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Government of the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Her Majesty's Government
in the United Kingdom
HM Government logo.svg
Logo of Her Majesty's Government
Overview
StateUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
LeaderPrime Minister
Appointed bySecretaries of State and other Ministers of the Crown are appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, if or when, and as long as, the monarch is or can be satisfied that the Prime Minister can or is able to command the confidence of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.[1]
Main organCabinet
Responsible toParliament[2]
Headquarters10 Downing Street
London
Websitewww.gov.uk

Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the United Kingdom
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
United Kingdom portal

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is also commonly referred to as simply the UK Government or the British Government.[3][4]

The government is led by the Prime Minister, who selects all the other ministers. The prime minister and their most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet.[4] The government ministers all sit in Parliament, and are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation,[5] and since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election (as was the case in 2017) in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II) selects as prime minister the leader of the party most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons, usually by possessing a majority of MPs.[6]

Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet.[7] The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they also exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree (for instance Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster or Lord Privy Seal).

The current prime minister is Boris Johnson, who took office on 24 July 2019. He is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won the most seats in the House of Commons but did not secure a majority government in the general election on 8 June 2017, when Theresa May was the party leader. Following the general election on 12 December 2019 the Conservatives were able to secure a working majority of 80, taking 365 of the 650 seats.

The Government is occasionally referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated, especially by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.

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Transcription

The UK held an election this last Thursday, but it wasn’t a regularly scheduled election, it was a snap election, as sort of a way to say “Okay for real though, Brexit, for real this time.” If you’ve heard anything about the results, you know that it ended up being fairly controversial and anything but a landslide. After a few requests yesterday, I put my topic this weekend to a vote on twitter. This is why you should follow me on there. As you can see, UK Politics only earned 43% of the vote, so just like the Tories, it wins. Wait what? Not all democracies work the same way, and here in America we have a number of misconceptions about other democracies in the world. Particularly when it comes to the United Kingdom. Because of that, in an attempt to explain how the British government works, I’m going to relate it to how the US government works. So while this video is supposed to explain the UK to non-Brits, I suppose any Brits watching could reverse engineer what I’m about to say in order learn about the US, so yeah, two for one! First we need to get some structure and vocabulary out of the way. The United Kingdom is a country that exists in the British Isles. Some of you may know this, but the official name of the UK is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Where is Great Britain? This is Great Britain, the largest island in the British Isles. On Great Britain, there are three countries. England, Scotland, and Wales. So the United Kingdom is a country, which consists of four countries, England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. If it helps, you can think of these four countries like states, they have their own governments and parliaments which capitulate to the overall United Kingdom government, just like states which fall under the federal government. The term British refers to the collective government of the UK, and while you can call all of the people British, some of them might take offense to that. Anyway… The first misconception: The queen is just a figurehead. This is something Americans like to say because it’s something they’ve heard over and over either from the media or in school… maybe as a way to delegitimize the idea that the UK is still a monarchy? But it’s simply not true. Here in America we have a president. This president has many roles, like head of government, head of state, chief executive, and commander-in-chief. These are all very different jobs, all lumped into one person. But in the UK, they have two people. The Prime Minister, or PM, who is the head of government and chief executive. And the Monarch, who is the head of state and the commander-in-chief. Since in America, one person does all of these things, we don’t really pay attention to what the differences are, and may not even really realize they exist. So let’s break them down a bit. The head of state is the leader of the people, not necessarily the government. In the United Kingdom, the government serves in her majesty’s name and by her permission, but I’ll get to that later. In America, most of the background responsibilities of the head of state are performed by the Secretary of State. In the UK, all of these responsibilities are on the Queen. She appoints all ambassadors to other countries. In fact, the British Ambassador to the United States is not “The British Ambassador,” he is a representative of the Crown, not the government, and is therefore “Her Majesty’s Ambassador to the United States of America” and the United States does not have an ambassador to the UK. It’s the “Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St. James.” Which is the royal court of the Queen. In practice, obviously, they are ambassadors to and from the government, but in reality, they are ambassadors to and from the Crown, separate from the government. The Queen is also the commander-in-chief of the military. In the United States, when you swear in, you are swearing to uphold and defend the Constitution – which says that you will obey the lawful orders of the President. But in the United Kingdom, and the Commonwealth Realm, you swear allegiance to the Crown. Not the constitution, not the government, not your country. All of the ships in the navy are HMS, Her Majesty’s Ship. Now, in practice, the government, under the Ministry of Defence, spelled with a C, directs the day to day operations of the military. But in the end, she is the commander-in-chief. She has the ability to declare war, not parliament. It’s the reverse in the US. The President directs the day to day operations, and the Congress declares war. The Queen has a number of other functions that don’t necessarily come with a nice neat label. Like the President, she appoints all judges, in England and Wales anyway. The court system there is royal. Until 2005, the House of Lords, which I’ll get to in a moment, acted as the Supreme Court, but now there is a separate body, still appointed by the Queen. The Queen is also the head of the church. Since we are a secular government and have no state religion, we don’t really have an equivalent to that in the US, but if it helps, you can think of her as the Anglican Pope. And like the President, she has final veto power, or Royal Assent, on all acts passed by parliament – which then makes it a law. Just like how the President signs a bill from Congress which then makes it a law. The Crown has not exercised its veto power in over 300 years, but it is still there and is still possible. To make matters more complicated, the Crown is also the head of state for most of the Commonwealth Nations, like Canada, Australia, and New Zealand… which is why she is on all of the money there. She has less power there, but power nonetheless. So now let’s talk about the Prime Minister, the head of government and the chief executive. This means that this person is the actual leader of the government and runs its day to day operations. The Cabinet is chosen by the Prime Minister and they mostly run government departments, much like the cabinet in the US. In the US we have a Secretary of State, a Secretary of Defense, and twenty others, not all of them are heads of government departments. In the UK they have a Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, a Secretary of State for Defence, and again, strangely enough, twenty others. These names are usually shortened to Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary – again spelled with a C. Unlike the US, the UK Cabinet does not require approval from parliament. So how is the Prime Minister chosen? This is what the election on Thursday was about, but the people don’t directly vote for Prime Minister. We don’t directly vote for President either, but that’s a complicated and- there are dozens of videos out there on the Electoral College and for those of you who follow my channel regularly, you know that I have a pretty strict “no beating dead horses” policy when it comes to my content- so I’ll just leave it at. So again, how is the Prime Minister chosen? The United Kingdom has two houses of parliament. The House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords is the upper house and consists of 800 appointees by the Queen, yet another way that the Queen still has significant power. House of Lords is actually the shortened name, the official name is “The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.” They’re mostly hereditary position, but they are bishops of the church, who are the Lords Spiritual, and most of the Lords, Dukes, Barons, and Counts, who are the Lords Temporal. All acts of Parliament, go through them before going to the Queen. They can scrutinize and amend acts, but they can’t prevent them from becoming law. So if you want to talk about who the figurehead is in this situation… The House of Commons is the elected lower house, kind of like the US House of Representatives. The United Kingdom is divided up into 650 constituencies. You can kind of think of them like the 435 congressional districts in the US, but those are way larger. You have to remember that the UK is the size of Oregon, with the populations of California and Texas crammed in. Typically, a constituency in the UK represents about 70,000 people, whereas in the US, it varies dramatically because of the way we apportion them by state, with the lowest being 526,000 in Rhode Island and the highest being 994,000 in Montana, but still on average, about ten times as many people. (710,000) Anyway, each of these constituencies is represented by a Member of Parliament, or MP. And this is what people are voting for, they don’t vote for Prime Minister. Each constituency is a race for both local representation and for national government. Each Member of Parliament is chosen by a simple majority which just means whoever got the most votes. Which means there are some constituencies represented by MPs who only got 24% of the vote, but they were the highest voted candidate. And that can happen because the UK has a multi-party system, unlike the US and our two-party system – they still only have two main ones, but in the election on Thursday, nine parties won seats. The United States has 538 electoral votes for President, and someone has to get 270 in order to win. The United Kingdom has 650 constituencies, so a party must get 326 to win. I said party there, because again, people are not directly voting for Prime Minister. They vote for their MP, who represents a party. The party that gets the most MPs choses their Prime Minister, you usually know who that’s going to be before you vote. But what happens when no party gets the required 326, which is what happened on Thursday? They can form a Coalition Government. The Conservatives, or Tories, won 318 seats. The Labour Party, spelled with a U, won 262. These are the two main parties and you can kind of think of them as the Republicans and Democrats and they hold somewhat similar views on the issues with their US counterparts. The next biggest party is the Scottish National Party with 35 seats, and as you might have guessed, only ever wins in Scotland, and since Brexit they’ve been pushing for independence. Then with 12 seats, the Liberal-Democrats, who formed a Coalition government with the Tories in 2010. And then the Democratic Unionist Party, with ten seats, are the ultra-right wing party, if it helps, you can think of them like the Tea Party. And then there are four other smaller parties which I’m not going to talk about because… c’mon the screen is already pretty full. So the Conservatives and the Liberal-Democrats had formed a Coalition Government in the past, which just means the two parties getting together to cross that 326 threshold, elect the main party’s candidate as Prime Minister, and they usually share some cabinet positions. Why didn’t they this time? Because of Brexit. The Liberal-Democrats are very much against Brexit, while the Conservatives are apparently now for it. I say that with some uncertainty because the Conservatives weren’t always for it. In the last general election in 2015, in order to sway UKIP (UK Independence Party) voters, the Tories promised to allow a referendum on the UK leaving the EU or British Exit or “Brexit.” That unstated coalition made them win. The Tories didn’t really think that the people would go for it, but in 2016, they did… so David Cameron resigned. Since then there has been a lot of turmoil in the UK over whether the people really honestly knew what they were voting for, so the new PM, Theresa May called for a snap election. As I said in the beginning, this was more or less a re-vote on Brexit without calling it that, in order to save face. So now that we’re caught up, back to the election results on Thursday. The conservatives didn’t get the 326 majority, so in order to make the process easier anyway, they have to form a coalition government with one of the other parties. Labour is against Brexit, the Scottish National Party is against it, the Liberal Democrats are against it, but the DUP is for it. And that’s who they’re going to form a coalition with, which will put them at 328 seats. And that’s why I also didn’t mention the smaller parties, because while they could form a coalition with the Green Party and their one seat, that won’t really make a difference. The coalition with the DUP is controversial because of their super right-wing stance on the issues, like being against abortion, gay marriage and other LGBT rights, but they are for UK independence from the EU, so there you go. Could the Labour party have formed a coalition to get the needed 326? In theory, yes, but it would have had to include the DUP AND three other parties… so no. So the Prime Minister is chosen by whichever party has a majority in the House of Commons. Who then asks the Queen for permission to form a government. They could, in theory, do away with everything that is already established and form an entirely new government, which would likely be chaos and they’d probably lose in a vote of no confidence, which is kind of like impeachment but way easier, so they don’t. But then they fill the cabinet to lead the various ministries. And because of that, the UK government is described as a one-party government. Unlike in the US where the President can be from one party and the Houses of Congress can be from the other. Everything from the Prime Minister on down all belong to a single party. The second largest party in the House of Commons is then known as the Opposition, and their leader is the Leader of the Opposition. That person doesn’t really have any power outside of the one on one debate they have with the Prime Minister in sessions of parliament. So the next time you hear the American media say that Theresa May was elected or you hear that the Queen is just a figurehead or tourist attraction, hopefully now, you’ll know better. I’m almost to one year and one thousand subscribers, so stay tuned for a special video soon! But if you enjoyed this video, or you learned something, make sure to give that like button a click. If you’d like to see more from me, I put out new videos every Sunday, so make sure to elect that subscribe button. Also make sure to follow me on facebook and twitter, and join us on the reddit to make sure you have input on any of my future videos. But in the meantime, if you’d like to watch one of my older videos, how about this one?

Contents

Government in Parliament

A key principle of the British Constitution is that the government is responsible to Parliament. This is called responsible government.

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch (that is, the king or queen who is the head of state at any given time) does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by the government and Parliament. This constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215.

Parliament is split into two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons is the lower house and is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can usually vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law. Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, and often may have already introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform.

Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House in which they sit; they make statements in that House and take questions from members of that House. For most senior ministers this is usually the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson (First Secretary of State) and Lord Adonis (Secretary of State for Transport) sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown.

Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament (MP) and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. It would likely be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor, especially now that the Lords have very limited powers in relation to money bills. The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834.[8]

Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. It requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply (by voting through the government's budgets) and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held. The support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign even if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House. The House of Commons is thus the Responsible house.

The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject. There are also departmental questions when ministers answer questions relating to their specific departmental brief. Unlike PMQs both the cabinet ministers for the department and junior ministers within the department may answer on behalf of the government, depending on the topic of the question.

During debates on legislation proposed by the government, ministers—usually with departmental responsibility for the bill—will lead the debate for the government and respond to points made by MPs or Lords.

Committees[9] of both the House of Commons and House of Lords hold the government to account, scrutinise its work and examine in detail proposals for legislation. Ministers appear before committees to give evidence and answer questions.

Government ministers are also required by convention and the Ministerial Code,[10] when Parliament is sitting, to make major statements regarding government policy or issues of national importance to Parliament. This allows MPs or Lords to question the government on the statement. When the government instead chooses to make announcements first outside Parliament, it is often the subject of significant criticism from MPs and the Speaker of the House of Commons.[11]

Her Majesty's Government and the Crown

The British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state and the sovereign, but not the head of government.

The monarch takes little direct part in governing the country, and remains neutral in political affairs. However, the legal authority of the state that is vested in the sovereign, known as The Crown, remains the source of the executive power exercised by the government.

In addition to explicit statutory authority, in many areas the Crown also possesses a body of powers known as the Royal Prerogative, which can be used for many purposes, from the issue or withdrawal of passports to declaration of war. By long-standing custom, most of these powers are delegated from the sovereign to various ministers or other officers of the Crown, who may use them without having to obtain the consent of Parliament.

The head of the government, the prime minister, also has weekly meetings with the monarch, when she "has a right and a duty to express her views on Government matters...These meetings, as with all communications between The Queen and her Government, remain strictly confidential. Having expressed her views, The Queen abides by the advice of her ministers."[12]

Royal Prerogative powers include, but are not limited to, the following:

Domestic powers

  • The power to appoint (and also, in theory, dismiss) a prime minister. This power is exercised by the monarch herself. By convention she appoints (and is expected to appoint) the individual most likely to be capable of commanding the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons.
  • The power to dismiss and appoint other ministers. This power is exercised by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister.
  • The power to assent to and enact laws by giving [Royal] Assent to Bills passed by both Houses of Parliament, which is required in order for a law to (from a passed Bill) make it into the Statute Books (i.e., to become a valid law) as an Act [of Parliament]. This is exercised by the monarch, who also theoretically has the power to refuse assent, although no monarch has refused assent to a bill passed by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708.
  • The power to give and to issue commissions to commissioned officers in the Armed Forces.
  • The power to command the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom. This power is exercised by the Defence Council in the Queen's name.
  • The power to appoint members to Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.
  • The power to issue (and also to suspend, cancel, recall, impound, withdraw or revoke) British passports and the general power to provide (or deny) British passport facilities to British citizens and British nationals. This is exercised (in the United Kingdom, but not necessarily in the case of the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands or the British Overseas Territories) by the Home Secretary.
  • The Royal Prerogative of mercy although capital punishment has been abolished (thereby removing the need to use this power to issue pardons to commute a death penalty imposed, usually substituted into life imprisonment in lieu), this power is still used under rare circumstances (e.g. to remedy errors in sentencing calculation).
  • The power to grant (and also to cancel and annul) honours.
  • The power to create corporations (including the status of being a city, with its own corporation) by Royal Charter, and also to amend, replace and revoke existing charters.

Foreign powers

Even though the United Kingdom has no single constitutional document, the government published the above list in October 2003 to increase transparency, as some of the powers exercised in the name of the monarch are part of the Royal Prerogative.[13] However, the complete extent of the Royal Prerogative powers has never been fully set out, as many of them originated in ancient custom and the period of absolute monarchy, or were modified by later constitutional practice.

Ministers and departments

As of 2019, there are around 120 government ministers[14] supported by 560,000[15] Civil Servants and other staff working in the 25 Ministerial Departments[16] and their executive agencies. There are also an additional 20 non-Ministerial Departments with a range of further responsibilities.

In theory a Government minister does not have to be a member of either House of Parliament. In practice, however, convention is that ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or House of Lords in order to be accountable to Parliament. From time to time, Prime Ministers appoint non-parliamentarians as ministers. In recent years such ministers have been appointed to the House of Lords.[17]

Location

Main entrance of 10 Downing Street, the residence and offices of the First Lord of HM Treasury
Main entrance of 10 Downing Street, the residence and offices of the First Lord of HM Treasury

The prime minister is based at 10 Downing Street in Westminster, London. Cabinet meetings also take place here. Most government departments have their headquarters nearby in Whitehall.

Devolved governments

Since 1999, certain areas of central government have been devolved to accountable governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. These are not part of Her Majesty's Government, and are accountable to their own institutions, with their own authority under the Crown; in contrast, there is no devolved government in England.

Local government

Refurbishment notice at Old Fire Station, Oxford, showing HM Government support.
Refurbishment notice at Old Fire Station, Oxford, showing HM Government support.

Up to three layers of elected local authorities (such as County, District and Parish Councils) exist throughout all parts of the United Kingdom, in some places merged into Unitary Authorities. They have limited local tax-raising powers. Many other authorities and agencies also have statutory powers, generally subject to some central government supervision.

Limits of government power

The government's powers include general executive and statutory powers, delegated legislation, and numerous powers of appointment and patronage. However, some powerful officials and bodies, (e.g. HM judges, local authorities, and the Charity Commissions) are legally more or less independent of the government, and government powers are legally limited to those retained by the Crown under Common Law or granted and limited by Act of Parliament, and are subject to European Union law and the competencies that it defines. Both substantive and procedural limitations are enforceable in the Courts by judicial review.

Nevertheless, magistrates and mayors can still be arrested for and put on trial for corruption, and the government has powers to insert commissioners into a local authority to oversee its work, and to issue directives that must be obeyed by the local authority, if the local authority is not abiding by its statutory obligations.[18]

By contrast, as in every other European Union (EU) member state, EU officials cannot be prosecuted for any actions carried out in pursuit of their official duties, and foreign country diplomats (though not their employees) and foreign Members of the European Parliament[19] are immune from prosecution in the UK under any circumstance. As a consequence, neither EU bodies nor diplomats have to pay taxes, since it would not be possible to prosecute them for tax evasion. This caused a dispute in recent years when the US Ambassador to the UK claimed that London's congestion charge was a tax, and not a charge (despite the name), and therefore he did not have to pay it – a claim the Greater London Authority disputed.

Similarly, the monarch is totally immune from criminal prosecution and may only be sued with her permission (this is known as sovereign immunity). The monarch, by law, is not required to pay income tax, but Queen Elizabeth II has voluntarily paid it since 1993, and also pays local rates voluntarily. However, the monarchy also receives a substantial grant from the government, the Sovereign Support Grant, and Queen Elizabeth II's inheritance from her mother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was exempt from inheritance tax.

In addition to legislative powers, HM Government has substantial influence over local authorities and other bodies set up by it, by financial powers and grants. Many functions carried out by local authorities, such as paying out housing benefit and council tax benefit, are funded or substantially part-funded by central government.

Even though the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is supposed to be independent of the government on a day-to-day level and is supposed to be politically unbiased, some commentators[by whom?] have argued that the prospects of the BBC having its funding cut or its charter changed in future charter renewals in practice cause the BBC to be subtly biased towards the government of the day (or the likely future government as an election approaches) at times.

Neither the central government nor local authorities are permitted to sue anyone for defamation. Individual politicians are allowed to sue people for defamation in a personal capacity and without using government funds, but this is relatively rare (although George Galloway, who was a backbench MP for a quarter of a century, has sued or threatened to sue for defamation a number of times). However, it is a criminal offence to make a false statement about any election candidate during an election, with the purpose of reducing the number of votes they receive (as with libel, opinions do not count).

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fifth Committee of the Constitution Committee of the House of Lords, Session 2013-14: Constitutional implications of coalition government, Chapter 2". UK Parliament. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. ^ "First Report of the Select Committee on the Treasury of the House of Commons, Session 1997-98: Accountability of the Bank of England, Paragraphs 7-13". UK Parliament. 29 October 1997. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ Her Majesty's Government Retrieved 28 June 2010
  4. ^ a b Overview of the UK system of government : Directgov – Government, citizens and rights. Archived direct.gov.uk webpage. Retrieved on 29 August 2014.
  5. ^ "Legislation". UK Parliament. 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  6. ^ House of Commons – Justice Committee – Written Evidence. Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved on 19 October 2010.
  7. ^ The monarchy : Directgov – Government, citizens and rights. Archived direct.gov.uk webpage. Retrieved on 29 August 2014.
  8. ^ The Parliament Acts – UK Parliament. Parliament.uk (21 April 2010). Retrieved on 12 October 2011.
  9. ^ Committees – UK Parliament. Parliament.uk (21 April 2010). Retrieved on 12 October 2011.
  10. ^ Ministerial Code. Cabinet Office 2010
  11. ^ "Speakers' statements on ministerial policy announcements made outside the House" (PDF). Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Parliamentary Information List. Department of Information Services. www.parliament.uk. 16 July 2010
  12. ^ "Queen and Prime Minister". The British Monarchy. 2013. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  13. ^ Mystery lifted on Queen's powers | Politics. The Guardian. Retrieved on 12 October 2011.
  14. ^ House of Commons Library https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN03378
  15. ^ Civil Service Statistics Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. civilservant.org.uk. September 2011
  16. ^ LIST OF MINISTERIAL RESPONSIBILITIES Including Executive Agencies and NonMinisterial Departments. Cabinet Office 2009
  17. ^ Maer, Lucinda (4 September 2017). "Ministers in the House of Lords". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ "Secretary of State sends in commissioners to Tower Hamlets". Gov.uk. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  19. ^ "The Immunity of Members of the European Parliament" (PDF). European Union. October 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2015.

External links

This page was last edited on 25 January 2020, at 16:30
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