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1868 and 1869 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1868 and 1869

← 1866/67 Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
1870/71 →

25 of the 66 (8 vacant)/74 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
34 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 39 seats 10 seats
Seats before 57 9
Seats won 17 5
Seats after 57 9
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 17 5

Majority Party before election

Republican Party

Elected Majority Party

Republican Party

The United States Senate elections of 1868 and 1869 were elections which had the Republican Party maintain their majority in the United States Senate. However, six former Confederate states were also readmitted separately from the general election, each electing two Republicans. This increased the Republicans' already overwhelming majority to the largest number of seats ever controlled by the party.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Reconstruction and 1876: Crash Course US History #22
  • ✪ The Historic Impeachments of Justice Samuel Chase and President Andrew Johnson (1992)
  • ✪ Andrew Johnson: First Impeached (1865 - 1869)
  • ✪ Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
  • ✪ Hiram Rhodes Revels - First African American US Senator

Transcription

Episode 21: Reconstruction Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. History and huzzah! The Civil War is over! The slaves are free! Huzzah! That one hit me in the head? It’s very dangerous, Crash Course. So when you say, “Don’t aim at a person,” that includes myself? The roller coaster only goes up from here, my friends. Huzzah! Mr. Green, Mr. Green, what about the epic failure of Reconstruction? Oh, right. Stupid Reconstruction always ruining everything intro So after the Civil War ended, the United States had to reintegrate both a formerly slave population and a formerly rebellious population back into the country, which is a challenge that we might’ve met, except Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and we were left with Andrew “I am the Third Worst President Ever” Johnson. I’m sorry, Abe, but you don’t get to be in the show anymore. So, Lincoln’s whole post-war idea was to facilitate reunion and reconciliation, and Andrew Johnson’s guiding Reconstruction principle was that the South never had a right to secede in the first place. Also, because he was himself a Southerner, he resented all the elites in the South who had snubbed him, AND he was also a racist who didn’t think that blacks should have any role in Reconstruction. TRIFECTA! So between 1865 and 1867, the so-called period of Presidential Reconstruction, Johnson appointed provisional governors and ordered them to call state conventions to establish new all-white governments. And in their 100% whiteness and oppression of former slaves, those new governments looked suspiciously like the old confederate governments they had replaced. And what was changing for the former slaves? Well, in some ways, a lot. Like, Fiske and Howard universities were established, as well as many primary and secondary schools, thanks in part to The Freedman’s Bureau, which only lasted until 1870, but had the power to divide up confiscated and abandoned confederate land for former slaves. And this was very important because to most slaves, land ownership was the key to freedom, and many felt like they’d been promised land by the Union Army. Like, General Sherman’s Field Order 15, promised to distribute land in 40 acre plots to former slaves. But that didn’t happen, either through the Freedman’s Bureau or anywhere else. Instead, President Johnson ordered all land returned to its former owners. So the South remained largely agricultural with the same people owning the same land, and in the end, we ended up with sharecropping. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The system of sharecropping replaced slavery in many places throughout the South. Landowners would provide housing to the sharecroppers--no, Thought Bubble, not quite that nice. There ya go--also tools and seed, and then the sharecroppers received, get this, a share of their crop--usually between a third and a half, with the price for that harvest often set by the landowner. Freed blacks got to control their work, and plantation owners got a steady workforce that couldn’t easily leave, because they had little opportunity to save money and make the big capital investments in, like, land or tools. By the late 1860s, poor white farmers were sharecropping as well--in fact, by the Great Depression, most sharecroppers were white. And while sharecropping certainly wasn’t slavery, it did result in a quasi-serfdom that tied workers to land they didn’t own--more or less the opposite of Jefferson’s ideal of the small, independent farmer. So, the Republicans in Congress weren’t happy that this reconstructed south looked so much like the pre-Civil War south, so they took the lead in reconstruction after 1867. Radical Republicans felt the war had been fought for equal rights and wanted to see the powers of the national government expanded. Few were as radical as Thaddeus “Tommy Lee Jones” Stephens who wanted to take away land from the Southern planters and give it to the former slaves, but rank-and-file Republicans were radical enough to pass the Civil Rights Bill, which defined persons born in the United States as citizens and established nationwide equality before the law regardless of race. Andrew Johnson immediately vetoed the law, claiming that trying to protect the rights of African Americans amounted to discrimination against white people, which so infuriated Republicans that Congress did something it had never done before in all of American history. They overrode the Presidential veto with a 2/3rds majority and the Civil Rights Act became law. So then Congress really had its dander up and decided to amend the Constitution with the 14th amendment, which defines citizenship, guarantees equal protection, and extends the rights in the Bill of Rights to all the states (sort of). The amendment had almost no Democratic support, but it also didn’t need any, because there were almost no Democrats in Congress on account of how Congress had refused to seat the representatives from the “new” all-white governments that Johnson supported. And that’s how we got the 14th amendment, arguably the most important in the whole Constitution. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Oh, straight to the mystery document today? Alright. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document and try not to get shocked. Alright let’s see what we’ve got today. Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.. Sec. 6. . . . No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. . . . Gee, Stan, I wonder if the President of the Police Jury was white. I actually know this one. It is a Black Code, which was basically legal codes where they just replaced the word “slave” with the word “negro.” And this code shows just how unwilling white governments were to ensure the rights of new, free citizens. I would celebrate not getting shocked, but now I am depressed. So, okay, in 1867, again over Johnson’s veto, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, which divided the south into 5 military districts and required each state to create a new government, one that included participation of black men. Those new governments had to ratify the 14th amendment if they wanted to get back into the union. Radical Reconstruction had begun. So, in 1868, Andrew Johnson was about as electable in the U.S. as Jefferson Davis, and sure enough he didn’t win. Instead, the 1868 election was won by Republican and former Union general Ulysses S. Grant. But Grant’s margin of victory was small enough that Republicans were like, “Man, we would sure win more elections if black people could vote.” Which is something you hear Republicans say all the time these days. So Congressional Republicans pushed the 15th Amendment, which prohibited states from denying men the right to vote based on race, but not based on gender or literacy or whether your grandfather could vote. So states ended up with a lot of leeway when it came to denying the franchise to African Americans, which of course they did. So here we have the federal government dictating who can vote, and who is and isn’t a citizen of a state, and establishing equality under the law--even local laws. And this is a really big deal in American history, because the national government became, rather than a threat to individual liberty, “the custodian of freedom,” as Radical Republican Charles Sumner put it. So but with this legal protection, former slaves began to exercise their rights. They participated in the political process by direct action, such as staging sit-ins to integrate street-cars, by voting in elections, and by holding office. Most African Americans were Republicans at the time, and because they could vote and were a large part of the population, the Republican party came to dominate politics in the South, just like today, except totally different. Now, Southern mythology about the age of radical Reconstruction is exemplified by Gone with the Wind, which of course tells the story of northern Republican dominance and corruption by southern Republicans. Fortune seeking northern carpetbaggers, seen here, as well as southern turncoat scalawags dominated politics and all of the African American elected leaders were either corrupt or puppets or both. Yeah, well, like the rest of Gone with the Wind, that’s a bit of an oversimplification. There were about 2,000 African Americans who held office during Reconstruction, and the vast majority of them were not corrupt. Consider for example the not-corrupt and amazingly-named Pinckney B.S. Pinchback, who from 1872 to 1873 served very briefly in Louisiana as America’s first black governor. And went on to be a senator and a member of the House of Representatives. By the way, America’s second African American governor, Douglas Wilder of Virginia was elected in 1989. Having African American officeholders was a huge step forward in term of ensuring the rights of African Americans because it meant that there would be black juries and less discrimination in state and local governments when it came to providing basic services. But in the end, Republican governments failed in the South. There were important achievements, especially a school system that, while segregated, did attempt to educate both black and white children. And even more importantly, they created a functioning government where both white and African American citizens could participate. According to one white South Carolina lawyer, “We have gone through one of the most remarkable changes in our relations to each other that has been known, perhaps, in the history of the world.” That’s a little hyperbolic, but we are America after all. (libertage) It’s true that corruption was widespread, but it was in the North, too. I mean, we’re talking about governments. And that’s not why Reconstruction really ended: It ended because 1. things like schools and road repair cost money, which meant taxes, which made Republican governments very unpopular because Americans hate taxes, and 2. White southerners could not accept African Americans exercising basic civil rights, holding office or voting. And for many, the best way to return things to the way they were before reconstruction was through violence. Especially after 1867, much of the violence directed toward African Americans in the South was politically motivated. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 and it quickly became a terrorist organization, targeting Republicans, both black and white, beating and murdering men and women in order to intimidate them and keep them from voting. The worst act of violence was probably the massacre at Colfax, Louisiana where hundreds of former slaves were murdered. And between intimidation and emerging discriminatory voting laws, fewer black men voted, which allowed white Democrats to take control of state governments in the south, and returned white Democratic congressional delegations to Washington. These white southern politicians called themselves “Redeemers” because they claimed to have redeemed the south from northern republican corruption and black rule. Now, it’s likely that the South would have fallen back into Democratic hands eventually, but the process was aided by Northern Republicans losing interest in Reconstruction. In 1873, the U.S. fell into yet another not-quite-Great economic depression and northerners lost the stomach to fight for the rights of black people in the south, which in addition to being hard was expensive. So by 1876 the supporters of reconstruction were in full retreat and the Democrats were resurgent, especially in the south. And this set up one of the most contentious elections in American history. The Democrats nominated New York Governor (and NYU Law School graduate) Samuel Tilden. The Republicans chose Ohio governor (and Kenyon College alumnus) Rutherford B. Hayes. One man who’d gone to Crash Course writer Raoul Meyer’s law school. And another who’d gone to my college, Kenyon. Now, if the election had been based on facial hair, as elections should be, there would’ve been no controversy, but sadly we have an electoral college here in the United States, and in 1876 there were disputed electoral votes in South Carolina, Louisiana, and, of course, Florida. Now you might remember that in these situations, there is a constitutional provision that says Congress should decide the winner, but Congress, shockingly, proved unable to accomplish something. So they appointed a 15 man Electoral Commission--a Super-Committee, if you will. And there were 8 Republicans on that committee and 7 Democrats, so you will never guess who won. Kenyon College’s own Rutherford B. Hayes. Go Lords and Ladies! And yes, that is our mascot. Shut up. Anyway in order to get the Presidency and win the support of the supercommittee, Hayes’ people agreed to cede control of the South to the Democrats and to stop meddling in Southern affairs and also to build a transcontinental railroad through Texas. This is called the Bargain of 1877 because historians are so good at naming things and it basically killed Reconstruction. Without any more federal troops in Southern states and with control of Southern legislatures firmly in the hands of white democrats the states were free to go back to restricting the freedom of black people, which they did. Legislatures passed Jim Crow laws that limited African American’s access to public accommodations and legal protections. States passed laws that took away black people’s right to vote and social and economic mobility among African Americans in the south declined precipitously. However, for a brief moment, the United States was more democratic than it had ever been before. And an entire segment of the population that had no impact on politics before was now allowed to participate. And for the freedmen who lived through it, that was a monumental change, and it would echo down to the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, sometimes called the second reconstruction. But we’re gonna end this episode on a downer, as we are wont to do here at Crash Course US History because I want to point out a lesser-known legacy of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction amendments and laws that were passed granted former slaves political freedom and rights, especially the vote, and that was critical. But to give them what they really wanted and needed, plots of land that would make them economically independent, would have required confiscation, and that violation of property rights was too much for all but the most radical Republicans. And that question of what it really means to be “free” in a system of free market capitalism has proven very complicated indeed. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week there’s a new caption for the libertage. You can suggest those in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course. Don’t forget to subscribe. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. reconstruction -

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 41st Congress (1869–1871)

  • Majority Party: Republican (57)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (9)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Vacant: (8)
  • Total Seats: 74

Change in Senate composition

Beginning of 1868

D3 D2 D1 V4 V3 V2 V1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 V5
Readmitted
V6
Readmitted
V7
Readmitted
V8
Readmitted
V9
Readmitted
R44 R45 V17
Readmitted
V16
Readmitted
V15
Readmitted
V14
Readmitted
V13
Readmitted
V12
Readmitted
V11
Special
V10
Readmitted
R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority → R33
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V18 V19 V20 V21

After the readmission of the Confederate states

D3 D2 D1 V4 V3 V2 V1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9
Gain
R57
Gain
R56
Gain
R55
Gain
R54
Gain
R44 R45 R46
Gain
R47
Gain
R48
Gain
R49
Gain
R50
Gain
R51
Gain
R52
Gain
R53
Gain
R43 R42 R41 R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8

Before the elections

After July 16, 1868 readmission of South Carolina.

D3 D2 D1 V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2
Seceded
V1
D4 D5
Unknown
D6
Retired
D7
Retired
D8
Retired
D9
Retired
R57
Retired
R56
Retired
R55
Unknown
R54
Unknown
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R47
Ran
R48
Ran
R49
Ran
R50
Ran
R51
Ran
R52
Ran
R53
Unknown
R43
Ran
R42
Ran
R41
Ran
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8

Result of the elections

D3 D2 D1 V4
Seceded
V3
Seceded
V2
Seceded
V1
D4 D5
Hold
D6
Hold
D7
Gain
D8
Gain
D9
Gain
R57
Gain
R56
Gain
R55
Gain
R54
Hold
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R46
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
R48
Hold
R49
Hold
R50
Hold
R51
Hold
R52
Hold
R53
Hold
R43
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34
Majority →
R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33
R23 R22 R21 R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1 V5 V6 V7 V8
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 40th Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1868 or in 1869 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 2)
James Guthrie Democratic 1865 Incumbent resigned due to failing health.
Winner elected February 19, 1868.
Democratic hold.
Thomas C. McCreery (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Vacant since March 3, 1867 when Senator-elect Philip F. Thomas failed to qualify. Winner elected March 7, 1868.
Democratic gain.
George Vickers (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida
(Class 1)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Stephen Mallory (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 17, 1868.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run for election to the next term, see below.
Adonijah Welch (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
Vacant since July 11, 1861 when William K. Sebastian (D) was expelled. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 22, 1868.
Republican gain.
Alexander McDonald (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas
(Class 3)
Vacant since July 11, 1861 when Charles B. Mitchel (D) was expelled. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 23, 1868.
Republican gain.
Benjamin F. Rice (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida
(Class 3)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when David Levy Yulee (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected June 25, 1868.
Republican gain.
Thomas W. Osborn (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Vacant since February 4, 1861 when Judah P. Benjamin (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 8, 1868.
Republican gain.
John S. Harris (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Vacant since February 4, 1861 when John Slidell (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 9, 1868.
Republican gain.
William P. Kellogg (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 2)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Clement Claiborne Clay (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 13, 1868.
Republican gain.
Willard Warner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 13, 1868.
Republican gain.
George E. Spencer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant since March 6, 1861 when Thomas Bragg (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 14, 1868.
Republican gain.
Joseph Abbott (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Vacant since March 11, 1861 when Thomas Clingman (D) resigned. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 14, 1868.
Republican gain.
John Pool (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Vacant since November 10, 1860 when James Chesnut, Jr. (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 15, 1868.
Republican gain.
Thomas J. Robertson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Vacant since November 11, 1860 when James Henry Hammond (D) withdrew. State readmitted to the Union.
Winner elected July 16, 1868.
Republican gain.
Frederick A. Sawyer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware
(Class 1)
James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
1863
1864 (Resigned)
1867 (Appointed)
Incumbent appointee elected January 19, 1869 to finish the term.[1]
Winner did not run for election to the next term, see below.
James A. Bayard, Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 41st Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1869; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California John Conness Republican 1862 or 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Democratic gain.
Eugene Casserly (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut James Dixon Republican 1856
1863
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
William Buckingham (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware James A. Bayard, Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
1863
1864 (Resigned)
1867 (Appointed)
1869 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1869.
Democratic hold.
Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida Adonijah Welch Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Abijah Gilbert (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana Thomas A. Hendricks Democratic 1862 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Republican gain.
Daniel D. Pratt (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special)
1863
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1869.
Republican hold.
Hannibal Hamlin (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland William P. Whyte Democratic 1868 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Democratic hold.
William T. Hamilton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts Charles Sumner Republican 1851 (Special)
1857
1863
Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Charles Sumner (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Michigan Zachariah Chandler Republican 1857
1863
Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Zachariah Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Minnesota Alexander Ramsey Republican 1863 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Alexander Ramsey (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Jefferson Davis (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Missouri John B. Henderson Republican 1862 (Appointed)
1862
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1868.
Republican hold.
Carl Schurz (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Nebraska Thomas Tipton Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. Thomas Tipton (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Nevada William M. Stewart Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected in 1869. William M. Stewart (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Jersey Frederick T. Frelinghuysen Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1867 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1869.
Democratic gain.
John P. Stockton (Democratic)
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York Edwin D. Morgan Republican 1863 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected January 19, 1869.
Republican hold.
Reuben E. Fenton (Republican)
Henry C. Murphy (Democratic)
Henry S. Randall (Democratic)
Ohio Benjamin Wade Republican 1851
1856
1863
Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1868.
Democratic gain.
Allen G. Thurman (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania Charles R. Buckalew Democratic 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected January 19, 1869.
Republican gain.
John Scott (Republican) 58.65%
William A. Wallace (Democratic) 38.35%
Hiester Clymer (Democratic) 0.75%
Rhode Island William Sprague IV Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected in 1868. William Sprague IV (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee David T. Patterson Democratic 1866 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected early in October 22, 1867 for the term beginning March 4, 1869.
Republican gain.
William G. Brownlow (Republican) 63
William B. Stokes (Republican) 39[2]
Texas Vacant since March 23, 1861 when Louis Wigfall (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
Vermont George F. Edmunds Republican 1866 (Appointed)
1866 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1868. George F. Edmunds (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia Vacant since January 2, 1864 when Joseph Segar (U) was not seated.[3] Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat remained vacant until 1870.
None.
West Virginia Peter G. Van Winkle Republican 1863 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Arthur I. Boreman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin James R. Doolittle Republican 1857
1863
Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
Winner elected in 1868 or 1869.
Republican hold.
Matthew H. Carpenter (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 41st Congress

There were no elections in 1869 during this Congress after March 4.

Complete list of races

New York

The election in New York was held on January 19, 1869 by the New York State Legislature. Republican Edwin D. Morgan had been elected in February 1863 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1869. At the State election in November 1867, 17 Republicans and 15 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1868-1869) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1868, Democrat John T. Hoffman was elected Governor, and 75 Republicans and 53 Democrats were elected for the session of 1869 to the Assembly. The 92nd New York State Legislature met from January 5 to May 11, 1869, at Albany, New York.

The caucus of Republican State legislators met on January 16, Assemblyman John H. Selkreg presided. All 92 legislators were present. They nominated Ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton for the U.S. Senate. The incumbent U.S. Senator Edwin D. Morgan was very keen on his re-election, but was voted down. Speaker Truman G. Younglove had held back the appointments to the standing Assembly committees until after the caucus, and subsequent election, of a U.S. Senator, and was accused by the Morgan men to have made a bargain to favor the Fenton men with appointments after the election was accomplished. After the caucus, comparing notes, the assemblymen discovered that some of the most important committee chairmanships had been promised to a dozen different members by Speaker Younglove.

1869 Republican caucus for United States Senator result
Candidate First ballot Second ballot
Reuben E. Fenton (50) 52
Edwin D. Morgan (42) 40
blank (1)

Note: On the first ballot, 93 votes were cast, one too many, and it was annulled without announcing the result. The above stated result transpired unofficially. The blank vote caused some debate if the result was really invalidated by it, but it was finally agreed to take a second ballot.

The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met on January 18. State Senator Henry C. Murphy was again nominated, like in 1867.

In the Assembly, Republicans DeWitt C. Hoyt (Saratoga Co.) and James O. Schoonmaker (Ulster Co.); and Democrats James Irving (NYC), Lawrence D. Kiernan (NYC), Harris B. Howard (Rensselaer Co.), James B. Pearsall (Queens), John Tighe (Albany Co.) and Moses Y. Tilden (Columbia Co.); did not vote.

In the State Senate, Republicans Matthew Hale (16th D.) and Charles Stanford (15th D.); and Democrats Cauldwell, Thomas J. Creamer, Michael Norton (5th D.) and John J. Bradley (7th D.); did not vote.

Reuben E. Fenton was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.

1869 United States Senator election result
House Republican Democratic Democratic
State Senate
(32 members)
Reuben E. Fenton 15 Henry C. Murphy 10 Henry S. Randall 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
Reuben E. Fenton 73 Henry C. Murphy 46

Notes:

  • The vote for Ex-Secretary of State Randall was cast by Henry C. Murphy.
  • The votes were cast on January 19, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 20 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Pennsylvania

The election in Pennsylvania was held on January 19, 1869. John Scott was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[4] The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 19, 1869, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1869. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[4][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Scott 78 58.65
Democratic William A. Wallace 51 38.35
Democratic Hiester Clymer 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 3 2.26
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Byrd and Wolff, page 90
  2. ^ Coulter, E. Merton. "William G. Brownlow: Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands". p. 347.
  3. ^ Segar was not seated on the premise that the Union-friendly legislature was illegitimate despite having seated his predecessor based credentials from the same legislature. In reality, the Senate refused because it did not want to set a precedent for easing reentry of Confederate states. See "Musical Chairs (1861–1869)". United States Senate. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 19 January 1869" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  5. ^ "PA US Senate - 1869". OurCampaigns. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
This page was last edited on 14 June 2019, at 03:59
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