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List of United States Senate election results by state

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following table shows regularly-scheduled United States Senate elections by state by year. The table does not include appointments or special elections, though it does include elections that occurred upon a state delegation's admission or readmission to the Senate. The table also includes elections that filled vacancies to unexpired terms that had never been filled due to legislative deadlock or an elected candidate's failure to qualify. The table does not denote post-election party switching. Note that, particularly prior to the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, many regular elections took place in odd years rather than in the preceding even years.

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  • ✪ Election Basics: Crash Course Government and Politics #36
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Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today we're going to talk about what is, if you ask the general public, the most important part of politics: elections. If you ask me, it's hair styles. Look at Martin Van Buren's sideburns, how could he not be elected? Americans are kind of obsessed with elections, I mean when this was being recorded in early 2015, television, news and the internet were already talking about who would be Democrat and Republican candidates for president in 2016. And many of the candidates have unofficially been campaigning for years. I've been campaigning; your grandma's been campaigning. Presidential elections are exciting and you can gamble on them. Is that legal, can you gamble on them, Stan? Anyway, why we're so obsessed with them is a topic for another day. Right now I'm gonna tell you that the fixation on the presidential elections is wrong, but not because the president doesn't matter. No, today we're gonna look at the elections of the people that are supposed to matter the most, Congress. Constitutionally at least, Congress is the most important branch of government because it is the one that is supposed to be the most responsive to the people. One of the main reasons it's so responsive, at least in theory, is the frequency of elections. If a politician has to run for office often, he or she, because unlike the president we have women serving in Congress, kind of has to pay attention to what the constituents want, a little bit, maybe. By now, I'm sure that most of you have memorized the Constitution, so you recognize that despite their importance in the way we discuss politics, elections aren't really a big feature of the Constitution. Except of course for the ridiculously complex electoral college system for choosing the president, which we don't even want to think about for a few episodes. In fact, here's what the Constitution says about Congressional Elections in Article 1 Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature." So the Constitution does establish that the whole of the house is up for election every 2 years, and 1/3 of the senate is too, but mainly it leaves the scheduling and rules of elections up to the states. The actual rules of elections, like when the polls are open and where they actually are, as well as the registration requirements, are pretty much up to the states, subject to some federal election law. If you really want to know the rules in your state, I'm sure that someone at the Board of Elections, will be happy to explain them to you. Really, you should give them a call; they're very, very lonely. In general though, here's what we can say about American elections. First stating the super obvious, in order to serve in congress, you need to win an election. In the House of Representatives, each election district chooses a single representative, which is why we call them single-member districts. The number of districts is determined by the Census, which happens every 10 years, and which means that elections ending in zeros are super important, for reasons that I'll explain in greater detail in a future episode. It's because of gerrymandering. The Senate is much easier to figure out because both of the state Senators are elected by the entire state. It's as if the state itself were a single district, which is true for states like Wyoming, which are so unpopulated as to have only 1 representative. Sometimes these elections are called at large elections. Before the election ever happens, you need candidates. How candidates are chosen differs from state to state, but usually it has something to do with political parties, although it doesn't have to. Why are things so complicated?! What we can say is that candidates, or at least good candidates, usually have certain characteristics. Sorry America. First off, if you are gonna run for office, you should have an unblemished record, free of, oh I don't know, felony convictions or sex scandals, except maybe in Louisiana or New York. This might lead to some pretty bland candidates or people who are so calculating that they have no skeletons in their closet, but we Americans are a moral people and like our candidates to reflect our ideals rather than our reality. The second characteristic that a candidate must possess is the ability to raise money. Now some candidates are billionaires and can finance their own campaigns. But most billionaires have better things to do: buying yachts, making even more money, building money forts, buying more yachts, so they don't have time to run for office. But most candidates get their money for their campaigns by asking for it. The ability to raise money is key, especially now, because running for office is expensive. Can I get a how expensive is it? "How expensive is it?!" Well, so expensive that the prices of elections continually rises and in 2012 winners of House races spent nearly 2 million each. Senate winners spent more than 10 million. By the time this episode airs, I'm sure the numbers will be much higher like a gajillion billion million. Money is important in winning an election, but even more important, statistically, is already being in Congress. Let's go to the Thought Bubble. The person holding an office who runs for that office again is called the incumbent and has a big advantage over any challenger. This is according to political scientists who, being almost as bad at naming things as historians, refer to this as incumbency advantage. There are a number of reasons why incumbents tend to hold onto their seats in congress, if they want to. The first is that a sitting congressman has a record to run on, which we hope includes some legislative accomplishments, although for the past few Congresses, these don't seem to matter. The record might include case work, which is providing direct services to constituents. This is usually done by congressional staffers and includes things like answering questions about how to get certain government benefits or writing recommendation letters to West Point. Congressmen can also provide jobs to constituents, which is usually a good way to get them to vote for you. These are either government jobs, kind of rare these days, called patronage or indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman's district. These programs are called earmarks or pork barrel programs, and they are much less common now because Congress has decided not to use them any more, sort of. The second advantage that incumbents have is that they have a record of winning elections, which if you think about it, is pretty obvious. Being a proven winner makes it easier for a congressmen to raise money, which helps them win, and long term incumbents tend to be more powerful in Congress which makes it even easier for them to raise money and win. The Constitution give incumbents one structural advantage too. Each elected congressman is allowed $100,000 and free postage to send out election materials. This is called the franking privilege. It's not so clear how great an advantage this is in the age of the internet, but at least according to the book The Victory Lab, direct mail from candidates can be surprisingly effective. How real is this incumbency advantage? Well if you look at the numbers, it seems pretty darn real. Over the past 60 years, almost 90% of members of The House of Representatives got re-elected. The Senate has been even more volatile, but even at the low point in 1980 more than 50% of sitting senators got to keep their jobs. Thanks, Thought Bubble. You're so great. So those are some of the features of congressional elections. Now, if you'll permit me to get a little politically sciencey, I'd like to try to explain why elections are so important to the way that Congressmen and Senators do their jobs. In 1974, political scientist David Mayhew published a book in which he described something he called "The Electoral Connection." This was the idea that Congressmen were primarily motivated by the desire to get re-elected, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, even though I'm not sure what evidence he had for this conclusion. Used to be able to get away with that kind of thing I guess, clearly David may-not-hew to the rules of evidence, pun [rim shot], high five, no. Anyway Mayhew's research methodology isn't as important as his idea itself because The Electoral Connection provides a frame work for understanding congressman's activities. Mayhew divided representatives' behaviors and activities into three categories. The first is advertising; congressmen work to develop their personal brand so that they are recognizable to voters. Al D'Amato used to be know in New York as Senator Pothole, because he was able to bring home so much pork that he could actually fix New York's streets. Not by filling them with pork, money, its money, remember pork barrel spending? The second activity is credit claiming; Congressmen get things done so that they can say they got them done. A lot of case work and especially pork barrel spending are done in the name of credit claiming. Related to credit claiming, but slightly different, is position taking. This means making a public judgmental statement on something likely to be of interest to voters. Senators can do this through filibusters. Representatives can't filibuster, but they can hold hearings, publicly supporting a hearing is a way of associating yourself with an idea without having to actually try to pass legislation. And of course they can go on the TV, especially on Sunday talk shows. What's a TV, who even watches TV? Now the idea of The Electoral Connection doesn't explain every action a member of Congress takes; sometimes they actually make laws to benefit the public good or maybe solve problems, huh, what an idea! But Mayhew's idea gives us a way of thinking about Congressional activity, an analytical lens that connects what Congressmen actually do with how most of us understand Congressmen, through elections. So the next time you see a Congressmen call for a hearing on a supposed horrible scandal or read about a Senator threatening to filibuster a policy that may have significant popular support, ask yourself, "Is this Representative claiming credit or taking a position, and how will this build their brand?" In other words: what's the electoral connection and how will whatever they're doing help them get elected? This might feel a little cynical, but the reality is Mayhew's thesis often seems to fit with today's politics. Thanks for watching, see you next week. Vote for me; I'm on the TV. I'm not -- I'm on the YouTube. Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Voqal.org. Crash Course is made by all of these nice people. Thanks for watching. That guy isn't nice.

Contents

Legend

Label Party Label Party Label Party Label Party Label Party
PA Pro-Administration Faction AJ Anti-Jacksonian FS Free Soil Party SR Silver Republican Party No regularly-scheduled election
AA Anti-Administration Faction D Democratic Party A American Party FL Farmer-Labor Party I Independent
F Federalist Party R Republican Party Po Populist Party Sp Split result[1]
DR Democratic-Republican Party Nu Nullifier Party U Unionists[2]
J Jacksonites W Whig Party Ra Readjuster Party

Table

    First Party System         Second Party System     Third Party System     Fourth Party System     Fifth Party System     Sixth Party System[3]
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1789
1
1st
1789
2
1st
1789
3
1st
1790
1
2nd
1792
2
3rd
1794
3
4th
1796
1
5th
1798
2
6th
1800
3
7th
1802
1
8th
1804
2
9th
1806
3
10th
1808
1
11th
1810
2
12th
1812
3
13th
1814
1
14th
1816
2
15th
1818
3
16th
1820
1
17th
1822
2
18th
1824
3
19th
1826
1
20th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1828
2
21st
1830
3
22nd
1832
1
23rd
1834
2
24th
1836
3
25th
1838
1
26th
1840
2
27th
1842
3
28th
1844
1
29th
1846
2
30th
1848
3
31st
1850
1
32nd
1852
2
33rd
1854
3
34th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1856
1
35th
1858
2
36th
1860
3
37th
1862
1
38th
1864
2
39th
1866
3
40th
1868
1
41st
1870
2
42nd
1872
3
43rd
1874
1
44th
1876
2
45th
1878
3
46th
1880
1
47th
1882
2
48th
1884
3
49th
1886
1
50th
1888
2
51st
1890
3
52nd
1892
1
53rd
1894
2
54th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1896
3
55th
1898
1
56th
1900
2
57th
1902
3
58th
1904
1
59th
1906
2
60th
1908
3
61st
1910
1
62nd
1912
2
63rd
1914
3
64th
1916
1
65th
1918
2
66th
1920
3
67th
1922
1
68th
1924
2
69th
1926
3
70th
1928
1
71st
1930
2
72nd
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1932
3
73rd
1934
1
74th
1936
2
75th
1938
3
76th
1940
1
77th
1942
2
78th
1944
3
79th
1946
1
80th
1948
2
81st
1950
3
82nd
1952
1
83rd
1954
2
84th
1956
3
85th
1958
1
86th
1960
2
87th
1962
3
88th
1964
1
89th
1966
2
90th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1968
3
91st
1970
1
92nd
1972
2
93rd
1974
3
94th
1976
1
95th
1978
2
96th
1980
3
97th
1982
1
98th
1984
2
99th
1986
3
100th
1988
1
101st
1990
2
102nd
1992
3
103rd
1994
1
104th
1996
2
105th
1998
3
106th
2000
1
107th
2002
2
108th
2004
3
109th
2006
1
110th
2008
2
111th
2010
3
112th
2012
1
113th
2014
2
114th
2016
3
115th
2018
1
116th
Alabama     2DR DR J Alabama D D D D D D D D D D Alabama D 2R D R D D D D D D D Alabama D D D D D D D D D D D D Alabama D D D D D D D D D D D D Alabama D D D D R D D D D R R R R R R R R
Alaska       Alaska   Alaska   Alaska   Alaska   2D D D D Alaska D R D R R R R R R R R R R D R R R
Arizona       Arizona   Arizona   Arizona   2D D D R D D D Arizona D D D D D D D R D R D R Arizona R R R D R D R D R R R R R R R R R TBD
Arkansas       Arkansas   2D D D D D D D Arkansas D D 2R R R D D D D D D D Arkansas D D D D D D D D D D D D Arkansas D D D D D D D D D D D D Arkansas D D D D D D D D D R D D D D R R R
California       California   2D D California D D R R D R AM D R R D R D California R R R R R R D R R R R R California D R D R D R R R R D R R California D D D R D R D R D D D D D D D D D TBD
Colorado       Colorado   Colorado   2R R R R R SR R Colorado D D D R D D D R R R R D Colorado D D D D R D R R D R R R Colorado R D D R D R D R R R R R D D D R D
Connecticut PA PA PA F F F F F F F F DR DR AJ AJ Connecticut AJ AJ D W D W W D R Connecticut R R R R R LR D R R R R R R Connecticut R R R R R R R R R R R R Connecticut D D R D D R D R R D D D Connecticut D R D R D R D D D D D D D I D D D TBD
Delaware PA AA PA PA F F F F F F F F F F J Delaware AJ AJ W W W W W D W Delaware D D D D D D D D D D D R D D Delaware R R R R R D D R D R R R Delaware R D D R R D R D R R R R Delaware R D R D R D R D R D D D D D D D TBD
Florida       Florida   2D W D D Florida D 2R R D D D D D D D Florida D D D D D D D D D D D D Florida D D D D D D D D D D D D Florida R D D D R D D R D R D D R D R D R TBD
Georgia AA AA AA F DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J Georgia D D D D W D W W D D Georgia D R D D D D D D D D D Georgia D D D D D D D D D D D D Georgia D D D D D D D D D D D D Georgia D D D D R D D D R D R R R R R R R
Hawaii       Hawaii   Hawaii   Hawaii   Hawaii   Sp D R Hawaii D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D TBD
Idaho       Idaho   Idaho   2R R Idaho Po SR R R R R R R R R R R Idaho D R D R D D R R D R D R Idaho D R D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
Illinois     2DR DR J Illinois D D D D D D D D D D Illinois D R R R R R I R R R R D R Illinois R R R R R D R R R R R D Illinois D D D R D D R D R D R R Illinois R R D R D D D D D D R D D D R D D
Indiana     2DR DR DR AJ AJ Indiana AJ D W W D D D D D Indiana D R D R R R D D R D D D D Indiana R R R R D D D R R D R R Indiana D D D R R R R R R D D D Indiana D D D R R R R R R R D R D R R D R TBD
Iowa       Iowa   2D D FS Iowa R R R R R R R R R R R R R Iowa R R R R R R R R R R R R Iowa D D D R R D R R R R R R Iowa D D D R R D R D R D R D R D R R R
Kansas       Kansas   Kansas   2R R R R R R R R R R Po R Kansas Po R R R R D R R R R R R Kansas D R R R R R R R R R R R Kansas R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
Kentucky   2AA F DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J Kentucky D AJ W W W W W W W W Kentucky D D D D D D D D D D D D D Kentucky R D D D R D D D R R D D Kentucky D D D D D D D D R R R R Kentucky R D D D D R D R D R R R R R R R R
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1789
1
1st
1789
2
1st
1789
3
1st
1790
1
2nd
1792
2
3rd
1794
3
4th
1796
1
5th
1798
2
6th
1800
3
7th
1802
1
8th
1804
2
9th
1806
3
10th
1808
1
11th
1810
2
12th
1812
3
13th
1814
1
14th
1816
2
15th
1818
3
16th
1820
1
17th
1822
2
18th
1824
3
19th
1826
1
20th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1828
2
21st
1830
3
22nd
1832
1
23rd
1834
2
24th
1836
3
25th
1838
1
26th
1840
2
27th
1842
3
28th
1844
1
29th
1846
2
30th
1848
3
31st
1850
1
32nd
1852
2
33rd
1854
3
34th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1856
1
35th
1858
2
36th
1860
3
37th
1862
1
38th
1864
2
39th
1866
3
40th
1868
1
41st
1870
2
42nd
1872
3
43rd
1874
1
44th
1876
2
45th
1878
3
46th
1880
1
47th
1882
2
48th
1884
3
49th
1886
1
50th
1888
2
51st
1890
3
52nd
1892
1
53rd
1894
2
54th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1896
3
55th
1898
1
56th
1900
2
57th
1902
3
58th
1904
1
59th
1906
2
60th
1908
3
61st
1910
1
62nd
1912
2
63rd
1914
3
64th
1916
1
65th
1918
2
66th
1920
3
67th
1922
1
68th
1924
2
69th
1926
3
70th
1928
1
71st
1930
2
72nd
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1932
3
73rd
1934
1
74th
1936
2
75th
1938
3
76th
1940
1
77th
1942
2
78th
1944
3
79th
1946
1
80th
1948
2
81st
1950
3
82nd
1952
1
83rd
1954
2
84th
1956
3
85th
1958
1
86th
1960
2
87th
1962
3
88th
1964
1
89th
1966
2
90th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1968
3
91st
1970
1
92nd
1972
2
93rd
1974
3
94th
1976
1
95th
1978
2
96th
1980
3
97th
1982
1
98th
1984
2
99th
1986
3
100th
1988
1
101st
1990
2
102nd
1992
3
103rd
1994
1
104th
1996
2
105th
1998
3
106th
2000
1
107th
2002
2
108th
2004
3
109th
2006
1
110th
2008
2
111th
2010
3
112th
2012
1
113th
2014
2
114th
2016
3
115th
2018
1
116th
Louisiana     2DR DR DR DR AJ Louisiana D D D D W W D D W D Louisiana D 2R R D R D D D D D D Louisiana D D D D D D D D D D D D Louisiana D D D D D D D D D D D D Louisiana D D D D D D D D D D D D R D R R R
Maine     2DR DR J Maine AJ D D D W D D D W Maine D R R R R R R R R R R R R R Maine R R R R D R R R R R R R Maine R R R R R R R R D R D R Maine D D D R D R D R R R R R R R I R TBD
Maryland PA PA PA F F DR DR DR DR F F DR DR J J Maryland AJ AJ W W W W W W W Maryland A D U D D D D D D D D D D Maryland R R D D D D D R R D D R Maryland D D D D D D R R R R D D Maryland R R R D R D D D D D D D D D D D D TBD
Massachusetts PA PA PA PA F F F F F DR F F F F AJ Massachusetts AJ AJ W W W W W FS W Massachusetts R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Massachusetts R R R R R R R D R R D D Massachusetts D R D R R R D R D R D R Massachusetts D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D TBD
Michigan       Michigan   2D W D D D D Michigan R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Michigan R R R R R R R R D R R R Michigan R D R R R R R D D D D R Michigan D R D D D D D D R D D D D D D D TBD
Minnesota       Minnesota   Minnesota   Sp[4] R R R R R R R R R R R R Minnesota R R R R R R R R FL R FL R Minnesota FL FL R R R D R D D D D D Minnesota D D D R R R R D R D D R D D D D TBD
Mississippi     2DR DR DR J Mississippi D AJ D W D D D D D Mississippi D D 2R R D D D D D D D Mississippi D D D D D D D D D D D D Mississippi D D D D D D D D D D D D Mississippi D D D R D R R R R R R R R R R R TBD
Missouri     2DR AJ J Missouri D D D D D D D W D Missouri D D U R R D D D D D D D D Missouri D D D R D D D D R D D R Missouri D D D D R R D D D D D D Missouri D D D R D R R R R R R R R D R D R TBD
Montana       Montana   Montana   2R R R Montana D D R R D D D D D D D D Montana D D D D R D D D D D D D Montana D D D D D D R D R D R D D D D R TBD
Nebraska       Nebraska   Nebraska   2R R R R R R R R R Po R Nebraska R R R R D R D R R R R R Nebraska D I R R R R R R R R R R Nebraska R R D D D D D D D R D R D R R R TBD
Nevada       Nevada   Nevada   2R R R R R R D R R R SR Nevada Si SR D R D R D D R D R D Nevada D D D D D R D R D D D D Nevada D D R D R R D D D D D R D R D R D TBD
New Hampshire AA AA PA DR F F DR DR DR F DR DR DR J New Hampshire AJ D D D D D FS D D R New Hampshire R R R R R R R R R R R R R New Hampshire R R R R R D R R R R R R New Hampshire D R R R R R R R R R R D New Hampshire R D D R R R R R R R R R R D R D D
New Jersey PA PA PA PA F F DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR AJ New Jersey AJ AJ D W W W W D D New Jersey D R D D D R D D R D D D D R New Jersey R R R R D D R R D R R R New Jersey D D R R R R R R D R D R New Jersey D R D D D D D D D D D D D D D D TBD
New Mexico       New Mexico   New Mexico   New Mexico   2R D R D D R D New Mexico R D D D D D D D D D D D New Mexico D R R R D R D R D R D R D D D D TBD
New York PA PA AA F F DR DR DR DR F DR F DR AJ J New York D D D D D W W W R New York R R R R R R D R R R R D D New York R R R R R D R R R D D D New York D D D D D R D R R R R D New York R C R D R D R D R D D D D D D D D TBD
North Carolina PA PA AA DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J North Carolina D D D D W D W W D D North Carolina D D 2R D D D D D D D D Po North Carolina R D D D D D D D D D D D North Carolina D D D D D D D D D D D D North Carolina D R D R R R D R R R D R R D R R R
North Dakota       North Dakota   North Dakota   2R R D North Dakota R R R R R R R R R R R R North Dakota R R R R D R R R R R R D North Dakota R D R D R D D D D D D D D D R D R TBD
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1789
1
1st
1789
2
1st
1789
3
1st
1790
1
2nd
1792
2
3rd
1794
3
4th
1796
1
5th
1798
2
6th
1800
3
7th
1802
1
8th
1804
2
9th
1806
3
10th
1808
1
11th
1810
2
12th
1812
3
13th
1814
1
14th
1816
2
15th
1818
3
16th
1820
1
17th
1822
2
18th
1824
3
19th
1826
1
20th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1828
2
21st
1830
3
22nd
1832
1
23rd
1834
2
24th
1836
3
25th
1838
1
26th
1840
2
27th
1842
3
28th
1844
1
29th
1846
2
30th
1848
3
31st
1850
1
32nd
1852
2
33rd
1854
3
34th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1856
1
35th
1858
2
36th
1860
3
37th
1862
1
38th
1864
2
39th
1866
3
40th
1868
1
41st
1870
2
42nd
1872
3
43rd
1874
1
44th
1876
2
45th
1878
3
46th
1880
1
47th
1882
2
48th
1884
3
49th
1886
1
50th
1888
2
51st
1890
3
52nd
1892
1
53rd
1894
2
54th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1896
3
55th
1898
1
56th
1900
2
57th
1902
3
58th
1904
1
59th
1906
2
60th
1908
3
61st
1910
1
62nd
1912
2
63rd
1914
3
64th
1916
1
65th
1918
2
66th
1920
3
67th
1922
1
68th
1924
2
69th
1926
3
70th
1928
1
71st
1930
2
72nd
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1932
3
73rd
1934
1
74th
1936
2
75th
1938
3
76th
1940
1
77th
1942
2
78th
1944
3
79th
1946
1
80th
1948
2
81st
1950
3
82nd
1952
1
83rd
1954
2
84th
1956
3
85th
1958
1
86th
1960
2
87th
1962
3
88th
1964
1
89th
1966
2
90th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1968
3
91st
1970
1
92nd
1972
2
93rd
1974
3
94th
1976
1
95th
1978
2
96th
1980
3
97th
1982
1
98th
1984
2
99th
1986
3
100th
1988
1
101st
1990
2
102nd
1992
3
103rd
1994
1
104th
1996
2
105th
1998
3
106th
2000
1
107th
2002
2
108th
2004
3
109th
2006
1
110th
2008
2
111th
2010
3
112th
2012
1
113th
2014
2
114th
2016
3
115th
2018
1
116th
Ohio     2DR DR DR DR DR DR DR AJ AJ Ohio AJ D D D D W FS W D Ohio R R R R D R D D R D R D R Ohio R R R R R D R D R R R R Ohio D D R R R R R R D D D D Ohio R R D D D D D D D R R R R D R D R TBD
Oklahoma       Oklahoma   Oklahoma       Oklahoma   2D D D D D R R D D Oklahoma D D D R D D D D D D D D Oklahoma R R R D R D R D R R R R R R R R R
Oregon       Oregon   Oregon   2D R R R D R D D R R R R R Oregon R R R R D D D R R R R R Oregon R R R R R R R D D D D R Oregon R R R R R R R R R R D R D D D D D
Pennsylvania AA PA AA F F DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR AJ J Pennsylvania D D D D D D W D D Pennsylvania R R D R R R D R R R R R R Pennsylvania R R R R R R R R R R R R Pennsylvania R D R D D R R R D R D R Pennsylvania R R R R R R R R R R R R R D R D R TBD
Rhode Island PA AA PA PA F F DR DR F DR F F DR DR AJ Rhode Island AJ AJ W W W W W D D Rhode Island R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Rhode Island R R R R R R D R D R R R Rhode Island D D D D D D D D D D D D Rhode Island D D R D R D R D R D R D D D D D TBD
South Carolina PA PA AA F DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J South Carolina D Nu Nu W D D D D D D South Carolina D 2R R R D D D D D D D South Carolina D D D D D D D D D D D D South Carolina D D D D D D D D D D D R South Carolina D R D R D R D R D R D R R R R R R
South Dakota       South Dakota   South Dakota   2R I R South Dakota Po R R R R R D R R R R D South Dakota R D R R R R R R R R D R South Dakota D D D R R R D R D D D D R D R R R
Tennessee     2DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J Tennessee D D W D W D W W W Tennessee D D Sp R D D D D D D D D D Tennessee D D D D D D D D D D D D Tennessee D D D D D D D D D D D R Tennessee R R D R D D D D R R R R R R R R TBD
Texas       Texas   2D D D Texas D D 2R D D D D D D D D Texas D D D D D D D D D D D D Texas D D D D D D D D D D D R Texas D R D R D R D R R R R R R R R R TBD
Utah       Utah   Utah   Utah Sp[5] R R R R R R D R D R D Utah D D D D D R R R R D R D Utah R D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R TBD
Vermont   2AA F F F DR DR DR DR F DR DR AJ AJ Vermont AJ AJ W W W W W W W Vermont R R R R R R R R R R R R R Vermont R R R R R R R R R R R R Vermont R R R R R R R R R R R R Vermont R R D R D R D R D R D R D I D I D TBD
Virginia AA AA AA AA DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR J Virginia D AJ W W W D D D D Virginia D D U[6] N[7] Sp D D Ra Ra D D D D Virginia D D D D D D D D D D D D Virginia D D D D D D D D D D D D Virginia I R I R R R D R D R R R D D D D TBD
Washington       Washington   Washington   2R R R Washington R R R R R R R R R D R D Washington D D D D D R D D D D D D Washington D D D D R D D R D R D D D D D D D TBD
West Virginia       West Virginia   West Virginia   2U R R D D D D D D D D R West Virginia R R R R D R R R D R R D West Virginia D D D R D D D D D D D D West Virginia D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D R TBD
Wisconsin       Wisconsin   2D D R Wisconsin R R R R R R R R R R R D D Wisconsin R R R R R R D R R R R R Wisconsin D Pr R R R R R R R D D D Wisconsin D D D D R D R D D D D D D D R D R TBD
Wyoming       Wyoming   Wyoming   2R R R Wyoming R R R R R R D R D R D R Wyoming D D D R D D R D D R D R Wyoming D R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R TBD
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1789
1
1st
1789
2
1st
1789
3
1st
1790
1
2nd
1792
2
3rd
1794
3
4th
1796
1
5th
1798
2
6th
1800
3
7th
1802
1
8th
1804
2
9th
1806
3
10th
1808
1
11th
1810
2
12th
1812
3
13th
1814
1
14th
1816
2
15th
1818
3
16th
1820
1
17th
1822
2
18th
1824
3
19th
1826
1
20th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1828
2
21st
1830
3
22nd
1832
1
23rd
1834
2
24th
1836
3
25th
1838
1
26th
1840
2
27th
1842
3
28th
1844
1
29th
1846
2
30th
1848
3
31st
1850
1
32nd
1852
2
33rd
1854
3
34th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1856
1
35th
1858
2
36th
1860
3
37th
1862
1
38th
1864
2
39th
1866
3
40th
1868
1
41st
1870
2
42nd
1872
3
43rd
1874
1
44th
1876
2
45th
1878
3
46th
1880
1
47th
1882
2
48th
1884
3
49th
1886
1
50th
1888
2
51st
1890
3
52nd
1892
1
53rd
1894
2
54th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1896
3
55th
1898
1
56th
1900
2
57th
1902
3
58th
1904
1
59th
1906
2
60th
1908
3
61st
1910
1
62nd
1912
2
63rd
1914
3
64th
1916
1
65th
1918
2
66th
1920
3
67th
1922
1
68th
1924
2
69th
1926
3
70th
1928
1
71st
1930
2
72nd
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1932
3
73rd
1934
1
74th
1936
2
75th
1938
3
76th
1940
1
77th
1942
2
78th
1944
3
79th
1946
1
80th
1948
2
81st
1950
3
82nd
1952
1
83rd
1954
2
84th
1956
3
85th
1958
1
86th
1960
2
87th
1962
3
88th
1964
1
89th
1966
2
90th
Year →
Class →
Congress →
1968
3
91st
1970
1
92nd
1972
2
93rd
1974
3
94th
1976
1
95th
1978
2
96th
1980
3
97th
1982
1
98th
1984
2
99th
1986
3
100th
1988
1
101st
1990
2
102nd
1992
3
103rd
1994
1
104th
1996
2
105th
1998
3
106th
2000
1
107th
2002
2
108th
2004
3
109th
2006
1
110th
2008
2
111th
2010
3
112th
2012
1
113th
2014
2
114th
2016
3
115th
2018
1
116th
  First Party System     Second Party System   Third Party System   Fourth Party System   Fifth Party System   Sixth Party System

Analytical tables

Last updated after the 2014 elections.

Results

First Party System Second Party System Third Party System Fourth Party System Fifth Party System Sixth Party System Overall since 1828
State DR votes F votes % DR D votes AJ/W votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D State D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D
Alabama 3 0 100 10 0 0 100 9 3 0 75 12 0 0 100 Alabama 12 0 0 100 8 8 0 50 51 11 0 82
Alaska Alaska 5 0 0 100 3 13 0 19 8 13 0 38
Arizona 7 1 0 88 Arizona 9 3 0 75 3 13 0 19 19 17 0 53
Arkansas 8 0 0 100 9 4 0 69 12 0 0 100 Arkansas 12 0 0 100 13 3 0 81 54 7 0 89
California 3 0 0 100 6 6 1 46 1 11 0 8 California 4 8 0 33 13 3 0 81 27 28 1 48
Colorado 0 7 1 0 7 5 0 58 Colorado 6 6 0 50 7 9 0 44 20 27 1 42
Connecticut 2 8 20 3 5 1 33 1 11 1 8 0 12 0 0 Connecticut 8 4 0 67 13 3 0 81 24 31 7 39
Delaware 0 10 0 1 8 0 11 13 1 0 93 3 9 0 25 Delaware 4 8 0 33 11 5 0 69 32 31 8 45
Florida 4 1 0 80 8 3 0 73 12 0 0 100 Florida 12 0 0 100 10 6 0 63 46 9 1 82
Georgia 9 1 90 7 3 0 70 10 1 0 91 12 0 0 100 Georgia 12 0 0 100 8 8 0 50 49 9 3 80
Hawaii Hawaii 2 3 0 40 15 1 0 94 17 4 0 81
Idaho 0 3 0 0 0 10 2 0 Idaho 6 6 0 50 2 14 0 13 8 33 2 19
Illinois 3 0 100 10 0 0 100 2 10 1 15 2 10 0 17 Illinois 7 5 0 58 11 5 0 69 32 30 1 51
Indiana 4 0 100 6 3 0 67 8 5 0 62 4 8 0 33 Indiana 6 6 0 50 6 10 0 38 30 29 3 48
Iowa 3 0 1 75 0 13 0 0 0 12 0 0 Iowa 4 8 0 33 8 8 0 50 15 41 1 26
Kansas 0 12 1 0 1 10 1 8 Kansas 1 11 0 8 0 16 0 0 2 49 2 4
Kentucky 9 1 90 1 9 0 10 13 0 0 100 8 4 0 67 Kentucky 8 4 0 67 6 10 0 38 36 28 9 49
Louisiana 5 0 100 7 3 0 70 8 4 0 67 12 0 0 100 Louisiana 12 0 0 100 13 3 0 81 52 7 3 84
Maine 3 0 100 6 3 0 66 1 13 0 7 1 11 0 8 Maine 2 10 0 17 5 10 1 31 15 44 4 24
Maryland 6 4 60 0 9 0 0 11 0 2 85 7 5 0 58 Maryland 8 4 0 67 12 4 0 75 38 13 11 61
Massachusetts 1 9 10 0 8 1 0 0 14 0 0 3 9 0 25 Massachusetts 5 7 0 42 15 1 0 94 23 31 9 37
Michigan 6 1 0 86 0 14 0 0 1 11 0 8 Michigan 5 7 0 42 14 2 0 88 26 34 1 43
Minnesota 1 13 0 7 0 10 2 0 Minnesota 6 4 2 50 10 6 0 63 17 33 4 31
Mississippi 4 0 100 7 2 0 78 9 3 0 75 12 0 0 100 Mississippi 12 0 0 100 4 12 0 25 44 15 2 72
Missouri 2 0 100 8 1 0 89 10 2 1 77 9 3 0 75 Missouri 10 2 0 83 6 10 0 38 43 17 2 69
Montana 0 4 0 0 10 2 0 83 Montana 11 1 0 92 12 4 0 75 33 11 0 75
Nebraska 0 11 1 0 2 10 0 17 Nebraska 1 10 1 8 10 6 0 63 13 37 2 25
Nevada 1 10 1 8 6 4 2 50 Nevada 10 2 0 83 10 6 0 63 27 22 3 52
New Hampshire 7 3 70 7 1 2 70 0 13 0 0 1 11 0 8 New Hampshire 2 10 0 17 4 12 0 25 14 47 2 22
New Jersey 8 2 80 3 6 0 33 10 4 0 71 3 9 0 25 New Jersey 4 8 0 33 15 1 0 94 35 22 6 56
New Mexico 4 4 0 50 New Mexico 11 1 0 92 9 7 0 56 24 12 0 67
New York 6 4 60 5 3 1 63 3 10 0 23 4 8 0 33 New York 7 5 0 58 10 5 1 63 29 29 4 47
North Carolina 10 0 100 7 3 0 70 10 2 1 77 11 1 0 92 North Carolina 12 0 0 100 5 11 0 31 45 14 4 71
North Dakota 1 3 0 25 0 12 0 0 North Dakota 2 10 0 17 12 4 0 75 15 29 0 34
Ohio 8 0 100 5 3 1 56 5 8 0 38 2 10 0 17 Ohio 6 6 0 50 9 7 0 56 27 31 4 44
Oklahoma 8 2 0 80 Oklahoma 11 1 0 92 3 13 0 19 22 16 0 58
Oregon 5 9 0 31 3 9 0 25 Oregon 4 8 0 33 5 11 0 31 17 37 0 31
Pennsylvania 8 2 80 8 1 0 89 2 11 0 15 0 12 0 0 Pennsylvania 5 7 0 42 2 14 0 13 17 44 1 27
Rhode Island 5 5 50 2 7 0 22 0 14 0 0 2 10 0 17 Rhode Island 12 0 0 100 11 5 0 69 27 29 7 43
South Carolina 9 1 90 7 1 2 70 8 4 0 66 12 0 0 100 South Carolina 11 1 0 92 6 10 0 38 44 15 3 71
South Dakota 0 3 1 0 2 9 1 17 South Dakota 2 10 0 17 9 7 0 56 13 29 2 30
Tennessee 11 0 100 4 5 0 44 12 2 0 86 12 0 0 100 Tennessee 11 1 0 92 5 11 0 31 44 14 5 70
Texas 4 0 0 100 10 2 0 83 12 0 0 100 Texas 11 1 0 92 4 12 0 25 39 15 0 72
Utah 4 9 0 31 Utah 7 5 0 58 1 15 0 6 12 29 0 29
Vermont 6 4 60 0 9 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 12 0 0 Vermont 0 12 0 0 7 7 2 44 7 44 11 11
Virginia 10 0 100 5 4 0 56 9 1 3 69 12 0 0 100 Virginia 12 0 0 100 6 8 2 38 44 9 9 71
Washington 0 4 0 0 2 10 0 17 Washington 11 1 0 92 13 3 0 81 26 18 0 59
West Virginia 8 3 2 62 3 9 0 25 West Virginia 11 1 0 92 15 1 0 94 37 14 2 70
Wisconsin 3 0 1 75 2 11 0 15 1 11 0 8 Wisconsin 4 7 1 33 13 3 0 81 23 33 1 40
Wyoming 0 4 0 0 3 9 0 25 Wyoming 8 4 0 67 1 15 0 6 12 32 0 27
Northeast 46 37 55 34 43 5 41 17 103 1 14 14 94 0 13 Northeast 45 63 0 42 82 56 4 58 191 319 51 34
South 76 17 82 72 48 2 59 147 33 6 79 160 30 0 84 South 171 21 0 89 129 123 2 51 679 217 58 71
Midwest 17 0 100 41 8 3 79 29 94 5 23 22 116 4 15 Midwest 58 84 4 40 108 85 0 56 258 380 23 39
West 3 0 0 100 12 47 3 19 47 74 4 38 West 95 48 0 66 94 114 0 45 251 283 7 46
United States 139 54 72 150 95 10 59 205 277 15 41 143 314 8 31 United States 369 216 4 63 412 378 7 52 1378 1199 140 51
State DR votes F votes % DR D votes AJ/W votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D State D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D D votes R votes Other votes % D
First Party System Second Party System Third Party System Fourth Party System Fifth Party System Sixth Party System Overall since 1828

States across party systems

S indicates that a state was split between the two major parties and did not elect either party more than 60 percent of the time. A * sign indicates that a state elected that party at least 80 percent of the time. No * sign indicates that the state elected that party between 60 and 80 percent of the time.

Party systems
State 1789-1792 1st 1824-1826 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 2000-2014[8]
Alabama DR* J D* D D* D* S R*
Alaska D* R* R*
Arizona D* D R* R*
Arkansas D* D D* D* D* D
California S R* R D* D*
Colorado R* S S S D
Connecticut PA* F* AJ W R* R* D D* D*
Delaware PA F* J W* D* R R D D*
Florida D* D D* D* D D
Georgia AA* DR* J D D* D* D* S R*
Hawaii R D* D*
Idaho R* R* S R* R*
Illinois DR* J D* R R* S D D*
Indiana DR* AJ D D R S R R
Iowa D R* R* R S R
Kansas R* R* R* R* R*
Kentucky AA* DR* J W* D* D D R R*
Louisiana DR* AJ D D D* D* D* R
Maine DR* J D R* R* R* R R*
Maryland PA* DR J W* D* S D D D*
Massachusetts PA* F* AJ W* R* R S D* D*
Michigan D* R* R* S D* D*
Minnesota R* R* S D D*
Mississippi DR* J D D D* D* R R*
Missouri DR* S D* D D D* R R
Montana R* D* D* D D
Nebraska R* R* R* D S
Nevada R* S D* D R
New Hampshire AA DR J D R* R* R* R R
New Jersey S DR* AJ W D R R D* D*
New Mexico S D* S D*
New York AA DR J D R R S D D*
North Carolina PA DR* J D D D* D* R R*
North Dakota R R* R* D D*
Ohio DR* AJ S R R* S S R
Oklahoma D* D* R* R*
Oregon R R R R D*
Pennsylvania AA DR* S D* R* R* S R* R
Rhode Island PA S AJ W R* R* D* D D*
South Carolina PA DR* J D D D* D* R R*
South Dakota R R* R* S R
Tennessee DR* J S D* D* D* R R*
Texas D* D* D* D* R R*
Utah R S R* R*
Vermont AA* DR AJ W* R* R* R* S S
Virginia AA* DR* J S D D* D* S D
Washington R* R* D* D* D*
West Virginia D R D* D* D*
Wisconsin D R* R* S D* D*
Wyoming R* R D R* R*
State 1789-1792 1st 1824-1826 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 2000-
2014
Region 1789-1792 1st 1824-1826 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 2000-2014[8]
Northeast PA S AJ S R* R* S S D
South S DR* J* S D D* D* S R
Midwest DR* AJ D R R* S S S
West D* R S D S S
United States S DR S S S R D S S

See also

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.

Notes

  1. ^ Candidates from two different parties were elected. This occasionally occurred when a state delegation was first admitted or re-admitted to the Senate. Unless otherwise noted, the split was between the Republican and Democratic parties.
  2. ^ Includes members of the Unconditional Union Party and other candidates elected under the "unionist" label.
  3. ^ There is no consensus definition for the beginning or ending date of the Sixth Party System.
  4. ^ Two Democrats were elected in 1858, but a Republican replaced one of the Democrats in an 1859 election.
  5. ^ Two Republicans were elected in 1896, but a Democrat replaced a Republican in an 1897 election.
  6. ^ Elected by the Restored Government of Virginia.
  7. ^ The Virginia legislature elected two Unionists in 1865, but the Senate refused to seat either candidate.
  8. ^ a b Note that these elections are also part of the Sixth Party System.
This page was last edited on 21 September 2019, at 01:41
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