.0% 20

Results by county

County Ronald Wilson Reagan
Republican
Walter Frederick Mondale
Democratic
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast[16]
# % # % # % # %
Alcona 3,223 66.41% 1,616 33.30% 14 0.29% 1,607 33.11% 4,853
Alger 2,175 51.69% 2,018 47.96% 15 0.36% 157 3.73% 4,208
Allegan 23,762 73.48% 8,389 25.94% 187 0.58% 15,373 47.54% 32,338
Alpena 8,212 61.30% 5,136 38.34% 49 0.37% 3,076 22.96% 13,397
Antrim 5,726 69.18% 2,507 30.29% 44 0.53% 3,219 38.89% 8,277
Arenac 3,483 58.63% 2,436 41.00% 22 0.37% 1,047 17.62% 5,941
Baraga 1,965 51.82% 1,818 47.94% 9 0.24% 147 3.88% 3,792
Barry 14,245 69.98% 5,989 29.42% 122 0.60% 8,256 40.56% 20,356
Bay 26,198 53.43% 22,597 46.09% 235 0.48% 3,601 7.34% 49,030
Benzie 3,590 65.25% 1,866 33.91% 46 0.84% 1,724 31.33% 5,502
Berrien 43,160 66.58% 21,228 32.75% 436 0.67% 21,932 33.83% 64,824
Branch 11,004 73.63% 3,860 25.83% 81 0.54% 7,144 47.80% 14,945
Calhoun 34,470 62.60% 20,313 36.89% 284 0.52% 14,157 25.71% 55,067
Cass 11,647 63.32% 6,634 36.07% 113 0.61% 5,013 27.25% 18,394
Charlevoix 6,355 66.23% 3,175 33.09% 65 0.68% 3,180 33.14% 9,595
Cheboygan 6,053 64.04% 3,358 35.53% 41 0.43% 2,695 28.51% 9,452
Chippewa 8,135 63.77% 4,575 35.86% 47 0.37% 3,560 27.91% 12,757
Clare 6,587 63.26% 3,764 36.15% 61 0.59% 2,823 27.11% 10,412
Clinton 17,387 73.28% 6,226 26.24% 113 0.48% 11,161 47.04% 23,726
Crawford 3,303 67.46% 1,558 31.82% 35 0.71% 1,745 35.64% 4,896
Delta 8,952 52.84% 7,934 46.83% 56 0.33% 1,018 6.01% 16,942
Dickinson 6,880 54.91% 5,614 44.80% 36 0.29% 1,266 10.10% 12,530
Eaton 27,720 72.57% 10,290 26.94% 189 0.49% 17,430 45.63% 38,199
Emmet 7,760 70.04% 3,254 29.37% 66 0.60% 4,506 40.67% 11,080
Genesee 92,943 50.68% 89,491 48.80% 953 0.52% 3,452 1.88% 183,387
Gladwin 5,401 61.07% 3,368 38.08% 75 0.85% 2,033 22.99% 8,844
Gogebic 4,006 41.81% 5,554 57.97% 21 0.22% -1,548 -16.16% 9,581
Grand Traverse 18,036 70.83% 7,271 28.55% 157 0.62% 10,765 42.28% 25,464
Gratiot 10,456 72.08% 4,000 27.57% 50 0.34% 6,456 44.51% 14,506
Hillsdale 12,063 76.50% 3,616 22.93% 89 0.56% 8,447 53.57% 15,768
Houghton 8,652 57.14% 6,434 42.49% 55 0.36% 2,218 14.65% 15,141
Huron 11,073 73.37% 3,966 26.28% 52 0.34% 7,107 47.09% 15,091
Ingham 68,753 59.23% 46,411 39.98% 919 0.79% 22,342 19.25% 116,083
Ionia 14,162 70.69% 5,735 28.62% 138 0.69% 8,427 42.06% 20,035
Iosco 7,907 66.99% 3,850 32.62% 47 0.40% 4,057 34.37% 11,804
Iron 3,468 49.15% 3,559 50.44% 29 0.41% -91 -1.29% 7,056
Isabella 12,215 65.00% 6,435 34.24% 143 0.76% 5,780 30.76% 18,793
Jackson 40,133 68.27% 18,340 31.20% 312 0.53% 21,793 37.07% 58,785
Kalamazoo 58,327 63.82% 32,460 35.52% 601 0.66% 25,867 28.30% 91,388
Kalkaska 3,623 69.15% 1,595 30.44% 21 0.40% 2,028 38.71% 5,239
Kent 137,417 67.03% 66,238 32.31% 1,365 0.67% 71,179 34.72% 205,020
Keweenaw 599 48.82% 628 51.18% 0 0.00% -29 -2.36% 1,227
Lake 2,125 53.09% 1,845 46.09% 33 0.82% 280 6.99% 4,003
Lapeer 19,222 70.67% 7,800 28.68% 178 0.65% 11,422 41.99% 27,200
Leelanau 5,356 67.62% 2,498 31.54% 67 0.85% 2,858 36.08% 7,921
Lenawee 22,409 66.70% 11,012 32.78% 176 0.52% 11,397 33.92% 33,597
Livingston 31,846 74.39% 10,720 25.04% 246 0.57% 21,126 49.35% 42,812
Luce 1,715 66.97% 833 32.53% 13 0.51% 882 34.44% 2,561
Mackinac 3,627 64.85% 1,949 34.85% 17 0.30% 1,678 30.00% 5,593
Macomb 194,300 66.20% 97,816 33.32% 1,409 0.48% 96,484 32.87% 293,525
Manistee 6,328 61.45% 3,917 38.04% 53 0.51% 2,411 23.41% 10,298
Marquette 14,196 49.98% 14,074 49.55% 132 0.46% 122 0.43% 28,402
Mason 8,202 67.83% 3,803 31.45% 87 0.72% 4,399 36.38% 12,092
Mecosta 9,023 68.66% 4,048 30.80% 71 0.54% 4,975 37.86% 13,142
Menominee 6,618 59.68% 4,425 39.90% 46 0.41% 2,193 19.78% 11,089
Midland 21,521 66.11% 10,769 33.08% 262 0.80% 10,752 33.03% 32,552
Missaukee 3,970 75.53% 1,256 23.90% 30 0.57% 2,714 51.64% 5,256
Monroe 29,419 59.69% 19,617 39.80% 251 0.51% 9,802 19.89% 49,287
Montcalm 13,109 70.14% 5,491 29.38% 89 0.48% 7,618 40.76% 18,689
Montmorency 2,913 67.54% 1,387 32.16% 13 0.30% 1,526 35.38% 4,313
Muskegon 39,355 60.67% 25,247 38.92% 261 0.40% 14,108 21.75% 64,863
Newaygo 10,636 69.95% 4,496 29.57% 73 0.48% 6,140 40.38% 15,205
Oakland 306,050 66.71% 150,286 32.76% 2,464 0.54% 155,764 33.95% 458,800
Oceana 6,405 68.69% 2,865 30.72% 55 0.59% 3,540 37.96% 9,325
Ogemaw 4,901 60.81% 3,132 38.86% 27 0.33% 1,769 21.95% 8,060
Ontonagon 2,464 50.95% 2,350 48.59% 22 0.45% 114 2.36% 4,836
Osceola 5,923 73.21% 2,127 26.29% 40 0.49% 3,796 46.92% 8,090
Oscoda 2,239 69.77% 951 29.64% 19 0.59% 1,288 40.14% 3,209
Otsego 4,639 68.27% 2,117 31.16% 39 0.57% 2,522 37.12% 6,795
Ottawa 60,142 79.69% 15,000 19.88% 326 0.43% 45,142 59.82% 75,468
Presque Isle 4,207 62.57% 2,481 36.90% 36 0.54% 1,726 25.67% 6,724
Roscommon 6,419 65.35% 3,359 34.20% 45 0.46% 3,060 31.15% 9,823
Saginaw 51,495 56.95% 38,420 42.49% 501 0.55% 13,075 14.46% 90,416
Sanilac 12,627 75.12% 4,126 24.54% 57 0.34% 8,501 50.57% 16,810
Schoolcraft 2,139 52.47% 1,920 47.09% 18 0.44% 219 5.37% 4,077
Shiawassee 18,756 65.97% 9,514 33.46% 161 0.57% 9,242 32.51% 28,431
St. Clair 36,114 67.63% 16,998 31.83% 287 0.54% 19,116 35.80% 53,399
St. Joseph 15,405 72.34% 5,795 27.21% 96 0.45% 9,610 45.13% 21,296
Tuscola 14,698 70.01% 6,212 29.59% 83 0.40% 8,486 40.42% 20,993
Van Buren 16,426 64.55% 8,853 34.79% 166 0.65% 7,573 29.76% 25,445
Washtenaw 58,736 51.27% 55,084 48.08% 749 0.65% 3,652 3.19% 114,569
Wayne 367,391 42.31% 496,632 57.19% 4,320 0.50% -129,241 -14.88% 868,343
Wexford 7,279 67.93% 3,398 31.71% 38 0.35% 3,881 36.22% 10,715
Totals 2,251,571 59.22% 1,529,729 40.24% 20,449 0.54% 721,842 18.99% 3,801,749

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.michigan.gov/sos/0,4670,7-127-1633_8722-29616--,00.html
  2. ^ "1984 Presidential General Election Results – Michigan". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
  3. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  4. ^ Kurt Andersen, "A Wild Ride to the End", Time, May 28, 1984
  5. ^ Trying to Win the Peace, by Even Thomas, Time, July 2, 1984
  6. ^ a b Mondale's Acceptance Speech, 1984, AllPolitics
  7. ^ Martin, Douglas (2011-03-27). "Geraldine A. Ferraro, First Woman on Major Party Ticket, Dies at 75". The New York Times. pp. A1. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  8. ^ a b Raines, Howell (November 7, 1984). "Reagan Wins By a Landslide, Sweeping at Least 48 States; G.O.P. Gains Strength in House". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  9. ^ a b "U.S. Federal Individual Income Tax Rates History, 1913–2011 (Nominal and Inflation-Adjusted Brackets)". Tax Foundation. September 9, 2011. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
  10. ^ Joseph J. Thorndike (Nov 10, 2005). "Historical Perspective: The Windfall Profit Tax". Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  11. ^ Historical tables, Budget of the United States Government Archived 2012-04-17 at the Wayback Machine, 2013, table 6.1.
  12. ^ Niskanen, William A. (1992). "Reaganomics". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270, 163149563
  13. ^ Jerry Lanson (2008-11-06). "A historic victory. A changed nation. Now, can Obama deliver?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  14. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1595581037.
  15. ^ a b Prendergast, William B. (1999). The Catholic vote in American politics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. pp. 186, 191–193. ISBN 0-87840-724-3.
  16. ^ Our Campaigns; MI US President 1984
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