To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform.[1] Based on the idea of progress in which advancements in science, technology, economic development and social organization are vital to the improvement of the human condition, progressivism became highly significant during the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, out of the belief that Europe was demonstrating that societies could progress in civility from uncivilized conditions to civilization through strengthening the basis of empirical knowledge as the foundation of society.[2] Figures of the Enlightenment believed that progress had universal application to all societies and that these ideas would spread around the world from Europe.[2]

The early-20th century concept of progressivism emerged from the vast social changes brought about by industrialization and the Second Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century. Progressives took the view that progress was being stifled by vast economic inequality; minimally regulated monopolistic corporations; and the intense and often violent conflict between laborers and economic elites, arguing that measures were needed to address these problems.[3]

The meaning of progressivism has varied over time and differs depending on perspective. Early-20th century progressivism included proponents of eugenics and the temperance movement, both of which were promoted in the name of public health and as initiatives toward that goal.[4][5][6][7][8] In modern politics, progressivism is generally considered part of the left-liberal tradition.[9][10][11][12][13] In the 21st century, a movement that identifies as progressive is "a social or political movement that aims to represent the interests of ordinary people through political change and the support of government actions".[14]

History

From the Enlightenment to the Industrial Revolution

Immanuel Kant identified progress as being a movement away from barbarism towards civilization. 18th-century philosopher and political scientist Marquis de Condorcet predicted that political progress would involve the disappearance of slavery, the rise of literacy, the lessening of sex inequality, prison reforms which at the time were harsh and the decline of poverty.[15]

Modernity or modernization was a key form of the idea of progress as promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.[16]

In the late 19th century, a political view rose in popularity in the Western world that progress was being stifled by vast economic inequality between the rich and the poor, minimally regulated laissez-faire capitalism with out-of-control monopolistic corporations, intense and often violent conflict between capitalists and workers, with a need for measures to address these problems.[17] Progressivism has influenced various political movements. Social liberalism was influenced by British liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill's conception of people being "progressive beings".[18] British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli developed progressive conservatism under one-nation Toryism.[19][20]

In France, the space between social revolution and the socially-conservative laissez-faire centre-right was filled with the emergence of radicalism which thought that social progress required anti-clericalism, humanism and republicanism. Especially anti-clericalism was the dominant influence on the centre-left in many French- and Romance-speaking countries until the mid 20th-century. In Imperial Germany, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck enacted various progressive social welfare measures out of paternalistic conservative motivations to distance workers from the socialist movement of the time and as humane ways to assist in maintaining the Industrial Revolution.[21]

In 1891, the Roman Catholic Church encyclical Rerum novarum issued by Pope Leo XIII condemned the exploitation of labour and urged support for labour unions and government regulation of businesses in the interests of social justice while upholding the right to property and criticizing socialism.[22] A Protestant progressive outlook called the Social Gospel emerged in North America that focused on challenging economic exploitation and poverty and by the mid-1890s was common in many Protestant theological seminaries in the United States.[23]

Contemporary mainstream political conception to the philosophy

In the United States, progressivism began as an intellectual rebellion against the political philosophy of Constitutionalism[24] as expressed by John Locke and the founders of the American Republic, whereby the authority of government depends on observing limitations on its just powers.[25] What began as a social movement in the 1890s, grew into a popular political movement referred to as the Progressive era; in the 1912 United States presidential election, all three U.S. presidential candidates claimed to be progressives. While the term progressivism represent a range of diverse political pressure groups, not always united, progressives rejected social Darwinism, believing that the problems society faced such as class warfare, greed, poverty, racism and violence could best be addressed by providing good education, a safe environment and an efficient workplace. Progressives lived mainly in the cities, were college educated and believed that government could be a tool for change.[26] President Theodore Roosevelt of the Republican Party and later the Progressive Party declared that he "always believed that wise progressivism and wise conservatism go hand in hand".[27]

President Woodrow Wilson was also a member of the American progressive movement within the Democratic Party. Progressive stances have evolved over time. Imperialism was a controversial issue within progressivism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the United States, where some progressives supported American imperialism while others opposed it.[28] In response to World War I, President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points established the concept of national self-determination and criticized imperialist competition and colonial injustices. These views were supported by anti-imperialists in areas of the world that were resisting imperial rule.[29]

During the period of acceptance of economic Keynesianism (1930s–1970s), there was widespread acceptance in many nations of a large role for state intervention in the economy. With the rise of neoliberalism and challenges to state interventionist policies in the 1970s and 1980s, centre-left progressive movements responded by adopting the Third Way that emphasized a major role for the market economy.[30] There have been social democrats who have called for the social-democratic movement to move past Third Way.[31] Prominent progressive conservative elements in the British Conservative Party have criticized neoliberalism.[32]

In the 21st century, progressives continue to favour public policy which they theorize will reduce or ameliorate the harmful effects of economic inequality as well as systemic discrimination such as institutional racism; to advocate for environmentally conscious policies as well as for social safety nets and workers' rights; and to oppose the negative externalities inflicted on the environment and society by monopolies or corporate influence on the democratic process. The unifying theme is to call attention to the negative impacts of current institutions or ways of doing things and to advocate for social progress, i.e. for positive change as defined by any of several standards such as expansion of democracy, increased egalitarianism in the form of economic and social equality as well as improved well being of a population. Proponents of social democracy have identified themselves as promoting the progressive cause.[33]

Types

Cultural progressivism

Progressivism in the general sense mainly means social and cultural progressivism. There is cultural liberalism in a similar term, which is used in a substantially similar sense.[34] However, cultural liberals and cultural progressives may differ in positions on various cultural issues such as minority rights, social justice[citation needed] and political correctness.[35][original research?]

Some cultural progressives, unlike progressives in a broader sense, may be economically centrist or conservative. The Czech Pirate Party is classified as a (cultural or social) progressive party,[36] but it calls itself "economically centrist and socially liberal".[37]

Economic progressivism

Economic progressivism is a term used to distinguish it from progressivism in cultural fields. Economic progressives views are often rooted in the concept of social justice and have the goal of improving the human condition through government regulation, social protections and the maintenance of public goods.[38]

Some economic progressives may show centre-right views on cultural issues. These movements are related to communitarian conservative movements such as Christian democracy and One-nation conservatism.[39][40]

Techno progressivism

Progressive parties or parties with progressive factions

Note: Rather than mainstream centre-left or left-wing parties with a long history as possible, it is recommended to focus on political parties with prominent socially progressive tendencies such as Czech Pirate Party, Más Madrid and Syriza.

Current parties

Former parties

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Progressivism in English". Oxford English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  2. ^ a b Harold Mah. Enlightenment Phantasies: Cultural Identity in France and Germany, 1750–1914. Cornell University. (2003). p. 157.
  3. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780195311068.
  4. ^ "Prohibition: A Case Study of Progressive Reform". Library of Congress. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  5. ^ Leonard, Thomas (2005). "Retrospectives: Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (4): 207–224. doi:10.1257/089533005775196642. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  6. ^ Roll-Hansen, Nils (1989). "Geneticists and the Eugenics Movement in Scandinavia". The British Journal for the History of Science. 22 (3): 335–346. doi:10.1017/S0007087400026194. JSTOR 4026900. PMID 11621984. S2CID 44566095.
  7. ^ Freeden, Michael (2005). Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 144–165. ISBN 9780691116778.
  8. ^ James H. Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (1970)[page needed][ISBN missing]
  9. ^ Joseph M. Hoeffel, ed. (2014). Fighting for the Progressive Center in the Age of Trump. ABC-CLIO. p. 56. Modern American progressive thought combines social liberalism, including its government spending programs and mix of private enterprise and government regulation, with liberal cultural causes including voting rights for minorities, ...[ISBN missing]
  10. ^ Helen Hardacre; Timothy S. George; Keigo Komamura; Franziska Seraphim, eds. (2021). Japanese Constitutional Revisionism and Civic Activism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 136, 162.[ISBN missing]
  11. ^ a b Great Courses, ed. (2014). The Modern Political Tradition: Episode 17: Progressivism and New Liberalism. Great Courses.[ISBN missing]
  12. ^ Klaus P. Fischer, ed. (2007). America in White, Black, and Gray: A History of the Stormy 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 39.
  13. ^ Muzammil Quraishi, ed. (2020). Towards a Malaysian Criminology: Conflict, Censure and Compromise. Springer Nature. p. 83. ISBN 9781137491015. The urgent need for a meaningful theoretical perspective and research agenda is driven by an observation that both left liberalism (progressivism) and right liberalism (neoliberalism) have neutralised traditional conservative socialist ....
  14. ^ "Progressivism". The Cambridge English Dictionary. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  15. ^ Nisbet, Robert (1980). History of the Idea of Progress. New York: Basic Books. ch 5
  16. ^ Joyce Appleby; Lynn Hunt & Margaret Jacob (1995). Telling the Truth about History. p. 78. ISBN 9780393078916.
  17. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780195311068.
  18. ^ Alan Ryan. The Making of Modern Liberalism. p. 25.
  19. ^ Patrick Dunleavy, Paul Joseph Kelly, Michael Moran. British Political Science: Fifty Years of Political Studies. Oxford, England; Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. pp. 107–108.[ISBN missing]
  20. ^ Robert Blake. Disraeli. Second Edition. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode (Publishers) Ltd, 1967. p. 524.[ISBN missing]
  21. ^ Union Contributions to Labor Welfare Policy and Practice: Past, Present, and Future. Routledge, 16, 2013. p. 172.[ISBN missing]
  22. ^ Faith Jaycox. The Progressive Era. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2005. p. 85.
  23. ^ Charles Howard Hopkins, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865–1915 (1940).[page needed][ISBN missing]
  24. ^ Waluchow, Wil (17 August 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  25. ^ Watson, Bradley (2020). Progressivism : the strange history of a radical idea. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780268106973.
  26. ^ "The Progressive Era (1890–1920)". The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. Archived 20 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 31 September 2014.
  27. ^ Jonathan Lurie. William Howard Taft: The Travails of a Progressive Conservative. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. p. 196.[ISBN missing]
  28. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780195311068.
  29. ^ Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson: Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace. p. 309.[ISBN missing]
  30. ^ Jane Lewis, Rebecca Surender. Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 3–4, 16.[ISBN missing]
  31. ^ After the Third Way: The Future of Social Democracy in Europe. I.B. Taurus, 2012. p. 47.[ISBN missing]
  32. ^ Hugh Bochel. The Conservative Party and Social Policy. The Policy Press, 2011. p. 108.[ISBN missing]
  33. ^ Henning Meyer, Jonathan Rutherford. The Future of European Social Democracy: Building the Good Society. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. p. 108.[ISBN missing]
  34. ^ Nancy L. Cohen, ed. (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Catapult. ISBN 9781619020962. When the going got tough, the economic progressives got going back to the Reagan days when the cultural progressives were to blame. Clinton's presidential campaign had "signaled cultural moderation and articulated the pocketbook frustrations of ordinary people," Robert Kuttner, editor of The American Prospect ventured. "But in office he seemed a cultural liberal who failed to produce on economics."
  35. ^ a b Ball, Molly. "The Battle Within the Democratic Party". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  36. ^ a b Slawek Blich. Finally a healthy dose of anti-establishment. politicalcritique.org. January 8, 2018.
  37. ^ "Piráti chtějí vést liberální politický střed a v květnu získat 20 procent, zaznělo na fóru v Táboře" (in Czech). ČT24. 19 January 2019.
  38. ^ "The Origins and Evolution of Progressive Economics".
  39. ^ "Did you know there's a third party based on Catholic teaching?". Catholic News Agency. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2021. Politically, we would be considered center-right on social issues
  40. ^ "New political party says its roots are in Catholic Social Teaching". Retrieved 17 November 2021. I was working on my doctoral dissertation largely concerning difficulties and opportunities for socially conservative, economically progressive movements, and desired to get involved in such movements ... and was glad to see that ASP was interested in applying such ways of thinking to contemporary issues.
  41. ^ "La llamativa definición política de Alberto Fernández: "Soy de la rama del liberalismo progresista peronista"". Clarín. 19 July 2019. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  42. ^ "Juan Grabois lanza el Frente Patria Grande que lideraría Cristina Kirchner". Perfil (in Spanish). 27 October 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  43. ^ "Alberto Fernández: "Soy más hijo de la cultura hippie que de las veinte verdades peronistas"". 12 April 2020.
  44. ^ Lopez, Daniel; Bandt, Adam (3 September 2021). "Australian Greens Are Building a Movement to End Neoliberalism". Jacobin. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  45. ^ Liisa L. North, Timothy D. Clark, ed. (2017). Dominant Elites in Latin America: From Neo-Liberalism to the 'Pink Tide'. Springer. p. 212. ISBN 9783319532554. In Brazil, as Simone Bohn makes clear (Chap. 3), the progressive Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) governments did not threaten the power of the national elite or landlord class; ...
  46. ^ "El pinochetista Kast y el progresista Boric definirán la presidencia el 19 de diciembre elecciones en Chile".
  47. ^ Katerina Safarikova. "Czechs Eye 'Symbolic' Pirate Breakthrough in Europe". /balkaninsight.com. May 21, 2019.
  48. ^ "Notre charte fondatrice". nouvelledonne.fr (in French).
  49. ^ a b Gregor Fitzi; Juergen Mackert; Bryan S. Turner, eds. (2018). Populism and the Crisis of Democracy: Volume 3: Migration, Gender and Religion. Routledge. ISBN 9781351608916. Progressive groups such as Syriza and Podemos6 tend, on the contrary, to show solidarity towards migrants and refugees, as in general being the weakest components of the society. The Five Star Movement that defines itself as neither ...
  50. ^ Christopher Chase-Dunn, Paul Almeida, ed. (2020). Global Struggles and Social Change: From Prehistory to World Revolution in the Twenty-First Century. JHU Press. p. 133. ISBN 9781421438634. The Arab Spring, the Latin American Pink Tide, the Indignados in Spain, the Occupy movement, the rise of progressive social movement– based parties in Spain (Podemos) and in Greece (Syriza), and the spike in mass protests in 2011 and ...
  51. ^ Prebble Q. Ramswell, ed. (2017). Euroscepticism and the Rising Threat from the Left and Right: The Concept of Millennial Fascism. Lexington Books. p. 86. ISBN 9781498546041. SYRIZA massively scooped up the votes of leftist, progressive, socially liberal young people, as well as the trade union voters, not specifically aligned with the Communist Party, to gain 52 seats.
  52. ^ Ken McMullen, Martin McQuillan, ed. (2015). Oxi: An Act of Resistance: The Screenplay and Commentary, Including interviews with Derrida, Cixous, Balibar and Negri. Lexington Books. p. 12. ISBN 9781783482702. The choice to be made for Syriza is between fidelity to a progressive social agenda and retaining Greece's place within a community of nations tied together by a commitment to a neoliberal global economy. The skill with which they ...
  53. ^ "'India's soul at stake': Bengalis vote in divisive election". The Guardian. 26 March 2021. The TMC has implemented a progressive development agenda, but it has also been mired in accusations of corruption and thuggery.
  54. ^ Matthew Allen, Rumi Sakamoto, ed. (2007). Popular Culture, Globalization and Japan. Routledge. ... capturing 295 seats in the Diet. Progressive parties like the Japanese Communist Party and Social Democratic Party, ...
  55. ^ Willy Jou, Masahisa Endo, ed. (2016). EGenerational Gap in Japanese Politics: A Longitudinal Study of Political Attitudes and Behaviour. Springer. p. 29. ISBN 9781137503428. Conventional wisdom, still dominant in media and academic circles, holds that the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) occupy the conservative and progressive ends of the ideological spectrum, ...
  56. ^ ""선제공격 능력 갖추자" 日정부 주장에…"시대착오적" 비판". Edaily. 13 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. ... 개헌에 반대해 온 진보 성향의 일본공산당은 "적 기지에 대한 공격력을 갖추더라도 상대국의 지하나 이동발사대 등 미사일 위치를 모두 파악하고 파괴하는 것은 불가능하다"며 ... [... The progressive position Japanese Communist Party, which has opposed the constitutional amendment, said, "Even if it has offensive power against enemy bases, it is impossible to identify and destroy all missile locations such as underground or mobile launchers of the other country" ...]
  57. ^ Brasor, Philip (20 July 2019). "Citizen campaigns seek to increase voter turnout in Upper House election". The Japan Times. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  58. ^ "About Akbayan – Akbayan Party List". akbayan.org.ph. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  59. ^ Lewis, Paul G. (2018). Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 9780714681740 – via Google Books.
  60. ^ "Minjung Party press conference". Yonhap News Agency. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2020. Members of the progressive Minjung Party hold a press conference in front of former President Chun Doo-hwan's home in Seoul on May 18, 2020.
  61. ^ "South Korea Backtracks on Easing Sanctions After Trump Comment". The New York Times. 11 October 2018. "The dog barks, but the caravan moves on," Lee Eun-hae, a spokeswoman at the minor progressive Minjung Party, said in a statement about Mr. Trump and closer relations with North Korea.
  62. ^ Sebastián Royo, ed. (2020). Why Banks Fail: The Political Roots of Banking Crises in Spain. Springer Nature. p. 298. ISBN 9781137532282. As of January 2020 (the time of writing), a new leftist government coalition between the Socialist Party and the leftist populist Unidas Podemos that emerged from the November 2019 election is coming to power with a progressive agenda ...
  63. ^ "Errejón pide a Gabilondo centrarse en lo importante, una mayoría progresista". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. EFE. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  64. ^ "The Center Cannot Hold in Spain, but Can the Left Take Advantage?". thenation.com. The Nation. 3 May 2021.
  65. ^ "Democracy prevails in Taiwan". Taiwan News. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  66. ^ Kuo, Yu-Ying, ed. (2018). Policy Analysis in Taiwan. Policy Press. The Democratic Progressive Party, founded in 1986, is a progressive and liberal political party in Taiwan.
  67. ^ Nidhi Eoseewong (8 May 2018). "Nidhi Eoseewong: An open letter to Pheu Thai". prachatai.
  68. ^ Aviad Rubin, Yusuf Sarfati, ed. (2016). The Jarring Road to Democratic Inclusion: A Comparative Assessment of State–Society Engagements in Israel and Turkey. Lexington Books. p. 173. ISBN 9781498525084. ... the Joint List (JL), while Demirtaş is a Kurdish citizen in Turkey, and cochairs the progressive Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP). ...
  69. ^ Sebastian Maisel, ed. (2018). The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society. ABC-CLIO. p. 45. ISBN 9781440842573. The successor of the BDP, Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) is a progressive political party that emphasizes democracy, ecology, women's rights, and equality for all individuals.
  70. ^ Soner Cagaptay, ed. (2021). A Sultan in Autumn: Erdogan Faces Turkey's Uncontainable Forces. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9780755642816. Erdogan Faces Turkey's Uncontainable Forces Soner Cagaptay ... Erdogan was feeling rattled by the rise of the pro–Kurdish nationalist and progressive Peoples' Democratic Party alliance in Turkey, which—running on a joint list in the ...
  71. ^ "Green Party of England and Wales elects new leaders". europeangreens.edu. European Green Party. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  72. ^ Joseph M. Hoeffel, ed. (2014). Fighting for the Progressive Center in the Age of Trump. ABC-CLIO.
  73. ^ Chotiner, Isaac (2 March 2020). "How Socialist Is Bernie Sanders?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  74. ^ Denisha Jones, Jesse Hagopian, ed. (2020). Black Lives Matter at School: An Uprising for Educational Justice. Haymarket Books. ISBN 9781642595307. She later ran as a New York State lieutenant gubernatorial candidate on a progressive Green Party platform
  75. ^ Daniel K. Lewis, ed. (2014). The History of Argentina, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 193. ISBN 9781610698610. Progressive decrees, exemplified by the government's legalization of same-sex marriage in July, depicted the FPV as progressive. Behind the scenes, Kirchner promoted "La Campora," and Peronist youth organization.
  76. ^ Rémond, René (1966). University of Pennsylvania Press (ed.). The Right Wing in France: From 1815 to de Gaulle.
  77. ^ David Broughton (1999). Changing Party Systems in Western Europe. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 166–. ISBN 9781855673281. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  78. ^ Kim, Sunhyuk (2007), "Civil society and democratization in Korea", Korean Society, Taylor & Francis, p. 65, ISBN 9780203966648
  79. ^ Chang, Yun-Shik (2008), "Left and right in South Korean politics", Korea Confronts Globalization, Taylor & Francis, p. 176, ISBN 9780203931141

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 22 June 2022, at 17:56
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.