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City of Westminster

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Seen from the south bank of the Thames in August 2013
Seen from the south bank of the Thames in August 2013
Official logo of Westminster

Council logo
Westminster shown within Greater London
Westminster shown within Greater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQCity Hall, Victoria Street
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyWestminster City Council
 • LeadershipLeader & Cabinet (Conservative)
 • Lord MayorLindsey Hall
 • London AssemblyTony Devenish (Con) AM for West Central
 • MPsKaren Buck (Lab), Mark Field (Con)
 • EU ParliamentLondon
 • Total8.29 sq mi (21.48 km2)
Area rank309th (of 317)
(mid-2017 est.)
 • Total244,800
 • Rank71st (of 317)
 • Density30,000/sq mi (11,000/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]
35.2% White British

2.3% White Irish
0% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
24.1% Other White
0.9% White & Black Caribbean
0.9% White & Black African
1.6% White & Asian
1.8% Other Mixed
3.3% Indian
1.1% Pakistani
2.9% Bangladeshi
2.7% Chinese
4.6% Other Asian
4.2% Black African
2% Black Caribbean
1.3% Other Black
7.2% Arab

3.9% Other
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Area code(s)020
ONS code00BK
GSS codeE09000033
PoliceMetropolitan Police

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Aside from a number of large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are in the borough, including St. James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and 10 Downing Street. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster; the shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street; and the night-time entertainment district of Soho. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local government body is Westminster City Council.

A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.[2]

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Did you know that some of the most famous attractions in London are not really located in London? Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey They're all in Westminster, which is actually a different city. Most of the Royal London is actually in Westminster So in this video I'll walk around Westminster to show you some of the top attractions here Let's get started with London's most famous attraction If you come here until 2022 This is how you find the Big Ben You really can't see anything Big Ben is the name of the bell inside the tower and as the name suggests, Big Ben is big, heavy, so the refurbishment is to upgrade the entire structure that holds the bell. But when you come to this area, there are many other things to see This building right here is the Palace of Westminster, which is the seat of the U.K. government That's the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the UK: The Lower House, House of Commons, those elected by the people And the Upper House, the House of the Lords, those that are appointed by the Monarchy or who have hereditary titles like some Viscounts, some Earls, Lords It's a beautiful building, just a shame that it's under a refurbishment now, too But you can visit inside, there are guided tours Or you can go for free if you want to see a debate Now let me show you how close Westminster Abbey is The church is already this one But the best view is from here This place represents the origins of Westminster, where everything started around here But why is this so important? All coronations for almost 1000 years have been taking place right here Imagine! Kings and queens since the Middle Ages got their crowns right here Also royal weddings and burials happen here Not only royalty. Some important figures historically are buried here like Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and more recently Stephen Hawking But why am I telling you all this instead of actually showing inside? Because pictures are not allowed, sorry But it is a very beautiful place, very impressive Worth a visit Now we're crossing St. James's Park to arrive at Buckingham Palace, where the most famous ceremony in London takes place: the change of the guards St. James's Park is a former hunting ground Today, it's a really nice park Feel like getting a suntan today? Oh, he's so focused Buckingham Palace...that way Oh, my God! Look at the amount of people Except during summer, the change of the guard here doesn't happen everyday So check online before coming here Most of the ceremony happens inside the gates So unless you're right there by the gates You're just gonna see them coming in and then getting out. For the rest of the time you just wait [Guard] March! Buckingham Palace serves as both the office and the residence of Her Majesty The Queen Actually, it's one of the few working royal palaces remaining in the world today You can go for a visit, but out of the 700 rooms Only 19 are open to the public See the flag? That indicates the Queen is not home That's the U.K. flag If she was home, there would be the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom But this concept of the flag is relatively new Once I was on a guided tour here and the guide explained that it all started in 1997, when Lady Di died Because people started coming here and they expected to see a flag at half-mast and there was no flag at all That's because the Queen was not home There's a palace right here behind these trees and this is where Prince Charles lives Very close to mom. That's Buckingham St. James's Palace is one of the oldest palaces in England. It's from the 1500's It once was the official residence of the monarchs And to this day it is still the official address of the Queen Not where she lives, but if you want to send her a letter, this is her mailing address To this date, some official events still happen here, like receptions to foreign heads of state One thing very interesting about this palace is that it has lots of chimneys Look at that, how many It's really all over! And centuries ago there were taxes on chimneys. I guess the more chimneys you had, the more money you had, maybe? And this palace belonged to a king, Henry VIII Who obviously didn't need to pay taxes Baby, just eat Just eat. Is that what you want? He doesn't get it! Ah, from this side you can see the clock! Here you can also catch the boat for a river cruise We took a quick break. You may recognize this place, we're not in Westminster anymore This is the Southbank The day so beautiful today that I really wanted to come to this side and take some photographs And I wanted to come here today also to show you how close it is Do you see? Big Ben is right there, the Parliament is right there So the day you come to visit these attractions you can take advantage and also go to the London Eye This line for the ferris wheel is gigantic! Lots of turns here Where are you guys from? [Tourists] Germany Germany! Deutschland! (Germany) Two fish and chips, please Fish and chips: can't get any more British than that Quick escape from Westminster Gordon, shall we? [Gordon] Shall we? Shall we? That's my husband's name Gordon, shall we? Do you recognize the view from Admiralty Arch? We're back at The Mall, which is the name of this road here. And over there, Buckingham Palace Now here, on the other side of Admiralty Arch, Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square is a central square for the entire London area This is where people traditionally demonstrate and celebrate This square actually commemorates a very important battle in history for the British When British defeated the French. When Napoleon wanted to conquer the world So this is something very meaningful here If you go that way, you arrive at Buckingham Palace and if you go this way here, you arrive at Big Ben and the Parliament Now, the place I saved for last is probably where you find one of the best nightlives in the entire London area This is Covent Garden It's famous for the theatres, high-end shops. Here, you also have lots of pubs and restaurants It's really great to come in the evening And this is the famous Piazza in Covent Garden, it's where everything happens Most people have no idea that all this that I show today except for the Southbank is actually in Westminster And London has yet another peculiarity It's another city called City of London, which is different from just London And that's the topic of my next video If you like this one, please subscribe to the channel So that you don't miss the next You're trying my pie before me? [Gordon] Yeah Is it good? Imagine! Kings and queens So imagine! Imagine! [Gordon] Imagine That's a song by Lennon [Gordon ]Did you hear what he said? [Renata] No [Gordon] I love you, man No, I love you! I love you more! Ah, that's a good one Hello! [Gordon] Hello Miami Beach! Hello from Miami Beach Hello, Miami Beach


Coat of arms

Coat of arms of the City of Westminster at Westminster City Hall
Historic coat of arms of Westminster, in Old Bond Street

The current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964.[3]

Westminster had other arms before, which had a chief identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone. The original arms had a portcullis as the main charge, which now forms the crest.[3]


The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.[4]

For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, and gradually creating the vast Greater London that exists today.

Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey. The church was briefly the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which also granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550.[5] The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, previously under the Abbey's control. The City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, and the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, and the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.[6][7]

The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone, Paddington, and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Strand, Westminster, Pimlico, Belgravia, and Hyde Park. This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which significantly reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations.

The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O.B.E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928.

Prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James.

The boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.


1801 220,188—    
1811 245,254+11.4%
1821 288,851+17.8%
1831 344,200+19.2%
1841 368,910+7.2%
1851 422,850+14.6%
1861 446,263+5.5%
1871 469,677+5.2%
1881 493,090+5.0%
1891 462,837−6.1%
1901 441,857−4.5%
1911 421,865−4.5%
1921 396,406−6.0%
1931 372,566−6.0%
1941 334,448−10.2%
1951 300,461−10.2%
1961 267,126−11.1%
1971 237,614−11.0%
1981 163,893−31.0%
1991 187,526+14.4%
2001 181,279−3.3%
2011 219,396+21.0%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population


The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.

Ethnic Group 2001[8] 2011[9]
Number % Number %
White: British 87,938 48.51% 77,334 35.25%
White: Irish 6,574 3.63% 4,960 2.26%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 76 0.03%
White: Other 38,203 21.07% 52,960 24.14%
White: Total 132,715 73.12% 135,330 61.68%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 5,665 3.12% 7,213 3.29%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1,828 1.01% 2,328 1.06%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 5,000 2.76% 6,299 2.87%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 4,077 2.25% 5,917 2.70%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 3,614 1.99% 10,105 4.61%
Asian or Asian British: Total 20,184 11.13% 31,862 14.52%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 5,613 3.10% 4,449 2.03%
Black or Black British: African 6,678 3.68% 9,141 4.17%
Black or Black British: Other Black 1,190 0.66% 2,882 1.31%
Black or Black British: Total 13,481 7.44% 16,472 7.51%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 1,382 0.76% 1,869 0.85%
Mixed: White and Black African 1,204 0.66% 1,927 0.89%
Mixed: White and Asian 2,436 1.34% 3,584 1.63%
Mixed: Other Mixed 2,458 1.36% 4,015 1.83%
Mixed: Total 7,480 4.13% 11,395 5.19%
Other: Arab 15,724 7.17%
Other: Any other ethnic group 8,613 3.93%
Other: Total 7,426 4.10% 24,337 11.09%
Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total 48,571 26.79% 84,066 38.32%
Total 181,286 100.00% 219,396 100.00%


Religion 2001[10] 2011[11]
Number % Number %
Christian 99,797 55.05% 97,877 44.61%
No religion 29,300 16.16% 44,542 20.30%
Muslim 21,346 11.77% 40,073 18.27%
Religion not stated 15,877 8.76% 20,519 9.35%
Jewish 7,732 4.27% 7,237 3.30%
Hindu 3,497 1.93% 4,178 1.90%
Buddhist 2,392 1.32% 3,194 1.46%
Other religion 945 0.52% 1,280 0.58%
Sikh 400 0.22% 496 0.23%
Total 181,286 100.00% 219,396 100.00%


Local government

A map showing the wards of Westminster since 2002
A map showing the wards of Westminster since 2002

The city is divided into 20 wards, each electing three councillors. Westminster City Council is currently composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members.[12]

A Lord Mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of Lord Mayors of Westminster for a list of former Mayors (1900–1965) and Lord Mayors (1965 to date).

UK Parliament

Evolution of Parliamentary representation
1918 1950 1974 1983 1997 2010
St Marylebone

Westminster North

Regent's Park and Kensington North

Westminster North

Paddington North


Paddington South

Cities of London and Westminster

Westminster St George's

Cities of London and Westminster

Cities of London and Westminster

Westminster Abbey

City of London


The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London:


The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies. Oxford Street is one of the leading shopping destinations in the world.[citation needed] The list of companies includes

BP head office in St. James's, City of Westminster
BP head office in St. James's, City of Westminster
The Economist Building, St James's Street
The Economist Building, St James's Street

The Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office, London is in Westminster.[19][42]

Companies that previously had their head offices in the City of Westminster include Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), British Aircraft Corporation,[19][43] British Midland (Portland House),[44] British United Airways,[45] British Mediterranean Airways,[46] Cadbury,[47] Diageo,[48] BAA Limited,[19][49][50] Lloyd International Airways,[51] and P&O Princess Cruises.[52] In addition, Iran Air previously had its Piccadilly main sales office in the city.[53][54]


Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster and is usually referred to both the clock and the clock tower (Elizabeth Tower)
Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster and is usually referred to both the clock and the clock tower (Elizabeth Tower)

The City of Westminster contains the some of the most famous sites in London, including Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and Big Ben.

Parks and open spaces

These include Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park and St. James's Park. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains East Finchley Cemetery and crematorium in the London Borough of Barnet.


National Rail stations

Stations include: London Charing Cross serving the South Eastern Main Line via southeast London and Kent; London Marylebone serving the Chiltern Main Line via northwest London, the West Midlands and Birmingham; London Paddington serving the Great Western Main Line via southwest England, Wales and Heathrow Airport; London Victoria serving the Brighton Main Line and the Chatham Main Line.

London Underground

The City of Westminster is served by 27 London Underground stations and 10 lines.

Electric charging points

By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points.[55] By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.[56]

Travel to work

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.[57]


The main entrance to the London School of Economics
The main entrance to the London School of Economics

Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily Church of England (CE), and Roman Catholic (RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough,[58] and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior independent schools.

Universities and colleges

Public libraries

Charing Cross Library
Charing Cross Library

The London Library, an independent lending library, is at 14 St. James Square.[59][60]

The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service.[61] Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive.[62] In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK[63] and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library.[64]

Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include:

  • Charing Cross Library[65]
  • Church Street Library[66]
  • The Maida Vale Library[67]
  • Marylebone Library[68]
  • Mayfair Library[69]
  • Paddington Library[70]
  • Pimlico Library[71]
  • Queen's Park Library[72]
  • St. John's Wood Library[73]
  • Victoria Library[74]

Home ownership

In terms of tenure, the borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing housing supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England. This is indicative of a high density of development and higher investment demand relative to other districts in England and most of the 15 highest-ranking local authorities are boroughs of Greater London. Tourism also increases the proportion of willing third-party landlords, as the two authorities which are outside London in the list are England's largest south coast holiday resorts.

Highest-ranked local authorities by proportion of Social Housing (2011 Census)[75]
Local Authority Privately rented Socially rented Shared ownership
City of Westminster London Borough 37.6 11.9 0.8
Kensington and Chelsea London Borough 34 9.2 0.9
City of London London Borough 33.1 10.4 0.3
Newham London Borough 32.6 18.3 1.8
Tower Hamlets London Borough 30.8 17.3 2.4
Camden London Borough 30.5 23 0.7
Haringey London Borough 30.3 17 1.5
Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough 30 15.7 1.6
Wandsworth London Borough 30 12.8 1.5
Brent London Borough 28.8 9.7 1.5
Bournemouth Unitary Authority 28.2 5.9 0.7
Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority 28 9.8 0.9
Lambeth London Borough 27.7 19.6 1.5
Hackney London Borough 27.6 23.8 2.3

Notable people

See also


  • Gray, Robert, A History of London, Hutchinson & Co, London, 1978, ISBN 0-09-133140-4


  1. ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
  2. ^ "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Westminster (London)". Heraldry of the world. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  4. ^ Gray, p. 68
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  7. ^ Lewis, Samuel, Topgraphical Dictionary of England, Vol. III, London, 1831
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