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1862 and 1863 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1862 and 1863 United States Senate elections

← 1860 & 1861 Various dates 1864 & 1865 →

22 of the 68 seats in the United States Senate[a] (with special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JP-Hale.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Leader John P. Hale[b]
(retired)
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 4, 1859
Leader's seat New Hampshire
Last election 29 seats 30 seats
Seats before 31 11
Seats won 32 10
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Seats up 10 5

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Unionist Unconditional Unionist
Last election New party New party
Seats before 6 Steady
Seats won 5 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 4 Steady

Majority Party before election


Republican

Elected Majority Party


Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1862 and 1863 were elections during the American Civil War in which Republicans increased their control of the U.S. Senate. The Republican Party gained three seats, bringing their majority to two-thirds of the body. Also caucusing with them were Unionists and Unconditional Unionists, giving them a commanding majority.

As many Southern states seceded in 1860 and 1861, six senators resigned to join the Confederacy, and 14 were expelled for supporting the rebellion: these seats were declared vacant. To establish a quorum with fewer members, a lower total seat number was taken into account.

As this election was prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 38th Congress (1863–1865)

  • Majority Party: Republican (31), later rose to 33
  • Minority Party: Democratic (10)
  • Other Parties: Unionist (4), later dropped to 3; Unconditional Unionist (3), later rose to 4
  • Vacant: 20, later rose to 22
  • Total Seats: 48, later rose to 50

Change in composition

Before the elections

At the beginning of 1862.

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7
Fla.
No race
V8
Miss.
No race
V9
Tenn.
No race
V10
Texas
No race
D1 D2 D3 D4
U4
Md.
Unknown
U3 U2 U1 U10
Mo.
Expelled
D9
Minn.
Retired
D8
Del.
Ran
D7
Calif.
Ran
D6 D5
U5
Ind.
Retired
U6
Va.
Retired
R32
N.J.
Retired
R31
Pa.
Retired
R30
R.I.
Unknown
R29
Wis.
Ran
R28
Vt.
Ran
R27
Ohio
Ran
R26
N.Y.
Ran
R25
Mich.
Ran
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Conn.
Ran
R23
Maine
Ran
R24
Mass.
Ran
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20

As a result of the elections

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7
Fla.
No race
V8
Miss.
No race
V9
Tenn.
No race
V10
Texas
No race
D1 D2 D3 D4
U4
Md.
Hold
U3 U2 U1 D10
Pa.
Gain
D9
N.J.
Gain[c]
D8
Ind.
Gain[c]
D7
Del.
Re-elected
D6 D5
U5
Va.
Hold
UU1
Mo.
Gain[d]
R32
Minn.
Gain
R31
Calif.
Gain
R30
R.I.
Hold
R29
N.Y.
Hold
R28
Wis.
Re-elected
R27
Vt.
Re-elected
R26
Ohio
Re-elected
R25
Mich.
Re-elected
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22
Conn.
Re-elected
R23
Maine
Re-elected
R24
Mass.
Re-elected
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20

Beginning of the next Congress

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 D1 D2 D3
Ill.
Gain[c]
D4
U4 U3 U2 U1 D9 D9
N.J.
Gain[c]
D8
Ind.
Gain[c]
D7 D6 D5
UU3
Md.
Changed
UU2
Mo.
Changed
UU1 R31 R30
R.I.
Hold[c]
R29 R28 R27 R26 R25
Majority →
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12 V11 R1 R2 R3 R4
V17 V18 V19 V20
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
UU# Unconditional Unionist
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Elections during the 37th Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1862 or in 1863 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Michigan
(Class 2)
Kinsley S. Bingham Republican 1858 Incumbent died October 5, 1861.
New senator elected January 17, 1862.
Republican hold.
Oregon
(Class 2)
Benjamin Stark Democratic 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired September 12, 1862 when successor elected.
New senator elected September 12, 1862.
Democratic hold.
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
James F. Simmons Republican 1841
1847 (Lost)
1856
Incumbent resigned August 15, 1862 before the Senate could vote to expel him.
New senator elected September 5, 1862.[1][2]
Republican hold.
Winner was not a candidate to the next term.
Illinois
(Class 2)
Orville H. Browning Republican 1861 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 12, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Indiana
(Class 1)
Joseph A. Wright Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired January 14, 1863 when successor elected.
New senator elected January 14, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term, as the next senator had already been elected.
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Richard S. Field Republican 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired January 14, 1863 when successor elected.
New senator elected January 14, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Winner was not elected to the next term.

Elections leading to the 38th Congress

In these regular elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1863; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California Milton Latham Democratic 1860 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected as a Democrat in 1862 or 1863.
Senator then changed party to Republican after the election.
Republican gain.
Connecticut James Dixon Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Delaware James A. Bayard Jr. Democratic 1851
1857
Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Florida Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Stephen Mallory (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Indiana Joseph A. Wright Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected in 1862.
Democratic gain.
Appointee was also not a candidate to finish the term, see below.
Maine Lot M. Morrill Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Maryland Anthony Kennedy Unionist 1856 or 1857 Unknown if incumbent lost re-election or retired.
New senator elected in 1862 or 1863.
Unionist hold.
Massachusetts Charles Sumner Republican 1851 (Special)
1857
Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Michigan Zachariah Chandler Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Minnesota Henry Mower Rice Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1863.
Republican gain.
Mississippi Vacant since January 21, 1861 when Jefferson Davis (D) resigned. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat would remain vacant until 1870.
None.
Missouri John B. Henderson Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
New Jersey John Renshaw Thomson Democratic 1853 (Special)
1857
Incumbent died September 12, 1862.
New senator elected in 1862 or 1863.
Democratic hold.
New York Preston King Republican 1857 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected February 3, 1863.
Republican hold
Ohio Benjamin Wade Republican 1851
1856
Incumbent re-elected in 1863.
Pennsylvania David Wilmot Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 13, 1863.
Democratic gain.
Rhode Island James F. Simmons Republican 1841
1847 (Lost)
1856
Incumbent resigned August 15, 1862 before the Senate could vote to expel him.
New senator elected in 1862.
Republican hold.
Winner was not a candidate to finish the term.
Tennessee Vacant since March 4, 1862 when Andrew Johnson (D) resigned to become Military Governor of Tennessee. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat would remain vacant until 1866.
None.
Texas Vacant since March 23, 1861 when Louis Wigfall (D) withdrew. Legislature failed to elect during Civil War and Reconstruction.
Seat would remain vacant until 1870.
None.
Vermont Solomon Foot Republican 1850
1856
Incumbent re-elected in 1862.
Virginia Waitman T. Willey Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1863.
Unionist hold.
Wisconsin James R. Doolittle Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1863.

Elections during the 38th Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1863 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
West Virginia
(Class 1)
New state West Virginia admitted to the Union June 19, 1863.
New senator elected August 4, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
West Virginia
(Class 2)
New state West Virginia admitted to the Union June 19, 1863.
New senator elected August 4, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist gain.
Missouri
(Class 3)
Robert Wilson Unconditional Unionist 1862 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected November 13, 1863.
Unconditional Unionist hold.

California

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Illinois (Special)

Republican appointee Orville Browning, who had been appointed in June 1861 on the death of Stephen A. Douglas, retired instead of running to finish the class 2 term.

Democrat William Richardson won the January 12, 1863 special election over Governor of Illinois Richard Yates.

Richardson would lose renomination in the 1865 election to the next term, which Yates would win.

Indiana

Indiana (Special)

Democratic incumbent Jesse D. Bright was expelled from the Senate February 5, 1862 for supporting the Confederacy.

The governor appointed Unionist former-Governor Joseph A. Wright February 24, 1862, until a successor could be elected to finish the term.

Democrat David Turpie was elected to finish the term, ending March 3, 1863.

Turpie was not a candidate for the next term, however.

Indiana (Regular)

Democratic former member of the U.S. House, Thomas A. Hendricks, who had not been a candidate to finish the current term, was elected in 1862 to the next term, starting March 4, 1863.

Maine

First-term Republican Lot M. Morrill was elected to his first full term January 13, 1863.

Maryland

Massachusetts

Two-term Republican Charles Sumner was re-elected.

Sumner would be re-elected again in 1869 and serve until his death in 1874.

Michigan

Michigan (Special)

Michigan (Regular)

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Missouri (Regular)

Democrat Trusten Polk was expelled January 10, 1862 from the Class 1 seat for supporting the rebellion. Unionist (and later Unconditional Unionist) John B. Henderson was appointed January 17, 1862 to finish the term.

Henderson was elected to the next term in 1863.

Missouri (Special)

Democrat Waldo P. Johnson was expelled January 10, 1862 from the Class 3 seat for supporting the rebellion. Unionist (and later Unconditional Unionist) Robert Wilson was appointed January 17, 1862 to continue the term, pending a special election.

Fellow Unconditional Unionist Benjamin Gratz Brown was elected and would align with the Radical Republicans. He would retire at the end of his term in 1867 due to ill health.

New Jersey

In both elections, the New Jersey legislature elected its senators in joint convention.

New Jersey (Special)

Elected January 14, 1863

Vote for U.S. senator in joint session of the New Jersey legislature[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James W. Wall 53 67.1
Republican Richard S. Field 23 29.1
Unknown William Cook 1 1.3
Republican William A. Newell 2 2.5

Wall was not elected to the next term, so he only served for less than two months.

New Jersey (Regular)

Former senator William Wright was elected February 26, 1863.

Vote for U.S. senator in joint session of the New Jersey legislature[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Wright 54 68.4
Republican William A. Newell 25 31.6

Wright would serve until his death in 1866.

New York

The New York election was held February 3, 1863 by the New York State Legislature.

Republican Preston King had been elected in February 1857 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1863.

At the State election in November 1861, 22 Republicans and 10 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1862–1863) in the state senate. At the state election in November 1862, Democrat Horatio Seymour was elected governor; and a tied Assembly of 64 Republicans and Democrats each was elected for the session of 1863. In December, in the 15th Senate District, Republican William Clark was elected for the session of 1863 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Democrat John Willard. The 86th New York State Legislature met from January 6 to April 25, 1863, at Albany, New York.

The election of a Speaker proved to be difficult in the stalemated Assembly. The Democrats voted for Gilbert Dean, the Republicans for Henry Sherwood, of Steuben Co. The Republicans, led by Chauncey M. Depew, became worried about the U.S. Senate election, due to occur on the first Tuesday in February. If the Assembly was not organized by then, the seat would become vacant, and could remain so until the next elected Assembly met in 1864.[e] The Republicans, with a majority of 14 on joint ballot, were anxious to fill the seat, to have a maximum of support for President Abraham Lincoln in the U.S. Senate during the ongoing American Civil War. Theophilus C. Callicot, a Democratic assemblyman from Brooklyn, approached Depew to propose a deal: the Republicans should vote for Callicot as Speaker, and Callicot would help to elect the Republican candidate to the U.S. Senate. Depew put the proposition before the Republican caucus, and they accepted. On January 16, Sherwood and Dean withdrew. The Republicans then voted for Callicot, the Democrats for Eliphaz Trimmer, of Monroe Co.. The Democrats, whose intention it was to prevent the election of a U.S. Senator,[9] managed to postpone the vote for Speaker by filibustering for another ten days, but on January 26, Callicot was elected Speaker on the 92nd ballot (vote: Callicot 61, Trimmer 59, 3 Democrats were absent and 3 Republicans were paired). Thus the Assembly was organized to begin the session of 1863, three weeks late but in time for the U.S. Senate election.[10]

The caucus of Republican[f] State legislators met on February 2, State Senator Alexander H. Bailey presided. They nominated Ex-Governor Edwin D. Morgan (in office 1859–1862) for the U.S. Senate. The incumbent senator Preston King was voted down.

1863 Republican caucus for United States Senator result
Office Candidate Informal
ballot
First
ballot
Second
ballot
U.S. Senator Edwin D. Morgan 25 39 50
Preston King 19 16 11
Daniel S. Dickinson 15 11 13
Charles B. Sedgwick 11 7 1
David Dudley Field 7 5 2
Henry J. Raymond 6 8 9
Ward Hunt 4
Henry R. Selden 1
blank 1

The caucus of the Democratic State legislators met on the evening of February 2, State Senator John V. L. Pruyn presided. They did not nominate any candidate, instead adopting a resolution that "each Democratic member of the Legislature be requested to name for that office such person as he deems proper." They met again on the morning of February 3, and nominated Congressman Erastus Corning. The vote in an informal ballot stood: 28 for Corning, 21 for Fernando Wood, and 18 scattering. Wood's name was however withdrawn and Cornings nomination was made unanimous.

In the Assembly, Edwin D. Morgan received the votes of the 64 Republicans, and Erastus Corning the votes of 62 Democrats. Bernard Hughes (Dem.), of New York City, voted for Ex-Mayor of New York Fernando Wood, and Speaker Callicot voted for John Adams Dix. Thus the vote was tied, and no choice made. Speaker Callicot, although elected by the Republicans, refused to vote for the Republican caucus nominee, insisting in his vote for Dix who had been U.S. Senator and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury as a Democrat, but was now a Union general in the Civil War. A second ballot was then taken, and the Republicans took Callicot's hint, and voted for Dix who was nominated by the Assembly. Thus Callicot kept his part of the bargain, knowing that, on joint ballot, the Republican state senate majority will outvote the Democrats, and elect their candidate. It was just necessary that the Assembly nominate somebody, so that it became possible to proceed to a joint ballot.

In the state senate, Edwin D. Morgan was nominated.

Both houses of the legislature then proceeded to a joint ballot.

Edwin D. Morgan was declared elected after a joint ballot of the state legislature.

House Republican Democrat Also ran
State Senate
(32 members)
Edwin D. Morgan 23 Erastus Corning 7
State Assembly
(128 members)
first ballot
Edwin D. Morgan 64 Erastus Corning 62 John Adams Dix 1 Fernando Wood 1
State Assembly
(128 members)
second ballot
Erastus Corning 63 John Adams Dix 65
State Legislature
(160 members)
joint ballot
Edwin D. Morgan 86 Erastus Corning 70 John Adams Dix 1 Daniel S. Dickinson 1

Ohio

Oregon (Special)

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 13, 1863. Charles Buckalew was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[11]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on January 13, 1863, to elect a senator as follows:

State Legislature Results[11][12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charles R. Buckalew 67 50.38
Republican Simon Cameron 65 48.87
Republican William D. Kelley 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

Rhode Island

Two-term (once in the 1840s and again until 1863) Republican James F. Simmons resigned August 15, 1862 as the Senate was preparing to expel him for bribery.

Rhode Island (Special)

Republican Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island Samuel G. Arnold was elected September 5, 1862 to finish Simmons's term.

Rhode Island (Regular)

Republican Governor of Rhode Island William Sprague IV was elected to the next term.

Tennessee

Texas

Vermont

Virginia

Wisconsin

West Virginia

There were two races for the new state.

Peter G. Van Winkle and Waitman T. Willey, both Unconditional Unionists, were elected August 4, 1863.

Van Winkle would serve just until the 1869 end of his term.

Before being elected senator from West Virginia, Willey was a senator from Virginia representing the Restored Government of Virginia, presenting their petition to Congress for West Virginia's statehood. He would be re-elected in 1865 to the next term served until the end of that term in 1871.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 20 seats would remain vacant due to Southern secession.
  2. ^ as Republican Conference Chair
  3. ^ a b c d e f Same party result in the regular and the special elections, although different winners
  4. ^ Also appointed as a Unionist to finish the current term
  5. ^ In 1819, 1825 and 1839, no U.S. Senator could be elected because nobody was nominated by either the Assembly or the State Senate due to stalemated votes.
  6. ^ The newspapers used at the time the terms "Republican", "Republican Union" and "Union" synonymously. Many, but not all, of these legislators had been elected on a Union ticket nominated by Republicans and War Democrats. The word Union also referred to those who supported the incumbent federal administration during the Civil War as opposed to both the Southern "Confederates", and the Anti-War Democrats, headed by Governor Horatio Seymour.

References

  1. ^ a b https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433014855278&view=image&seq=169
  2. ^ a b c "Our Campaigns - RI US Senate - Special Election Race - Sep 05, 1862". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - IL US Senate Special Race - Jan 12, 1863". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  4. ^ a b Journal of the Senate of Maine 1863. Augusta, Maine: Stevens & Sayward, Printers to the State. 1863. p. 57.
  5. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA US Senate Race - Jan 15, 1863". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved November 16, 2020. (citing Lowell Daily Citizen and News, January 16, 1863)
  6. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - RI US Senate Race - May 28, 1862". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  7. ^ Journal of the Nineteenth Senate of the State of New Jersey begin the Eighty-seventh Session of the Legislature. Morristown, New Jersey: Louis C. Vogt. 1863. pp. 448–449.
  8. ^ Journal of the Nineteenth Senate of the State of New Jersey begin the Eighty-seventh Session of the Legislature. Morristown, New Jersey: Louis C. Vogt. 1863. p. 450.
  9. ^ Important from Albany – New Phase In the Struggle for the Speakership. Withdrawal of Mr. Sherwood from the Contest. Mr. Callicott, of Kings, Democrat, Nominated by the Republicans. Filibustering by the Democrats to Prevent a Vote in The New York Times on January 17, 1863
  10. ^ Important from Albany – Mr. Callicott Elected SpeakerR in The New York Times on January 27, 1863
  11. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 13 January 1863" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  12. ^ "PA US Senate - 1863". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.

Sources and external links

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