To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

United Artists

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United Artists Corporation
United Artists Digital Studios
FoundedFebruary 5, 1919 (1919-02-05) in Hollywood, California, United States
DefunctMarch 1, 2020 (2020-03-01)
FateDormancy; Operations folded into MGM and Amazon Studios
HeadquartersBeverly Hills, California, United States
Key people
Kevin Conroy
(President of Digital & New Platforms at MGM)[1]
ProductsMotion pictures
TV series

United Artists Corporation (UA), doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, was an American production and distribution company. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios.[2] UA was repeatedly bought, sold, and restructured over the ensuing century. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million ($1.1 billion today).[3]

On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media, then merged them to revive United Artists' television production unit as United Artists Media Group (UAMG). However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television.[4]

United Artists was briefly revived again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios, being launched along with the Stargate Origins web series and the Stargate Command streaming service. In December 2019 following the closure of Stargate Command, by early 2020 the original UA incarnation was folded, this time permanently, into MGM.

Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures, was subsequently rebranded as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019, in honor of its 100th anniversary, and the UA name lived on in that company for 4 years, until 2023 when it was folded again into MGM, effectively ending United Artists as a functioning company.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    16 443
    21 431
    208 126
    71 684
    18 321
  • United Artists by Kenneth Fuchs
  • United Artists 100 Year Anniversary Trailer | MGM
  • United Artists Intro theme
  • United Artists 1968 Logo (reconstructed)
  • MGM 2021 Logo with United Artists 1994 Fanfare



Early years

The first United Artists logo, used until the company's sale to Transamerica in 1967
The first United Artists logo, used until the company's sale to Transamerica in 1967

In 1918, Charlie Chaplin could not get his parent company First National Pictures to increase his production budget despite being one of their top producers. Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks had their own contracts, with First National and Famous Players-Lasky respectively, but these were due to run out with no clear offers forthcoming. Sydney Chaplin, brother and business manager for Charlie, deduced something was going wrong, and contacted Pickford and Fairbanks. Together they hired a private detective, who discovered a plan to merge all production companies and to lock in "exhibition companies" to a series of five-year contracts.[5]

Chaplin, Pickford, Fairbanks, and D. W. Griffith incorporated United Artists as a joint venture company on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo.[6] The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Already Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work.

They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before anything was formalized. When he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, apparently said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum."[7] The four partners, with advice from McAdoo (son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary of then-President Woodrow Wilson), formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, and the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.[5]

List of UA stockholders in 1920
List of UA stockholders in 1920

The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, and running times had settled at around ninety minutes (eight reels). The original goal was thus abandoned.

Griffith, Pickford, Chaplin (seated), and Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing the United Artists motion-picture studio in 1919.Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left)and Dennis F. O'Brien (right)stand in the background.
Griffith, Pickford, Chaplin (seated), and Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing the United Artists motion-picture studio in 1919.
Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left)
and Dennis F. O'Brien (right)
stand in the background.

UA's first production, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies. As a result, production was slow, and the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years.[8][unreliable source?]

By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, and the company was facing a crisis.[citation needed] Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president.[8] He had produced pictures for a decade,[citation needed] and brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge,[8] his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge,[citation needed] and his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton.[8] Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, and Howard Hughes.[8] In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule.[8]

Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. They began international operations, first in Canada, and then in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries.

When he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox.[9] Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, and Walter Wanger.[8] As the years passed, and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to RKO and Wanger to Universal Pictures.

In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit. Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, who was under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler. Also that year, Fairbanks died.[8]

UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, and left to start his own distribution arm.[8]

In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures.[citation needed] Cinema attendance continued to decline as television became more popular.[8] The company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company.

Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers (1940s and 1950s)

In 1941, Pickford, Chaplin, Disney, Orson Welles, Goldwyn, Selznick, Alexander Korda, and Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists—formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers (SIMPP). Later members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol Lesser, and Hal Roach.

The Society aimed to advance the interests of independent producers in an industry controlled by the studio system. SIMPP fought to end ostensibly anti-competitive practices by the seven major film studios—Loew's (MGM), Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Bros./First National—that controlled the production, distribution, and exhibition of motion pictures.

In 1942, SIMPP filed an antitrust suit against Paramount's United Detroit Theatres. The complaint accused Paramount of conspiracy to control first-and subsequent-run theaters in Detroit. This was the first antitrust suit brought by producers against exhibitors that alleged monopoly and restraint of trade. In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court Paramount Decision ordered the major Hollywood movie studios to sell their theater chains and to end certain anti-competitive practices. This court ruling ended the studio system.

By 1958, SIMPP achieved many of the goals that led to its creation, and the group ceased operations.

Krim and Benjamin

Needing a turnaround, Pickford and Chaplin hired Paul V. McNutt in 1950,[10] a former governor of Indiana, as chairman and Frank L. McNamee as president. McNutt did not have the skill to solve UA's financial problems and the pair was replaced after only a few months.[8]

On February 15, 1951, lawyers-turned-producers Arthur B. Krim (of Eagle-Lion Films), Robert Benjamin and Matty Fox[10] approached Pickford and Chaplin with a wild idea: let them take over United Artists for ten years. If UA was profitable in one of the next three years, they would have the option to acquire half the company by the end of the ten years and take full control.[10] Fox Film Corporation president Spyros Skouras extended United Artists a $3 million loan through Krim and Benjamin's efforts.[8][11]

In taking over UA, Krim and Benjamin created the first studio without an actual "studio". Primarily acting as bankers, they offered money to independent producers. UA leased space at the Pickford/Fairbanks Studio but did not own a studio lot. Thus UA did not have the overhead, the maintenance, or the expensive production staff at other studios.

Among their first clients were Sam Spiegel and John Huston, whose Horizon Productions gave UA one major hit, The African Queen (1951) and a substantial success, Moulin Rouge (1952). As well as The African Queen UA also had success with High Noon in their first year, earning a profit of $313,000 compared to a loss of $871,000 the previous year.[10][8] Others clients followed, among them Stanley Kramer, Otto Preminger, Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Productions, and actors newly freed from studio contracts and seeking to produce or direct their own films.

With the instability in the film industry due to theater divestment, the business was considered risky. In 1955, movie attendance reached its lowest level since 1923. Chaplin sold his 25 percent share during this crisis to Krim and Benjamin for $1.1 million, followed a year later by Pickford who sold her share for $3 million.[8]

In the late 1950s, United Artists produced two modest films that became financial and critical successes for the company. The company made Marty which won 1955's Palme d'Or and Best Picture Oscar. 12 Angry Men (1957) which according to Krim before home video, was being seen on TV 24 hours a day, 365 days a year some place in the world.[11] By 1958, UA was making annual profits of $3 million a year.[10]

Public company

United Artists went public in 1957 with a $17 million stock and debenture offering. The company was averaging 50 films a year.[8] In 1958, UA acquired Ilya Lopert's Lopert Pictures Corporation, which released foreign films that attracted criticism or had censorship problems.[12]

In 1957, UA created United Artists Records Corporation and United Artists Music Corporation after an unsuccessful attempt to buy a record company.[13] In 1968, UA Records merged with Liberty Records, along with its many subsidiary labels such as Imperial Records and Dolton Records. In 1972, the group was consolidated into one entity as United Artists Records and in 1979, EMI acquired the division which included Blue Note Records.[14]

In 1959, after failing to sell several pilots, United Artists offered its first ever television series, The Troubleshooters,[15] and later released its first sitcom, The Dennis O'Keefe Show.

In the 1960s, mainstream studios fell into decline and some were acquired or diversified. UA prospered while winning 11 Academy Awards, including five for Best Picture,[8] adding relationships with the Mirisch brothers, Billy Wilder, Joseph E. Levine and others. In 1961, United Artists released West Side Story, which won a record ten Academy Awards (including Best Picture).

In 1960, UA purchased Ziv Television Programs. UA's television division was responsible for shows such as Gilligan's Island, The Fugitive, Outer Limits, and The Patty Duke Show. The television unit had begun to build up a profitable rental library, including Associated Artists Productions,[16] owners of Warner Bros. pre-1950[17][a] features, shorts and cartoons and 231 Popeye cartoon shorts purchased from Paramount Pictures in 1958, becoming United Artists Associated, its distribution division.

In 1963, UA released two Stanley Kramer films, It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and A Child Is Waiting. In 1964, UA introduced U.S. film audiences to the Beatles by releasing A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965).

At the same time, it backed two expatriate North Americans in Britain, who had acquired screen rights to Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. For $1 million, UA backed Harry Saltzman and Albert Broccoli's Dr. No in 1963 and launched the James Bond franchise.[18] The franchise outlived UA's time as a major studio, continuing half a century later. Other successful projects backed in this period included the Pink Panther series, which began in 1964, and Spaghetti Westerns, which made a star of Clint Eastwood in the films of A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More and The Good, The Bad and The Ugly.

In 1964, the French subsidiary, Les Productions Artistes Associés, released its first production That Man from Rio.

In 1965, UA released the anticipated George Stevens' production of The Greatest Story Ever Told and was at the time, the most expensive film which was budgeted at $20 million. Max Von Sydow, in the role of Jesus Christ, led an all-star cast which included Charlton Heston, Roddy McDowell, Martin Landau, Dorothy McGuire, Sal Mineo, Ina Balin, Joanna Dunham, David McCallum, Nehemiah Persoff, Donald Pleasence, José Ferrer and Ed Wynn. The film did not make back its budget and was released to mixed critical receptions. But it has since been acclaimed as a classic by audiences around the world for being admirably inspired in its attempt to be faithful to the four books of the New Testament in the Holy Bible as well as the book of the same name by Fulton Oursler and the radio program which ran from 1947 to 1956. The Greatest Story Ever Told received five Academy Award nominations in 1965 and was also listed among the “Top 10 Films of the Year” by the National Board of Review.

Transamerica subsidiary

The second United Artists logo, used during the company's sale to Transamerica from 1967 until 1982.
The second United Artists logo, used during the company's sale to Transamerica from 1967 until 1982.

On the basis of its film and television hits, in 1967, Transamerica Corporation purchased 98 percent of UA's stock. Transamerica selected David and Arnold Picker to lead its studio.[8] UA debuted a new logo incorporating the parent company's striped T emblem and the tagline "Entertainment from Transamerica Corporation". This wording was later shortened to "A Transamerica Company". The following year, in 1968, United Artists Associated was reincorporated as United Artists Television Distribution.

UA released another Best Picture Oscar winner in 1967, In the Heat of the Night and a nominee for Best Picture, The Graduate, an Embassy production that UA distributed overseas.

In 1970, UA lost $35 million, and the Pickers were pushed aside for the return of Krim and Benjamin.[8]

Other successful pictures included the 1971 screen version of Fiddler on the Roof. However, the 1972 film version of Man of La Mancha was a failure. New talent was encouraged, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Sylvester Stallone, Saul Zaentz, Miloš Forman, and Brian De Palma.

In 1973, United Artists took over the sales and distribution of MGM's films in Anglo-America. Cinema International Corporation assumed international distribution rights for MGM's films and carried on to United International Pictures (made from CIC and UA's International assets being owned by partner MGM) in the 1980s. As part of the deal, UA acquired MGM's music publishing operation, Robbins, Feist, Miller.[19]

In 1975, Harry Saltzman sold UA his 50 percent stake in Danjaq, the holding-company for the Bond films.

UA released One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in 1975, which won the Best Picture Academy Award and was UA's highest-grossing film, with a gross of $163 million.[20] UA followed with the next two years' Best Picture Oscar winners, Rocky and Annie Hall, becoming the first studio to win the award for three years running and also to become the studio with the most Best Picture winners at that time, with 11.[8][21]

However, Transamerica was not pleased with UA's releases such as Midnight Cowboy and Last Tango in Paris that were rated X by the Motion Picture Association of America. In these instances, Transamerica demanded the byline "A Transamerica Company" be removed on the prints and in all advertising. At one point, the parent company expressed its desire to phase out the UA name and replace it with Transamerica Films. Krim tried to convince Transamerica to spin off United Artists, but he and Transamerica's chairman could not come to an agreement.[22] Finally in 1978, following a dispute with Transamerica chief John R. Beckett[8] over administrative expenses,[citation needed] UA's top executives, including chairman Krim, president Eric Pleskow, Benjamin and other key officers walked out. Within days they announced the formation of Orion Pictures,[8] with backing from Warner Bros. The departures concerned several Hollywood figures enough that they took out an ad in a trade paper warning Transamerica that it had made a fatal mistake in letting them go.[citation needed]

Transamerica inserted Andy Albeck as UA's president. United had its most successful year with four hits in 1979: Rocky II, Manhattan, Moonraker, and The Black Stallion.[8]

The new leadership agreed to back Heaven's Gate, a project of director Michael Cimino, which vastly overran its budget and cost $44 million. This led to the resignation of Albeck who was replaced by Norbert Auerbach.[8] United Artists recorded a major loss for the year due almost entirely to the box-office failure of Heaven's Gate.[23] It destroyed UA's reputation with Transamerica and the greater Hollywood community. However, it may have saved the United Artists name, as UA's final head before the sale, Steven Bach, wrote in his book Final Cut that there was talk about renaming United Artists to Transamerica Pictures.

In 1980, Transamerica decided to exit the film making business, and put United Artists on the market. Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda Corp. purchased the company in 1981.[24][25] Tracinda also owned Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[26]

United Artists Classics

In 1981, United Artists Classics, which formerly re-released library titles, was turned into a first-run art film distributor by Nathaniel T. Kwit, Jr. Tom Bernard was hired as the division director, as well as handling theatrical sales, and Ira Deutchman[27][28] was hired as head of marketing. Later the division added Michael Barker and Donna Gigliotti. Deutchman left to form Cinecom, and Barker and Bernard formed Orion Classics and Sony Pictures Classics. The label mostly released foreign and independent films such as Cutter's Way, Ticket to Heaven and The Grey Fox, and occasional first-run reissues from the UA library, such as director's cuts of Head Over Heels. When Barker and Bernard left to form Orion Classics, the label was briefly rechristened in 1984 as MGM/UA Classics before it ceased operating in the late 1980s.[29]

MGM/UA Entertainment Company

The merged companies became MGM/UA Entertainment Company and in 1982 began launching new subsidiaries: the MGM/UA Home Entertainment Group, MGM/UA Classics and MGM/UA Television Group. Kerkorian also bid for the remaining, outstanding public stock, but dropped his bid, facing lawsuits and vocal opposition.[8]

In 1981, Fred Silverman and George Reeves via InterMedia Entertainment struck a deal with the studio to produce films and TV shows.[30][31]

After the purchase, David Begelman's duties were transferred from MGM to MGM/UA. Under Begelman, MGM/UA produced unsuccessful films and he was fired in July 1982. Of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his termination only Poltergeist proved to be a hit.[32]

As part of the consolidation, in 1983, MGM closed United Artists' long time headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.[33] MGM/UA sold the former UA music publishing division to CBS Songs in 1983.[34]

On March 1, 1983, United Artists filed a lawsuit against EMI Films whereas EMI claimed they got financing and would receive international distribution rights to the film WarGames, and paid $4.5 million delivery to the film.[35]

WarGames and Octopussy made substantial profits for the new MGM/UA in 1983, but were not sufficient for Kerkorian. A 1985-restructuring led to independent MGM and UA production units with the combined studio leaders each placed in charge of a single unit. Speculation from analysts was that one of the studios, most likely UA, would be sold to fund the other's (MGM) stock buy-back to take that studio private. However, soon afterwards, one unit's chief was fired and the remaining executive, Alan Ladd, Jr., took charge of both.[8]


On August 7, 1985, Ted Turner announced that his Turner Broadcasting System would buy MGM/UA. As film licensing to television became more complicated, Turner saw the value of acquiring MGM's film library for his superstation WTBS.[36] Under the terms of the deal, Turner would immediately sell United Artists back to Kerkorian.[26]

In anticipation, Kerkorian installed film producer Jerry Weintraub as the chairman and chief executive of United Artists Corporation in November 1985.[37] Former ABC executive Anthony Thomopoulos was recruited as UA's president[38] Weintraub's tenure at UA was brief; he left the studio in April 1986, replaced by former Lorimar executive Lee Rich.[39] In anticipation, during the split, SLM moved its distribution deal to United Artists, after leaving MGM/UA for a brief period of year.[40]

On March 25, 1986, Turner finalized his acquisition of MGM/UA in a cash-stock deal for $1.5 billion and renamed it MGM Entertainment Co.[36][41][42][43][44][45] Kerkorian then repurchased most of United Artists' assets for roughly $480 million.[41][42] As a result of this transaction, the original United Artists ceased to exist. Kerkorian, for all intents and purposes, created an entirely new company implementing the inherited assets; thus, the present day UA is not the legal successor to the original incarnation, though it shares similar assets.[46] United Artists has plans to launch its new headquarters on Beverly Hills, which was set to take effect on November 1, 1985, shortly before the Turner deal was finalized.[47] On April 23, 1986, United Artists and Hoyts, the Australian cinema chain and distribution company, inked a three-picture deal in order to co-produce films, in order to serve as equal partners of the upcoming United Artists motion pictures.[48]

MGM/UA Communications Company

Logo from 1987 to 1994.
Logo from 1987 to 1994.

Due to financial community concerns over his debt load, Ted Turner was forced to sell MGM's production and distribution assets to United Artists for $300 million on August 26, 1986.[41][42][49][50] The MGM lot and lab facilities were sold to Lorimar-Telepictures.[49] Turner kept the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television library, along with the Associated Artists Productions library, and the RKO Pictures films that United Artists had previously purchased.[49] On August 21, 1986, United Artists announced its re-entry to film production; Baby Boom and Real Men were the first new films to commence production, with a slate of 26 films to follow in development.[51]

United Artists was renamed MGM/UA Communications Company and organized into three main units: one television production and two film units. David Gerber headed up the television unit with Anthony Thomopoulous at United Artists, and Alan Ladd, Jr. at MGM. Despite a resurgence at the box office in 1987 with Spaceballs, The Living Daylights, and Moonstruck, MGM/UA lost $88 million.[8] That November, Hoyts and United Artists decided to pull their co-production partnership, with a majority of the films will be now heralded directly to United Artists, which was confirmed by Hoyts executive Jonathan Chissick.[52]

In April 1988, Kerkorian's 82 percent of MGM/UA was up for sale; MGM and UA were split by July. Eventually, 25 percent of MGM was offered to Burt Sugarman, and producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, but the plan later fell through. Rich, Ladd, Thomopoulous and other executives grew tired of Kerkorian's antics and began to leave.[8] By summer 1988, the mass exodus of executives started to affect productions, with many film cancellations. The 1989 sale of MGM/UA to the Australian company Qintex/Australian Television Network (owners of the Hal Roach library, which both MGM and United Artists had distributed in the 1930s) also fell through, due to the company's bankruptcy later that year. On November 29, 1989, Turner Broadcasting System (the owners of the pre-May 1986 MGM library) attempted to buy entertainment assets from Tracinda Corporation, including MGM/UA Communications Co. (which also included United Artists, MGM/UA Home Video, and MGM/UA Television Productions), but failed.[53] UA was essentially dormant after 1990 and released no films for several years.

The 1990s

Eventually, in 1990, Italian promoter Giancarlo Parretti purchased UA. He purchased a small company and renamed it Pathé Communications anticipating a successful purchase of Pathé, the original French company. But his attempt failed and instead he merged MGM/UA with his former company, resulting in MGM-Pathé Communications Co. During the transaction, Parretti overstated his own financial condition and within a year defaulted to his primary lender, Crédit Lyonnais, which foreclosed on the studio in 1992.[54][25] This resulted in the sale or closure of MGM/UA's string of US theaters. On July 2, 1992, MGM-Pathé Communications was again named Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. In an effort to make MGM/UA saleable, Credit Lyonnais ramped up production and convinced John Calley to run UA. Under his supervision, Calley revived the Pink Panther and James Bond franchises and highlighted UA's past by giving the widest release ever to a film with an NC-17 rating, Showgirls. Credit Lyonnais sold MGM in 1996, again to Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda, leading to Calley's departure.[25]

In 1999, filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola attempted to buy UA from Kerkorian who rejected the offer. Coppola signed a production deal with the studio instead.[22]

The 2000s to the 2020s

In 1999, UA was re-positioned as a specialty studio. MGM had just acquired The Samuel Goldwyn Company, which had been a leading distributor of arthouse films. After that name was retired, MGM folded UA into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures. G2 Films, the renamed Goldwyn Company and MGM's specialty London operations, was renamed United Artists International.[55] The distributorship, branding, and copyrights for two of UA's main franchises (Pink Panther, and Rocky) were moved to MGM, although select MGM releases (notably the James Bond franchise co-held with Danjaq, LLC and the Amityville Horror remake) carry a United Artists copyright. The first arthouse film to bear the UA name was Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her.

United Artists hired Bingham Ray to run the company on September 1, 2001.[25] Under his supervision, the company produced and distributed many art films, including Bowling for Columbine, 2002's Nicholas Nickleby, and the winner of that year's Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, No Man's Land; and 2004's Undertow, and Hotel Rwanda, a co-production of UA and Lions Gate Entertainment, and made deals with companies like American Zoetrope and Revolution Films.[56] Ray stepped down from the company in 2004.[57]

In 2005, a partnership of Comcast, Sony and several merchant banks bought United Artists and its parent, MGM, for $4.8 billion.[25] Though only a minority investor, Sony closed MGM's distribution system and folded most of its staff into its own studio. The movies UA had completed and planned for release—Capote, Art School Confidential, The Woods, and Romance and Cigarettes[citation needed]—were reassigned to Sony Pictures Classics.[25]

In March 2006, MGM announced that it would return again as a domestic distribution company. Striking distribution deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez Entertainment, and other independent studios, MGM distributed films from these companies. MGM continued funding and co-producing projects released in conjunction with Sony's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group on a limited basis and produced tent-poles for its own distribution company, MGM Distribution.

Sony had a minority stake in MGM, but otherwise MGM and UA operated under the direction of Stephen Cooper (CEO and minority owner of MGM).

United Artists Entertainment

On November 2, 2006, MGM announced that Tom Cruise and his long-time production partner Paula Wagner were resurrecting UA.[58][59] This announcement came after the duo were released from a fourteen-year production relationship at Viacom-owned Paramount Pictures. Cruise, Wagner and MGM Studios created United Artists Entertainment LLC and the producer/actor and his partner owned a 30 percent stake in the studio,[60] with the approval by MGM's consortium of owners. The deal gave them control over production and development. Wagner was named CEO, and was allotted an annual slate of four films with varying budget ranges, while Cruise served as a producer for the revamped studio and the occasional star.

UA became the first motion picture studio granted a Writers Guild of America, West (WGA) waiver in January 2008 during the Writers' Strike.[61]

On August 14, 2008, MGM announced that Wagner would leave UA to produce films independently.[62] Her output as head of UA was two films, both starring Cruise, Lions for Lambs[63] and Valkyrie.[64] Wagner's departure led to speculation that a UA overhaul was imminent.[62]

Since then, UA has served as a co-producer with MGM for two releases: the 2009 remake of Fame and Hot Tub Time Machine—these are the last original films to date to bear the UA banner.

A 2011 financial report revealed that MGM reacquired its 100 percent stake in United Artists.[60] MGM stated that it might continue to make new films under the UA brand.[60] Currently, however, UA itself functions in-name-only.

United Artists Media Group

On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a 55 percent interest in One Three Media and Lightworkers Media, both operated by Mark Burnett and Roma Downey and partly owned by Hearst Entertainment. The two companies were consolidated into a new television company, United Artists Media Group (UAMG), a revival of the UA brand. Burnett became UAMG's CEO and Downey became president of Lightworkers Media, the UAMG family and faith division. UAMG became the distributing studio for Mark Burnett Productions programming such as Survivor. UAMG was to form an over-the-top faith-based channel.[25][65]

On December 14, 2015, MGM announced that it had acquired the remaining 45 percent stake of UAMG it did not already own and folded UAMG into MGM Television. Hearst, Downey, and Burnett received stakes in MGM collectively valued at $233 million. Additionally, Burnett was promoted to CEO of MGM Television, replacing the outgoing Roma Khanna. The planned over-the-top faith service (later to be branded as a combined OTT/digital subchannel service known as Light TV) became a separate entity owned by MGM, Burnett, Downey and Hearst.[66]

United Artists Digital Studios

By August 2018, MGM relaunched the United Artists brand as a digital production and distribution company aimed at creating original motion pictures, television programs, short-form content and digital series as well as building upon MGM's existing IP for distribution across digital platforms. Known as United Artists Digital Studios, the company's projects include mid-form original series Stargate Origins, interactive digital series #WarGames, and scripted series The Baxters (which is also the first for LightWorkers Media) and Weekend at Bernie's.[67] In early October 2018, MGM and Walmart agreed to a partnership for MGM Digital to create exclusive content for Walmart's Vudu and Movies On Us service to begin showing in the first quarter 2019.[68]

By early 2020, following the end of Stargate Origins and the closure of the Stargate Command streaming service, UADS became defunct, and it was once again folded into MGM, with the UA brand name having returned to theatres the previous year, when both MGM and Annapurna Pictures' Mirror distribution joint-venture was rebranded as United Artists Releasing on February 5, 2019, 100 years to the day of United Artists' founding.[69]

Film library

A majority of UA's post-1952 library is now owned by MGM, while the pre-1952 films (with few exceptions) were either sold to other companies such as National Telefilm Associates (now a part of the Melange Pictures holdings owned by Paramount Global, with Paramount Pictures handling their distribution) or are in the public domain. However, throughout the studio's history, UA acted more as a distributor than a film studio, crediting the copyright to the production company responsible. This explains why certain UA releases, such as High Noon (1952) and The Final Countdown (1980), are still under copyright but not owned by MGM.[original research?] The MGM titles which UA distributed from 1973 to 1982 are now owned by Turner (under Warner Bros.).

UA films on video

UA originally leased the home video rights to its films to Magnetic Video, the first home video company. Fox purchased Magnetic in 1981 and renamed it 20th Century-Fox Video that year. In 1982, 20th Century-Fox Video merged with CBS Video Enterprises (which earlier split from MGM/CBS Home Video after MGM merged with UA) giving birth to CBS/Fox Video. Although MGM owned UA around this time, UA's licensing deal with CBS/Fox was still in effect. However, the newly renamed MGM/UA Home Video started releasing some UA product, including UA films originally released in the mid-80s. Prior to MGM's purchase, UA licensed foreign video rights to Warner Bros. through Warner Home Video, in a deal that was set to expire in 1991.[70] In 1986, the pre-1950 WB and the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television libraries were purchased by Ted Turner after his short-lived ownership of MGM/UA, and as a result CBS/Fox lost home video rights to the pre-1950 WB films to MGM/UA Home Video. When the deal with CBS/Fox (inherited from Magnetic Video) expired in 1989, the UA released films were released through MGM/UA Home Video.

Before the Magnetic Video and Warner Home Video deals in 1980, United Artists had exclusive rental contacts with a small video label called VidAmerica in the US, and another small label called Intervision Video in the UK.[71][72][73] for the home video release of 20 titles from the UA library (e.g. The Great Escape, Some Like It Hot, and Hair, along with a few pre-1950 WB titles).

United Artists Broadcasting

United Artists owned and operated two television stations under the "United Artists Broadcasting" name: WUAB in Cleveland, Ohio (nominally licensed to Lorain, Ohio) which the studio built and sign on in 1968,[74] WRIK-TV in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which was purchased in 1969,[75] and held a construction permit for a station in Houston, Texas.[76] In 1970, United Artists purchased radio station WWSH in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[77]

United Artists left the broadcasting business starting in 1977 by selling WUAB to the Gaylord Broadcasting Company[78] and WWSH to Cox Enterprises,[77] followed by WRIK-TV's sale to Tommy Muñiz in 1979.[79]

United Artists Releasing

United Artists Releasing, LLC
FormerlyMirror Releasing (2017–2019)
IndustryMotion pictures
PredecessorUnited Artists Corporation
FoundedDecember 3, 2017; 5 years ago (2017-12-03)
DefunctMarch 2, 2023; 2 months ago (2023-03-02)
FateOperations folded into MGM and Amazon Studios
HeadquartersWest Hollywood, California, United States
Number of locations
Area served
Worldwide, but primarily in North America
Key people
Erik Lomis (President)
Pam Kunath (COO)
ProductsMotion pictures
ServicesFilm distribution
Owners50% each owned by:
Number of employees
230 (2022)

United Artists Releasing, LLC (UAR), formerly Mirror Releasing,[b] was a film distribution joint venture between Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Annapurna Pictures and MGM's Orion Pictures unit with offices in West Hollywood and Annapurna's offices in New York City's Soho neighborhood. It was the successor to the original UA. The distributor also offered alternative services to the major studios and streaming companies[69][80] with 10–14 films released each year.[80]

An unnamed joint-venture was founded by former MGM CEO Gary Barber, businessman Eric Hohl and Annapurna founder Megan Ellison in early December 2017.[69] This marks MGM's return to domestic distribution seven years after they closed their in-house distribution operations following the bankruptcy, in which they expect to have approximately six to eight releases per year starting in March 2018. Annapurna's existing distribution staff would be the initial staff of the joint venture. Films issued by MGM and Annapurna would be distributed respectively under their own names, while films released for third parties would use the Mirror releasing label. Death Wish was MGM's first release through the joint venture on March 2, 2018.[81] By the end of January 2019, the venture released eight titles total (none were released under the Mirror entity).[69]

The joint venture was reworked and rebranded as United Artists Releasing on February 5, 2019, 100 years to the day of the original United Artists' company founding.[69] The rationale for the move is to better compete against the major studios, especially with respect to their tentpole films that dictate the release calendar.[80] Orion Pictures, another MGM company added its distribution staff and films to the venture as part of the change.[80] Pam Kunath, a former Screen Gems executive, was appointed chief operating officer.[69] A board of directors consisting of executives from the partner firms would oversee the three executives running UAR; Kunath, David Kaminow and Erik Lomis, Annapurna's president of marketing and president of distribution, respectively. The animated film Missing Link was the first release under the UAR banner, which also win the company its first Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film.[82]

On October 7, 2020, it was announced that MGM relaunched American International Pictures as a label for films it will acquire for digital and limited theatrical releases. UAR will handle the U.S. theatrical distribution for those titles, beginning with Breaking News in Yuba County, which was released on February 12, 2021.[83]

On May 17, 2021, online retail and technology company Amazon entered negotiations to acquire MGM. The negotiations were made directly with MGM board chairman Kevin Ulrich, whose Anchorage Capital is a major MGM shareholder.[84][85] On May 26, 2021, it was officially announced that the studio would be acquired by Amazon, subject to regulatory approval, for $8.45 billion, and continue to operate as a label under the new parent company with the fate of UAR to be determined.[86] The merger was finalized on March 17, 2022.[87] Later that day, Amazon Studios and Prime Video SVP Mike Hopkins emphasized that Amazon will continue to partner with UAR, which will remain in operation post-merger.[88] Meanwhile, while the original UA ceased to exist as a label in early-2020, the United Artists name itself its still being active, being used by UAR.

In March 2023, it was revealed that Amazon had shut down UAR's operations and folded it into MGM, possibly due to a string of recent box office bombs. This made Creed III the first film released and distributed by MGM itself under the new parent company instead of UAR.[89]


MGM/Annapurna joint-venture[c]
Release date Title Production Notes
March 2, 2018 Death Wish MGM co-production with Cave 76 Productions
July 6, 2018 Sorry to Bother You Annapurna co-production with Significant Productions, MNM Creative, MACRO, Cinereach and The Space Program[90]
August 29, 2018 Operation Finale MGM co-production with Automatik Entertainment; international distribution by Netflix[90]
September 21, 2018 The Sisters Brothers Annapurna co-production with Why Not Productions and Page 114 Productions
November 21, 2018 Creed II MGM co-production with New Line Cinema and Chartoff-Winkler Productions; international distribution by Warner Bros. Pictures
December 14, 2018 If Beale Street Could Talk Annapurna co-production with Plan B Entertainment and Pastel Productions
December 25, 2018 Vice co-production with Plan B Entertainment and Gary Sanchez Productions
Destroyer co-production with 30West and Automatik Entertainment
February 14, 2019 Fighting with My Family MGM co-production with Seven Bucks Productions, Misher Films, WWE Studios, Film4, The Ink Factory;[91] U.S. Distribution only. Released by Lionsgate in the United Kingdom and Ireland and Universal Pictures elsewhere
United Artists Releasing
April 12, 2019 Missing Link Annapurna co-production with Laika[82]
May 10, 2019 The Hustle MGM co-production with Pin High Productions, Cave 76 Productions, and Camp Sugar Productions; international distribution by Universal Pictures
May 24, 2019 Booksmart Annapurna co-production with Gloria Sanchez Productions
June 21, 2019 Child's Play Orion Pictures co-production with Bron Creative[92]
August 16, 2019 Where'd You Go, Bernadette Annapurna co-production with Color Force and Detour Filmproduction[82]
October 11, 2019 The Addams Family MGM co-production with Bron Creative, The Jackal Group, Whalerock Industries, and Cinesite Studios;[93] U.S. Distribution only; international distribution by Universal Pictures
January 31, 2020 Gretel & Hansel Orion Pictures co-production with Bron Creative and Automatik Entertainment
May 8, 2020 Valley Girl Orion Classics/MGM co-production with Sneak Preview Productions
August 28, 2020 Bill & Ted Face the Music Orion Pictures co-production with Hammerstone Studios, Dial 9, Dungan Entertainment, TinRes Entertainment, & Endeavor Content[94]
October 9, 2020 The Wolf of Snow Hollow Orion Classics co-production with A New Form, Vanishing Angle and XYZ Films[95]
February 12, 2021 Breaking News in Yuba County American International Pictures co-production with Wyolah Films, AGC Studios and Nine Stories Productions
March 26, 2021 Bad Trip Orion Pictures co-production with Gorilla Flicks, The District, and Helo; distributed by Netflix[96]
May 7, 2021 Wrath of Man MGM co-production with Miramax and Toff Guy Films;[97] US distribution only; international distribution by Miramax International
July 20, 2021 How It Ends American International Pictures co-production with Mister Lister Films
August 13, 2021 Respect MGM co-production with Bron Creative, Glickmania and One Community; US distribution only; international distribution by Universal Pictures
August 20, 2021 Flag Day co-production with Conqueror Productions, Olive Hill Media and Wonderful Films; US distribution only[98]
October 1, 2021 The Addams Family 2 co-production with Bron Creative, The Jackal Group, Whalerock Industries, and Cinesite Studios;[93] U.S. Distribution only; international distribution by Universal Pictures
October 8, 2021 No Time to Die U.S. distribution only; co-production with EON Productions; international distribution by Universal Pictures[82][99]
November 24, 2021 House of Gucci co-production with Bron Creative and Scott Free Productions;[100] U.S. distribution only; international distribution by Universal Pictures
November 26, 2021 Licorice Pizza co-production with Focus Features and Ghoulardi Film Company; international distribution by Universal Pictures[101]
February 18, 2022 Dog co-production with FilmNation Entertainment and Free Association[102]
February 25, 2022 Cyrano co-production with Bron Creative and Working Title Films[103] U.S. distribution only; international distribution by Universal Pictures
May 13, 2022 On the Count of Three Annapurna/Orion Pictures U.S. distribution only; produced by Werner Entertainment and Valparaiso Pictures[104]
July 22, 2022 Anything's Possible Orion Pictures co-production with Andrew Lauren Productions and Killer Films[105]
July 29, 2022 Thirteen Lives MGM co-production with Imagine Entertainment, Magnolia Mae Films and Storyteller Productions; limited theatrical release only with streaming release by Amazon Studios through Amazon Prime Video[106]
August 26, 2022 Samaritan co-production with Balboa Productions; limited theatrical release only with streaming release by Amazon Studios through Amazon Prime Video
Three Thousand Years of Longing co-production with FilmNation Entertainment, Elevate Production Finance, Sunac Culture and Kennedy Miller Mitchell U.S distribution only; International distribution by FilmNation Entertainment[107][108]
September 9, 2022 About Fate American International Pictures co-production with Aldamisa Entertainment, Contentious Media and Vincent Newman Entertainment
October 14, 2022 Till Orion Pictures co-production with Frederick Zollo Productions and Eon Productions, International distribution by Universal Pictures [109][110]
November 18, 2022 Bones and All MGM co-production with Frenesy Film Company, Per Capita Productions, The Apartment Pictures, Memo Films and 3 Marys Entertainment; international distribution by Warner Bros. Pictures[111]
December 23, 2022 Women Talking Orion Pictures co-production with Plan B Entertainment and Hear/Say Productions. International distribution by Universal Pictures

See also


  1. ^ WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948, in addition to all cartoons released in August 1948.
  2. ^ Although Mirror was only a product of MGM and Annapurna Pictures' initial joint-venture, UAR is nonetheless the successor to Mirror.
  3. ^ Each of the films were released under their respective production banners.


  1. ^ Petski, Denise (July 21, 2017). "MGM Revives 'Stargate' Franchise With 'Stargate Origins' Digital Series & SVOD Platform – Watch The Teaser". Deadline. Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  2. ^ Woo, Elaine (September 29, 2011). "Mo Rothman dies at 92; found new audience for Chaplin". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  3. ^ Cole, Robert J. (May 16, 1981). "M-G-M is Reported Purchasing United Artists for $350 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  4. ^ McNary, Dave (December 14, 2015). "Mark Burnett Named President of MGM Television". Variety. Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists, Volume 1, 1919–1950: The Company Built by the Stars, Volume 1 (2nd ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780299230036. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  6. ^ Siklos, Richard (March 4, 2007). "Mission Improbable: Tom Cruise as Mogul". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  7. ^ james, devon (June 2, 2016). "The inmates are taking over the asylum". devon james. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "History of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc". Funding Universe. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  9. ^ "The Formation of Twentieth Century-Fox (20th Century Fox)". Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e Mayer, Arthur L (June 24, 1959). "UA at 40". Variety. p. 42. Retrieved August 31, 2019 – via
  11. ^ a b Plunkett, Paul (October 4, 2019). "United Artists Looks Back on 100 Years of Groundbreaking Films". Variety. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  12. ^ Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists: The Company that Changed the Film Industry (1st ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN 9780299114404. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  13. ^ "US Sets Up Own Diskery Label". Billboard. October 14, 1957. p. 20. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  14. ^ "About: 1970-1979". EMI Archive Trust. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  15. ^ McNeil, Alex (1996). Total television: the comprehensive guide to programming from 1948 to the present (4th ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 886. ISBN 9780140249163. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  16. ^ "Movies from a.a.p.: Programs of quality from quality studios, Warner Bros. features and cartoons, Popeye cartoons". 1957. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  17. ^ Schickel, Richard; Perry, George (September 9, 2008). You Must Remember This: The Warner Bros. Story. Philadelphia.: Running Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780762434183. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  18. ^ Kamp, David (October 2012). "Fifty Years of Bond, James Bond: The Greatest Film Franchise's Biggest Birthday". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017. In 1961, Broccoli worked his connections to secure a meeting in New York with Arthur Krim, the head of United Artists. Krim agreed to a budget of just over a million dollars for a James Bond movie.
  19. ^ "Big 3 Sold to UA; Plus 1/2 Can. Co". Billboard Magazine. October 27, 1973. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  20. ^ "Hi-Flying 'Cuckoo' At $163,250,000; Best Ever of UA". Variety. November 17, 1976. p. 3.
  21. ^ "UA: 11 Times With, Best Pic'". Variety. April 12, 1978. p. 31.
  22. ^ a b Medavoy, Mike; Young, Josh (June 25, 2013). You're Only as Good as Your Next One: 100 Great Films, 100 Good Films, and 100 for Which I Should Be Shot. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 85–86. ISBN 9781439118139. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  23. ^ Welkos, Robert W. "'Heaven's Gate': The film flop that reshaped Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  24. ^ Cole, Robert J. (May 16, 1981). "M-G-M is Reported Purchasing United Artists for $350 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Fleming, Mike Jr; Busch, Anita (September 22, 2014). "MGM Buys 55% Of Roma Downey And Mark Burnett's Empire; Relaunches United Artists". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  26. ^ a b Fabrikant, Geraldine (August 8, 1985). "Turner Acquiring MGM Movie Empire". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  27. ^ "Handle With Care". American Film. Winter 1980.
  28. ^ Siskel, Gene (May 16, 1982). "Hellow, Sweet Art: Small Films Big Success in Chicago". Chicago Tribune. p. 141. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  29. ^ "UA Classics Heads West, Alters Logo". Variety. February 22, 1984. p. 26.
  30. ^ "Silverman strikes deal with UA-MGM" (PDF). Broadcasting. October 19, 1981. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  31. ^ "Monitor" (PDF). Broadcasting. November 2, 1981. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 18, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  32. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (July 13, 1982). "Begelman Removed as Chief of United Artists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  33. ^ "700 Bankers Trust Workers To Be Shifted to Jersey City". The New York Times. March 31, 1983. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  34. ^ Irv Lichtman (January 8, 1983). "CBS Songs Grows With MGM/UA Deal". Billboard. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  35. ^ "EMI Sues UA Over 'War Games' Distrib Rights, Territories". Variety. March 2, 1983. p. 7.
  36. ^ a b Prince, Stephen (2000). A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980 1989 (Paperback ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 9780520232662. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  37. ^ Dellugach, Al (November 12, 1985). "Weintraub Is New Chief of United Artists". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  38. ^ "New Head For United Artists". The New York Times. November 20, 1985. Archived from the original on August 31, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  39. ^ Harris, Kathryn (April 29, 1986). "Rich Resigns From Lorimar to Become Chairman of UA". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  40. ^ "SLM Distribution Pact Will Shift to UA After Split". Variety. January 22, 1986. p. 3.
  41. ^ a b c Bart, Peter (May 1990). Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM (1st ed.). New York: Morrow. pp. 236–238. ISBN 9780671710606. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  42. ^ a b c Parsons, Patrick R. (April 5, 2008). Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 507. ISBN 9781592137060. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  43. ^ Stefoff, Rebecca (1992). Ted Turner, Television's Triumphant Tiger. Ada, Oklahoma: Garrett Educational Corp. p. 55. ISBN 9781560740247. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  44. ^ Storch, Charles (May 7, 1986). "Turner May Sell Equity In Company". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  45. ^ Gendel, Morgan (June 7, 1986). "Turner Sells The Studio, Holds on to the Dream". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 13, 2022. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  46. ^ Balio, Tino (March 2, 2009). United Artists, Volume 2, 1951–1978: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 343. ISBN 9780299230135. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  47. ^ "UA To Headquarter In Beverly Hills". Variety. October 16, 1985. p. 5.
  48. ^ Galbraith, Jane (April 23, 1986). "UA, Oz's Hoyts Ink Coproduction Accord". Variety. p. 7.
  49. ^ a b c Fabrikant, Geraldine (June 7, 1986). "Turner To Sell Mgm Assets". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  50. ^ "Turner, United Artists Close Deal". Orlando Sentinel. United Press International. August 27, 1986. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  51. ^ Galbraith, Jane (August 27, 1986). "Following A Year In Upheaval, UA Is Ready to Resume Production". Variety. p. 4.
  52. ^ "Hoyts & United Artists Pull Plug On Deal To Coproduce Features". Variety. November 5, 1986. p. 29.
  53. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (November 29, 1989). "Turner Buying MGM/UA". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  54. ^ Bart, Peter (April 10, 2013). "MGM: Sometimes a Roaring Silence Is Best". Variety. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  55. ^ "United Artists restructuring by MGM". CNNMoney. June 7, 1999. Archived from the original on September 7, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  56. ^ "DAILY NEWS **UPDATE**: Bingham Ray and Chris McGurk on the New UA; Solondz and Lipsky Stir "Storytelling" Rating Buzz". IndieWire. August 6, 2001. Archived from the original on December 12, 2005. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  57. ^ Hernandez, Eugene (January 9, 2001). "Shakeup at United Artists; Bingham Ray Exits Company". IndieWire. Archived from the original on April 7, 2019. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  58. ^ "MGM Puts Cruise in Charge of New United Artists". USA Today. November 2, 2006. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  59. ^ Petrecca, Laura; Lieberman, David (November 2, 2006). "Tom Cruise, producing partner cut a deal with United Artists". Zap2it. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  60. ^ a b c Fritz, Ben (March 23, 2012). "MGM regains full control of United Artists". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  61. ^ "SHOCKER! WGA To Announce Side Deal With Tom Cruise's United Artists; Now Studio Moguls Mad at MGM's Sloan". Deadline Hollywood. January 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  62. ^ a b Fleming, Michael (August 13, 2008). "Paula Wagner leaves UA". Variety. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  63. ^ Cieply, Michael (April 23, 2008). "The Nazi Plot That's Haunting Tom Cruise and United Artists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  64. ^ "Valkyrie (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
  65. ^ Highfill, Samantha (January 17, 2015). "MGM is launching the United Artists Media Group (again)". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
  66. ^ McNary, Dave (December 14, 2015). "Mark Burnett Named President of MGM Television". Variety. Archived from the original on December 15, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  67. ^ Bond, Paul (August 14, 2018). "MGM's Revenue on the Rise, But Net Income Struggles". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  68. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 8, 2018). "Walmart's Vudu Orders MGM Shows for Free, Ad-Supported Video Service". Variety. Archived from the original on October 8, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  69. ^ a b c d e f Donnelly, Matt (February 5, 2019). "Annapurna, MGM Joint Distribution Venture Rebrands as United Artists Releasing". Variety. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  70. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (May 31, 1988). "For MGM/UA, Bidders Are Scarce". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  71. ^ Bins, Chuck (December 23, 1980). "VCR revolution to provide wide selection for TV viewers". New Castle News. p. access
  72. ^ "This Month" (pdf). Panorama. October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  73. ^ Kopp, George (October 4, 1980). "Europe Moves Forward in Copyright Levy Push". Billboard. p. 87. ISSN 0006-2510. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  74. ^ Shippy, Dick (September 13, 1968). "WUAB (43) Joins The TV Family". Akron Beacon Journal. Akron, Ohio. p. D3. Archived from the original on September 27, 2022. Retrieved September 27, 2022 – via
  75. ^ "UA to acquire WRIK-TV Ponce, P.R." (PDF). Broadcasting. July 28, 1969. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  76. ^ "United Artists gets ch. 43 Lorain, Ohio" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 70, no. 10. March 7, 1966. p. 61. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved September 25, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  77. ^ a b FCC History Cards for WUMR
  78. ^ Hart, Raymond P. (October 10, 1978). "Channel 61 plans a return". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio. p. 7-B. Archived from the original on September 19, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022 – via GenealogyBank.
  79. ^ FCC History Cards for WSTE-DT
  80. ^ a b c d Fleming, Mike Jr. (February 5, 2019). "MGM, Annapurna Set Joint Venture To Theatrically Distribute Under United Artists Releasing Banner". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  81. ^ McNary, Dave (October 31, 2017). "MGM, Annapurna Form U.S. Distribution Partnership". Variety. Archived from the original on November 3, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  82. ^ a b c d Galuppo, Mia (February 5, 2019). "MGM, Annapurna Team for Distribution Label United Artists Releasing". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  83. ^ "Tate Taylor's 'Breaking News in Yuba County' Picked up by MGM". October 7, 2020. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  84. ^ Spangler, Todd (May 17, 2021). "Amazon Said to Make $9 Billion Offer for MGM". Variety. Archived from the original on January 7, 2022. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  85. ^ Toonkel, Jessica (May 17, 2021). "Amazon Pondering Deal to Buy MGM". The Information. Archived from the original on December 22, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  86. ^ Spangler, Todd; Lang, Brent (May 26, 2021). "Amazon Buys MGM, Studio Behind James Bond, for $8.45 Billion". Variety. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  87. ^ Maas, Jennifer (March 17, 2022). "Amazon Closes $8.5 Billion Acquisition of MGM". Variety. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  88. ^ "Amazon-MGM Town Hall Scheduled for Friday; Amazon's Mike Hopkins Presages Upcoming Mesh & MGM COO – Updated". March 17, 2022. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  89. ^ "Box Office: 'Creed III' Wins Title with Series-Best $51M Opening – the Hollywood Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 4, 2023. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  90. ^ a b Busch, Anita (October 31, 2017). "MGM Ramps Up Theatrical Distribution & Pacts With Annapurna; Easy Set Up To Roll Out Next Bond Film". Archived from the original on May 11, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  91. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr.; Lodderhose, Diana (February 11, 2017). "MGM Headlocks World Rights To 'Fighting With My Family' In $17.5M Deal: Berlin". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  92. ^ Ellingson, Annlee (February 5, 2019). "MGM, Annapurna revive United Artists for joint distribution venture". L.A. Biz. Archived from the original on January 5, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  93. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 13, 2019). "'Joker' $55M+ Scores 2nd Weekend October Record, 'Addams Family' $30M+ A MGM Success, 'Gemini Man' Still Not Dazzling $20M+ – Sunday B.O. Update". Deadline. Archived from the original on October 11, 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
  94. ^ McNary, Dave (July 2, 2019). "Jillian Bell Joins 'Bill & Ted Face the Music'". Variety. Archived from the original on August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  95. ^ "Jim Cummings' Thriller 'The Wolf of Snow Hollow' Debuts First Trailer". September 17, 2020. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  96. ^ Hipes, Patrick (January 29, 2019). "Hidden-Camera Prank Pic 'Bad Trip' Gets Release Date Via Orion Pictures". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
  97. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (March 4, 2020). "Jason Statham Exits WME After He Drops Out Of 'Man From Toronto' – Update". Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  98. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (June 15, 2021). "Sean Penn Feature 'Flag Day' Sets Summer Theatrical Release". Archived from the original on March 23, 2022. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  99. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 15, 2019). "'Bond 25' Looks To Shake Up Easter 2020". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  100. ^ McNary, Dave (November 1, 2019). "Lady Gaga to Star in Ridley Scott's Gucci Murder Movie". Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  101. ^ Kit, Borys (July 17, 2020). "Paul Thomas Anderson's 1970s High School Movie Moving From Focus to MGM". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 16, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  102. ^ Kroll, Justin (March 2, 2020). "Channing Tatum and Reid Carolin's 'Dog' Sells to MGM". Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  103. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (August 4, 2020). "MGM Lands 'Cyrano'; Joe Wright-Directed Working Title Stage Adaptation Stars Peter Dinklage, Haley Bennett, Brian Tyree Henry & Ben Mendelsohn". Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  104. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (February 12, 2021). "Annapurna Pictures Lands Jerrod Carmichael's Sundance Prize Winner 'On The Count Of Three'; Near $2M For NA Rights". Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  105. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony; Hipes, Patrick (November 18, 2020). "Billy Porter To Direct High School Coming-Of Age Pic 'What If?' In First Movie From Relaunched Orion Pictures". Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  106. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (May 4, 2020). "MGM Wins Auction For 'Thirteen Lives,' Ron Howard-Directed Thriller About Thai Cave Rescue". Archived from the original on March 22, 2022. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  107. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (May 14, 2020). "MGM Lands North American Rights On George Miller-Directed 'Three Thousand Years Of Longing' With Idris Elba & Tilda Swinton". Archived from the original on May 14, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  108. ^ O'Rourke, Ryan (August 5, 2022). "George Miller's 'Three Thousand Years of Longing' Release Date Moved Up". Collider. Archived from the original on August 16, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  109. ^ "41 Movies We Can't Wait to See in 2022". January 4, 2022. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  110. ^ "Chinonye Chukwu to Helm Film on How Mamie till Mobley Turned Son Emmett Till's Brutal Murder into Civil Rights Movement Catalyst; Barbara Broccoli, Whoopi Goldberg Producing". August 27, 2020. Archived from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  111. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 22, 2022). "MGM Takes Global On Luca Guadagnino-Timothée Chalamet Feature Reteam 'Bones And All'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 22, 2022. Retrieved March 22, 2022.

Further reading

  • Bach, Steven. Final Cut. New York: Morrow, 1985.
  • Balio, Tino. United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.
  • Balio, Tino. United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
  • Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.
  • Gabler, Neal. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Crown Publishers, 1988.
  • Schickel, Richard. D.W. Griffith: An American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
  • Thomson, David. Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick. New York: Alfred A, Knopf, 1992.

External links

This page was last edited on 13 May 2023, at 01:11
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.