To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Renewable energy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).[1]
Renewable energy capacity additions in 2020 expanded by more than 45% from 2019, including 90% more new wind power (green) and a 23% expansion of new solar photovoltaic installations (yellow).[1]

Renewable electricity generation breakdown (+nuclear) as of 2019.[2]

  Hydro (43%)
  Nuclear (28%)
  Wind (14%)
  Solar (7%)
  Biofuels (5%)
  Other (3%)

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale. It includes sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[3] Although most renewable energy sources are sustainable, some are not. For example, some biomass sources are considered unsustainable at current rates of exploitation.[4][5] Renewable energy often provides energy for electricity generation to a grid, air and water heating/cooling, and stand-alone power systems. About 20% of humans' global energy consumption is renewables, including almost 30% of electricity.[6] About 7% of energy consumption is traditional biomass, but this is declining.[7] Over 4% of energy consumption is heat energy from modern renewables, such as solar water heating, and over 6% electricity.[8]

Globally there are over 10 million jobs associated with the renewable energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer.[9] Renewable energy systems are rapidly becoming more efficient and cheaper and their share of total energy consumption is increasing,[10] with a large majority of worldwide newly installed electricity capacity being renewable.[11] In most countries, photovoltaic solar or onshore wind are the cheapest new-build electricity.[12]

Many nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of their total energy supply, with some generating over half their electricity from renewables.[13] A few countries generate all their electricity using renewable energy.[14] National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the 2020s and beyond.[15] Studies have shown that a global transition to 100% renewable energy across all sectors – power, heat, transport and desalination – is feasible and economically viable.[16][17][18] Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to fossil fuels, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.[19] However renewables are being hindered by hundreds of billions of dollars of fossil fuel subsidies.[20] In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for renewables such as solar power and wind power.[21][22] But the International Energy Agency said in 2021 that to reach net zero carbon emissions more effort is needed to increase renewables, and called for generation to increase by about 12% a year to 2030.[6]

Renewable energy technology projects are typically large-scale, but they are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development.[23][24] As most of the renewable energy technologies provide electricity, renewable energy is often deployed together with further electrification, which has several benefits: electricity can move heat or objects efficiently, and is clean at the point of consumption.[25][26] In addition, electrification with renewable energy is more efficient and therefore leads to significant reductions in primary energy requirements.[27] In 2021, China accounted for almost half of the increase in renewable electricity.[28] In 2021, Norway, known for its production of hydroelectricity, consumed hydro energy worth 45% of its total energy supply.[29]

Overview

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.[30]
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.[30]
PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)
PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)

Definition

Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, and geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains:[31]

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.

Drivers and benefits

Renewable energy stands in contrast to fossil fuels, which are being used far more quickly than they are being replenished. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits.[19] Solar and wind power have got much cheaper.[32] In some cases it will be cheaper to transition to these sources as opposed to continuing to use the current, inefficient, fossil fuels. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels, and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that could amount to trillions of dollars annually.[33][34] Multiple analyses of decarbonization strategies have found that quantified health benefits can significantly offset the costs of implementing these strategies.[35][36]

Climate change concerns, coupled with the continuing fall in the costs of some renewable energy equipment, such as wind turbines and solar panels, are driving increased use of renewables.[21] New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors.[37] As of 2019, however, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency, renewables overall share in the energy mix (including power, heat and transport) needs to grow six times faster, in order to keep the rise in average global temperatures "well below" 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) during the present century, compared to pre-industrial levels.[38]

Scale

A household's solar panels, and batteries if they have them, can often either be used for just that household or if connected to an electrical grid can be aggregated with millions of others.[39] Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, and more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves.[40][needs update] United Nations' eighth Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity.[41] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply.[42] Although many countries have various policy targets for longer-term shares of renewable energy these tend to be only for the power sector,[43] including a 40% target of all electricity generated for the European Union by 2030.[44]

Uses

Renewable energy often displaces conventional fuels in four areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[45]

Power generation

More than a quarter of electricity is generated from renewables as of 2021.[46]

Heating and cooling

Solar water heating makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180  GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings[47] and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Heat pumps provide both heating and cooling, and also flatten the electric demand curve and are thus an increasing priority[48][49] Renewable thermal energy is also growing rapidly.[50] About 10% of heating and cooling energy is from renewables.[46]

Transportation

A bus fueled by biodiesel
A bus fueled by biodiesel

One of the efforts to decarbonize transportation is the increased use of electric vehicles (EVs).[51] Despite that and the use of biofuels, such as biojet, less than 4% of transport energy is from renewables.[7] Occasionally hydrogen fuel cells are used for heavy transport.[52]

Mainstream technologies

Solar energy

Satellite image of the Bhadla Solar Park in India, it is the largest Solar Park in the world
Satellite image of the Bhadla Solar Park in India, it is the largest Solar Park in the world
Global electricity power generation capacity 849 GW (2021)[54]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 26% (2012-2021)[55]
Share of global electricity generation 2% (2018)[56]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour Utility-scale photovoltaics: USD 38.343 (2019)[57]
Primary technologies Photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collector
Other energy applications Water heating; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); cooking; process heat; water treatment

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power (CSP), concentrator photovoltaics (CPV), solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.[58][59] Most new renewable energy is solar.[60] Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert, and distribute solar energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Active solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).

A photovoltaic system converts light into electrical direct current (DC) by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect.[61] Solar PV has turned into a multi-billion, fast-growing industry, continues to improve its cost-effectiveness, and has the most potential of any renewable technologies together with CSP.[62][63] Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. CSP-Stirling has by far the highest efficiency among all solar energy technologies.

In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries' energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".[58] Solar power accounts for 505 GW annually, which is about 2% of the world's electricity. Solar energy can be harnessed anywhere that receives sunlight; however, the amount of solar energy that can be harnessed for electricity generation is influenced by weather conditions, geographic location and time of day.[64] According to chapter 6 of the IPCC 2022 climate mitigation report, the global potential of direct solar energy far exceeds that of any other renewable energy resource. It is well beyond the total amount of energy needed in order to support mitigation over the current century.[65] Australia has the largest proportion of solar electricity in the world, supplying 9.9% of the country's electrical demand in 2020.[66]

Wind power

Wind energy generation by region over time.[67]
Wind energy generation by region over time.[67]
Global map of wind power density potential.[68]
Global map of wind power density potential.[68]
Global electricity power generation capacity 825 GW (2021)[69]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 13% (2012-2021)[70]
Share of global electricity generation 5% (2018)[56]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour Land-based wind: USD 30.165 (2019)[71]
Primary technology Wind turbine
Other energy applications Windmill, windpump

Air flow can be used to run wind turbines. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 9 MW of rated power. The power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine.[72] Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high-altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typically, full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites.[73]

Wind-generated electricity met nearly 4% of global electricity demand in 2015, with nearly 63 GW of new wind power capacity installed. Wind energy was the leading source of new capacity in Europe, the US and Canada, and the second largest in China. In Denmark, wind energy met more than 40% of its electricity demand while Ireland, Portugal and Spain each met nearly 20%.[74]

Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand, assuming all practical barriers needed were overcome. This would require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources, such as offshore. As offshore wind speeds average ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources can contribute substantially more energy than land-stationed turbines.[75]

Hydropower

Global electricity power generation capacity 1,230 GW (2021)[76]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 2.5% (2012-2021)[77]
Share of global electricity generation 16% (2018)[56]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 65.581 (2019)[78]
Primary technology Dam
Other energy applications Pumped storage, mechanical power

Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy:

  • Historically, hydroelectric power came from constructing large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs, which are still popular in developing countries.[79] The largest of them are the Three Gorges Dam (2003) in China and the Itaipu Dam (1984) built by Brazil and Paraguay.
  • Small hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 50 MW of power. They are often used on small rivers or as a low-impact development on larger rivers. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and has more than 45,000 small hydro installations.[80]
  • Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity plants derive energy from rivers without the creation of a large reservoir. The water is typically conveyed along the side of the river valley (using channels, pipes and/or tunnels) until it is high above the valley floor, whereupon it can be allowed to fall through a penstock to drive a turbine. A run-of-river plant may still produce a large amount of electricity, such as the Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia River in the United States.[81] However many run-of-the-river hydro power plants are micro hydro or pico hydro plants.

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010.[needs update] Of the top 50 countries by percentage of electricity generated from renewables, 46 are primarily hydroelectric.[82] There are now three hydroelectricity stations larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[83] Much hydropower is flexible, thus complementing wind and solar.[84]

Wave power, which captures the energy of ocean surface waves, and tidal power, converting the energy of tides, are two forms of hydropower with future potential; however, they are not yet widely employed commercially.[85] A demonstration project operated by the Ocean Renewable Power Company on the coast of Maine, and connected to the grid, harnesses tidal power from the Bay of Fundy, location of the world's highest tidal flow. Ocean thermal energy conversion, which uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer surface waters, currently has no economic feasibility.[86][87]

Bioenergy

Sugarcane plantation to produce ethanol in Brazil
A CHP power station using wood to supply 30,000 households in France
Global electricity power generation capacity 143 GW (2021)[88]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 7.1% (2012-2021)[89]
Share of global electricity generation 2% (2018)[56]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 118.908 (2019)[90]
Primary technologies Biomass, biofuel
Other energy applications Heating, cooking, transportation fuels

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass.[91] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood was the largest biomass energy source as of 2012;[92] examples include forest residues – such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps –, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo,[93] and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).

Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy.[94] The grain can be used for liquid transportation fuels while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first-generation biofuel.

Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy such as methane gas[95] or transportation fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas – also called landfill gas or biogas. Crops, such as corn and sugarcane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products such as vegetable oils and animal fats.[96] There is a great deal of research involving algal fuel or algae-derived biomass[citation needed] due to the fact that it is a non-food resource and can be produced at rates 5 to 10 times those of other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen. The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the United States. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks).

Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.[97] Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. These include maize, sugarcane and, more recently, sweet sorghum. The latter crop is particularly suitable for growing in dryland conditions, and is being investigated by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics for its potential to provide fuel, along with food and animal feed, in arid parts of Asia and Africa.[98]

With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the United States and in Brazil. The energy costs for producing bio-ethanol are almost equal to, the energy yields from bio-ethanol. However, according to the European Environment Agency, biofuels do not address global warming concerns.[99] Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. It can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, or more commonly as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.[100][needs update]

Biomass, biogas and biofuels are burned to produce heat/power and in doing so harm the environment. Pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of biomass. The World Health Organization estimates that 3.7 million prematurely died from outdoor air pollution in 2012 while indoor pollution from biomass burning effects over 3 billion people worldwide.[101][102]

Geothermal energy

Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland
Global electricity power generation capacity 16 GW (2020)[103]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 4.5% (2012-2021)[104]
Share of global electricity generation <1% (2018)[56]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 58.257 (2019)[105]
Primary technologies Dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle power stations
Other energy applications Heating

High temperature geothermal energy is from thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of minerals (in currently uncertain[106] but possibly roughly equal[107] proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat.

The heat that is used for geothermal energy can be from deep within the Earth, all the way down to Earth's core – 4,000 miles (6,400 km) down. At the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 °F (5,000 °C). Heat conducts from the core to the surrounding rock. Extremely high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, which is commonly known as magma. Magma convects upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. This magma then heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 700 °F (371 °C).[108]

Low temperature geothermal[48] refers to the use of the outer crust of the Earth as a thermal battery to facilitate renewable thermal energy for heating and cooling buildings, and other refrigeration and industrial uses. In this form of geothermal, a geothermal heat pump and ground-coupled heat exchanger are used together to move heat energy into the Earth (for cooling) and out of the Earth (for heating) on a varying seasonal basis. Low-temperature geothermal (generally referred to as "GHP"[clarification needed]) is an increasingly important renewable technology because it both reduces total annual energy loads associated with heating and cooling, and it also flattens the electric demand curve eliminating the extreme summer and winter peak electric supply requirements. Thus low temperature geothermal/GHP is becoming an increasing national[clarification needed] priority with multiple tax credit support[109] and focus as part of the ongoing movement toward net zero energy.[49]

Emerging technologies

There are also other renewable energy technologies that are still under development, including cellulosic ethanol, hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and marine energy.[110] These technologies are not yet widely demonstrated or have limited commercialization. Many are on the horizon and may have potential comparable to other renewable energy technologies, but still depend on attracting sufficient attention and research, development and demonstration (RD&D) funding.[110]

There are numerous organizations within the academic, federal,[clarification needed] and commercial sectors conducting large-scale advanced research in the field of renewable energy. This research spans several areas of focus across the renewable energy spectrum. Most of the research is targeted at improving efficiency and increasing overall energy yields.[111] Multiple government supported research organizations have focused on renewable energy in recent years. Two of the most prominent of these labs are Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), both of which are funded by the United States Department of Energy and supported by various corporate partners.[112]

Enhanced geothermal system

Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are a new type of geothermal power technology that does not require natural convective hydrothermal resources. The vast majority of geothermal energy within drilling reach is in dry and non-porous rock.[113] EGS technologies "enhance" and/or create geothermal resources in this "hot dry rock (HDR)" through hydraulic fracturing. EGS and HDR technologies, such as hydrothermal geothermal, are expected to be baseload resources that produce power 24 hours a day like a fossil plant. Distinct from hydrothermal, HDR and EGS may be feasible anywhere in the world, depending on the economic limits of drill depth. Good locations are over deep granite covered by a thick (3–5 km) layer of insulating sediments which slow heat loss.[114] There are HDR and EGS systems currently being developed and tested in France, Australia, Japan, Germany, the U.S., and Switzerland. The largest EGS project in the world is a 25 megawatt demonstration plant currently being developed in the Cooper Basin, Australia. The Cooper Basin has the potential to generate 5,000–10,000 MW.

Marine energy

Marine energy (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy) is the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the world's oceans creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. This energy can be harnessed to generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries. The term marine energy encompasses wave power – power from surface waves, marine current power - power from marine hydrokinetic streams (e.g., the Gulf Stream), and tidal power – obtained from the kinetic energy of large bodies of moving water. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology for generating electricity by mixing fresh river water and salty sea water in large power cells designed for this purpose; as of 2016, it is being tested at a small scale (50 kW). Offshore wind power is not a form of marine energy, as wind power is derived from the wind, even if the wind turbines are placed over water. The oceans have a tremendous amount of energy and are close to many if not most concentrated populations. Ocean energy has the potential of providing a substantial amount of new renewable energy around the world.[1][115][page needed]

# Station Country Location Capacity Refs
1. Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station South Korea 37°18′47″N 126°36′46″E / 37.31306°N 126.61278°E / 37.31306; 126.61278 (Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station) 254 MW [116]
2. Rance Tidal Power Station France 48°37′05″N 02°01′24″W / 48.61806°N 2.02333°W / 48.61806; -2.02333 (Rance Tidal Power Station) 240 MW [117]
3. Annapolis Royal Generating Station Canada 44°45′07″N 65°30′40″W / 44.75194°N 65.51111°W / 44.75194; -65.51111 (Annapolis Royal Generating Station) 20 MW [117]

Artificial photosynthesis

Artificial photosynthesis uses techniques including nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds by splitting water to produce hydrogen and then using carbon dioxide to make methanol.[118] Researchers in this field strived to design molecular mimics of photosynthesis that use a wider region of the solar spectrum, employ catalytic systems made from abundant, inexpensive materials that are robust, readily repaired, non-toxic, stable in a variety of environmental conditions and perform more efficiently allowing a greater proportion of photon energy to end up in the storage compounds, i.e., carbohydrates (rather than building and sustaining living cells).[119] However, prominent research faces hurdles, Sun Catalytix a MIT spin-off stopped scaling up their prototype fuel-cell in 2012, because it offers few savings over other ways to make hydrogen from sunlight.[120]

Earth infrared thermal radiation

Earth emits roughly 1017 W of infrared thermal radiation that flows toward the cold outer space. Solar energy hits the surface and atmosphere of the earth and produces heat. Using various theorized devices like emissive energy harvester (EEH) or thermoradiative diode, this energy flow can be converted into electricity. In theory, this technology can be used during nighttime.[121][122]

Others

Algae fuels

Producing liquid fuels from oil-rich (fat-rich) varieties of algae is an ongoing research topic. Various microalgae grown in open or closed systems are being tried including some systems that can be set up in brownfield and desert lands.[123]

Water vapor

Collection of static electricity charges from water droplets on metal surfaces is an experimental technology that would be especially useful in low-income countries with relative air humidity over 60%.[124]

Crop wastes

AuREUS devices (Aurora Renewable Energy & UV Sequestration),[125] which are based on crop wastes can absorb ultraviolet light from the sun and turn it into renewable energy.[126][127]

Integration into the energy system and sector coupling

Estimated power demand over a week in 2012 and 2020, Germany, showing the need for dispatchable generation rather than baseload generation in the grid.
Estimated power demand over a week in 2012 and 2020, Germany, showing the need for dispatchable generation rather than baseload generation in the grid.

Renewable energy production from some sources such as wind and solar is more variable and more geographically spread than technology based on fossil fuels and nuclear. While integrating it into the wider energy system is feasible, it does lead to some additional challenges such as increased production volatility and decreased system inertia.[128] Implementation of energy storage, using a wide variety of renewable energy technologies, and implementing a smart grid in which energy is automatically used at the moment it is produced can reduce risks and costs of renewable energy implementation.[128][129]

Sector coupling of the power generation sector with other sectors may increase flexibility: for example the transport sector can be coupled by charging electric vehicles and sending electricity from vehicle to grid.[130] Similarly the industry sector can be coupled by hydrogen produced by electrolysis,[131] and the buildings sector by thermal energy storage for space heating and cooling.[132]

Electrical energy storage

Electrical energy storage is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy. Electrical energy is stored during times when production (especially from intermittent sources such as wind power, tidal power, solar power) exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls below consumption. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity accounts for more than 85% of all grid power storage.[133] Batteries are increasingly being deployed for this[134] and for grid ancillary services[135] and for domestic storage.[136]


Market and industry trends

Most new renewables are solar, followed by wind then hydro then bioenergy.[137]: 5  Investment in renewables, especially solar, tends to be more effective in creating jobs than coal, gas or oil.[138][139] Worldwide, renewables employ about 12 million people as of 2020, with solar PV being the technology employing the most at almost 4 million.[140]

Growth of renewables

Investment: Companies, governments and households committed $501.3 billion to decarbonization in 2020, including renewable energy (solar, wind), electric vehicles and associated charging infrastructure, energy storage, energy-efficient heating systems, carbon capture and storage, and hydrogen.[141]
The countries most reliant on fossil fuels for electricity vary widely on how great a portion of that electricity is generated from renewables, leaving wide variation in renewables' growth potential.[142]
Past costs of producing renewable energy declined significantly, with 62% of total renewable power generation added in 2020 having lower costs than the cheapest new fossil fuel option.[143]
Levelized cost: With increasingly widespread implementation of renewable energy sources, costs have declined, most notably for energy generated by solar panels.[144]
Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a measure of the average net present cost of electricity generation for a generating plant over its lifetime.
A comparison of prices over time for energy from wind, solar and other sources. Over time, renewables benefit from learning curves and economies of scale.[145]
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.[146]
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.[146]

The results of a recent review of the literature concluded that as greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters begin to be held liable for damages resulting from GHG emissions resulting in climate change, a high value for liability mitigation would provide powerful incentives for deployment of renewable energy technologies.[147]

In the decade of 2010–2019, worldwide investment in renewable energy capacity excluding large hydropower amounted to US$2.7 trillion, of which the top countries China contributed US$818 billion, the United States contributed US$392.3 billion, Japan contributed US$210.9 billion, Germany contributed US$183.4 billion, and the United Kingdom contributed US$126.5 billion.[148] This was an increase of over three and possibly four times the equivalent amount invested in the decade of 2000–2009 (no data is available for 2000–2003).[148]

Future projections

A May 2022 report by the IEA predicted renewables to remain competitive in 2023 despite rising costs, as fossil fuel costs have risen much faster.[137] The report forecasts almost 200 GW of solar PV to be installed in 2023.[137]: 8  China and Europe are both expected to install more renewables than the US, due to uncertainty in US energy policy.[137]: 13  The report forecasts biofuel demand to increase in India and Indonesia in 2023, partly due to their transport policies.[137]: 22 

In June 2022 IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol said that countries should invest more in renewables to "ease the pressure on consumers from high fossil fuel prices, make our energy systems more secure, and get the world on track to reach our climate goals.”[149]

China's five year plan to 2025 includes increasing direct heating by renewables such as geothermal and solar thermal.[150]

REPowerEU, the EU plan to escape dependence on fossil Russian gas, is expected to call for much more green hydrogen.[151]

Demand

In July 2014, WWF and the World Resources Institute convened a discussion among a number of major US companies who had declared their intention to increase their use of renewable energy. These discussions identified a number of "principles" which companies seeking greater access to renewable energy considered important market deliverables. These principles included choice (between suppliers and between products), cost competitiveness, longer term fixed price supplies, access to third-party financing vehicles, and collaboration.[152]

UK statistics released in September 2020 noted that "the proportion of demand met from renewables varies from a low of 3.4 per cent (for transport, mainly from biofuels) to highs of over 20 per cent for 'other final users', which is largely the service and commercial sectors that consume relatively large quantities of electricity, and industry".[153]

In some locations, individual households can opt to purchase renewable energy through a consumer green energy program.

Trends for individual technologies

Hydroelectricity

In 2020 the world renewable hydropower capacity was 1,330 GW.[154] Only a third of the world's estimated hydroelectric potential of 14,000 TWh/year has been developed.[154][155] New hydropower projects face opposition from local communities due to their large impact, including relocation of communities and flooding of wildlife habitats and farming land.[156] High cost and lead times from permission process, including environmental and risk assessments, with lack of environmental and social acceptance are therefore the primary challenges for new developments.[157] It is popular to repower old dams thereby increasing their efficiency and capacity as well as quicker responsiveness on the grid.[158] Where circumstances permit existing dams such as the Russell Dam built in 1985 may be updated with "pump back" facilities for pumped-storage which is useful for peak loads or to support intermittent wind and solar power. Because dispatchable power is more valuable than VRE[159][160] countries with large hydroelectric developments such as Canada and Norway are spending billions to expand their grids to trade with neighboring countries having limited hydro.[161]

Wind power development

Worldwide growth of wind capacity (1996–2018)
Worldwide growth of wind capacity (1996–2018)
Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter is the largest in the world as of April 2013.
Four offshore wind farms are in the Thames Estuary area: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet and London Array. The latter is the largest in the world as of April 2013.
Offshore wind is becoming more profitable [162]

Solar thermal

The 377 MW Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System with all three towers under load, February 2014. Taken from I-15.
The 377 MW Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System with all three towers under load, February 2014. Taken from I-15.
Solar towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar thermal plants in Spain
Solar towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar thermal plants in Spain

Solar thermal energy capacity has increased from 1.3 GW in 2012 to 5.0 GW in 2017.[163]

Spain is the world leader in solar thermal power deployment with 2.3 GW deployed.[163] The United States has 1.8 GW,[163] most of it in California where 1.4 GW of solar thermal power projects are operational.[164] Several power plants have been constructed in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. As of 2017 only 4 other countries have deployments above 100 MW:[163] South Africa (300 MW) India (229 MW) Morocco (180 MW) and United Arab Emirates (100 MW).

The United States conducted much early research in photovoltaics and concentrated solar power. The U.S. is among the top countries in the world in electricity generated by the Sun and several of the world's largest utility-scale installations are located in the desert Southwest.

The oldest solar thermal power plant in the world is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS thermal power plant, in California.[165] The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System is a solar thermal power project in the California Mojave Desert, 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Las Vegas, with a gross capacity of 377 MW.[166] The 280 MW Solana Generating Station is a solar power plant near Gila Bend, Arizona, about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Phoenix, completed in 2013. When commissioned it was the largest parabolic trough plant in the world and the first U.S. solar plant with molten salt thermal energy storage.[167]

In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved.[168]

Photovoltaic development

Photovoltaics (PV) is rapidly-growing with global capacity increasing from 177 GW at the end of 2014 to 385 GW in 2017.[163]

PV uses solar cells assembled into solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. PV systems range from small, residential and commercial rooftop or building integrated installations, to large utility-scale photovoltaic power station. The predominant PV technology is crystalline silicon, while thin-film solar cell technology accounts for about 10 percent of global photovoltaic deployment. In recent years, PV technology has improved its electricity generating efficiency, reduced the installation cost per watt as well as its energy payback time, and reached grid parity in at least 30 different markets by 2014.[169] Building-integrated photovoltaics or "onsite" PV systems use existing land and structures and generate power close to where it is consumed.[170]

Photovoltaics grew fastest in China, followed by Japan and the United States. Solar power is forecasted to become the world's largest source of electricity by 2050, with solar photovoltaics and concentrated solar power contributing 16% and 11%, respectively. This requires an increase of installed PV capacity to 4,600 GW, of which more than half is expected to be deployed in China and India.[171]

Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected solar PV systems has grown into the millions and utility-scale solar power stations with hundreds of megawatts are being built. Many solar photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe, China and the United States.[172] The 1.5 GW Tengger Desert Solar Park, in China is the world's largest PV power station. Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than fixed-mounted systems.

Biofuel development

Brazil produces bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. A typical gas station with dual fuel service is marked "A" for alcohol (ethanol) and "G" for gasoline.
Brazil produces bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. A typical gas station with dual fuel service is marked "A" for alcohol (ethanol) and "G" for gasoline.

Bioenergy global capacity in 2017 was 109 GW.[163] Biofuels provided 3% of the world's transport fuel in 2017.[173]

Mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states/provinces.[100]

Since the 1970s, Brazil has had an ethanol fuel program which has allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol (after the United States) and the world's largest exporter.[174] Brazil's ethanol fuel program uses modern equipment and cheap sugarcane as feedstock, and the residual cane-waste (bagasse) is used to produce heat and power.[175] There are no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline.[176]

Biojet is expected to be important for short-term reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from long-haul flights.[177]

Geothermal development

Geothermal plant at The Geysers, California, US
Geothermal plant at The Geysers, California, US

Global geothermal capacity in 2017 was 12.9 GW.[163]

Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,[178] but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are usually much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.

In 2017, the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 12.9 GW of installed capacity.[163] The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California.[179] The Philippines follows the US as the second highest producer of geothermal power in the world, with 1.9 GW of capacity online.[163]

Developing countries

Solar cookers use sunlight as energy source for outdoor cooking.
Solar cookers use sunlight as energy source for outdoor cooking.

Renewable energy in developing countries is an increasingly used alternative to fossil fuel energy, as these countries scale up their energy supplies and address energy poverty. Renewable energy technology was once seen as unaffordable for developing countries.[180] However, since 2015, investment in non-hydro renewable energy has been higher in developing countries than in developed countries, and comprised 54% of global renewable energy investment in 2019.[181] The International Energy Agency forecasts that renewable energy will provide the majority of energy supply growth through 2030 in Africa and Central and South America, and 42% of supply growth in China.[182]

Most developing countries have abundant renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass, as well as the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these. By developing such energy sources developing countries can reduce their dependence on oil and natural gas, creating energy portfolios that are less vulnerable to price rises. In many circumstances, these investments can be less expensive than fossil fuel energy systems.[183]

Policy

Policies to support renewable energy have been vital in their expansion. Where Europe dominated in establishing energy policy in early 2000s, most countries around the world now have some form of energy policy.[184]

Policy trends

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organization for promoting the adoption of renewable energy worldwide. It aims to provide concrete policy advice and facilitate capacity building and technology transfer. IRENA was formed in 2009, by 75 countries signing the charter of IRENA.[185] As of April 2019, IRENA has 160 member states.[186] The then United Nations' Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity,[41] and in September 2011 he launched the UN Sustainable Energy for All initiative to improve energy access, efficiency and the deployment of renewable energy.[187]

The 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change motivated many countries to develop or improve renewable energy policies.[15] In 2017, a total of 121 countries have adapted some form of renewable energy policy.[184] National targets that year existed in at 176 countries.[15] In addition, there is also a wide range of policies at state/provincial and local levels.[100] Some public utilities help plan or install residential energy upgrades.

Many national, state, and local governments have created green banks. A green bank is a quasi-public financial institution that uses public capital to leverage private investment in clean energy technologies.[188] Green banks use a variety of financial tools to bridge market gaps that hinder the deployment of clean energy.

Climate neutrality by the year of 2050 is the main goal of the European Green Deal.[189] For the European union to reach their target of climate neutrality, one goal is to decarbonise their energy system by aiming to achieve "net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050."[190]

Full renewable energy

100% renewable energy means getting all energy from renewable resources. The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electricity, heating, cooling and transport is motivated by climate change, pollution and other environmental issues, as well as economic and energy security concerns. Shifting the total global primary energy supply to renewable sources requires a transition of the energy system, since most of today's energy is derived from non-renewable fossil fuels.

Research into this topic is fairly new, with very few studies published before 2009, but has gained increasing attention in recent years. The majority of studies show that a global transition to 100% renewable energy across all sectors – power, heat, transport and desalination – is feasible and economically viable.[191][192][193][194] A cross-sectoral, holistic approach is seen as an important feature of 100% renewable energy systems and is based on the assumption "that the best solutions can be found only if one focuses on the synergies between the sectors" of the energy system such as electricity, heat, transport or industry.[195]

The main barriers to the widespread implementation of large-scale renewable energy and low-carbon energy strategies are seen to be primarily social and political rather than technological or economic.[196] According to the 2013 Post Carbon Pathways report, which reviewed many international studies, the key roadblocks are: climate change denial, the fossil fuels lobby, political inaction, unsustainable energy consumption, outdated energy infrastructure, and financial constraints.[197]

Debate

Most respondents to a climate survey conducted in 2021-2022 by the European Investment Bank say countries should back renewable energy to fight climate change. [198]
Most respondents to a climate survey conducted in 2021-2022 by the European Investment Bank say countries should back renewable energy to fight climate change. [198]

Renewable electricity generation by wind and solar is variable. This results in reduced capacity factor and may require keeping some gas-fired power plants or other dispatchable generation on standby[199][200][201] until there is enough energy storage, demand response, grid improvement, and/or base load power from non-intermittent sources like hydropower, nuclear power or bioenergy.

Solar power plants may compete with arable land,[202][203] while on-shore wind farms face opposition due to aesthetic concerns and noise, which is impacting both humans and wildlife.[204][205][206] In the United States, the Massachusetts Cape Wind project was delayed for years partly because of aesthetic concerns. However, residents in other areas have been more positive. According to a town councilor, the overwhelming majority of locals believe that the Ardrossan Wind Farm in Scotland has enhanced the area.[207] These concerns, when directed against renewable energy, are sometimes described as "not in my back yard" attitude (NIMBY).

A 2011 UK Government document states that "projects are generally more likely to succeed if they have broad public support and the consent of local communities. This means giving communities both a say and a stake".[208] In countries such as Germany and Denmark many renewable projects are owned by communities, particularly through cooperative structures, and contribute significantly to overall levels of renewable energy deployment.[209][210]

The market for renewable energy technologies has continued to grow. Climate change concerns and increasing in green jobs, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, oil wars, oil spills, promotion of electric vehicles and renewable electricity, nuclear disasters and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization.[21][better source needed] New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors.[37]

The International Energy Agency has stated that deployment of renewable technologies usually increases the diversity of electricity sources and, through local generation, contributes to the flexibility of the system and its resistance to central shocks.[211]

In October 2021, European Commissioner for Climate Action Frans Timmermans suggested "the best answer" to the 2021 global energy crisis is "to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels."[212] He said those blaming the European Green Deal were doing so "for perhaps ideological reasons or sometimes economic reasons in protecting their vested interests."[212] Some critics blamed the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and closure of nuclear plants for contributing to the energy crisis.[213][214][215] European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that Europe is "too reliant" on natural gas and too dependent on natural gas imports. According to Von der Leyen, "The answer has to do with diversifying our suppliers ... and, crucially, with speeding up the transition to clean energy."[216]

Geopolitics of renewable energy

A concept of a super grid.
A concept of a super grid.

From around 2010 onwards, the geopolitical impact of the growing use of renewable energy has been discussed.[217] Some argue that former fossil fuels exporters will experience a weakening of their position in international affairs, while countries with abundant renewable energy resources will be strengthened.[218] Also some countries rich in critical materials for renewable energy technologies are expected to rise in importance in international affairs.[219][220]

The GeGaLo index of geopolitical gains and losses assesses how the geopolitical position of 156 countries may change if the world fully transitions to renewable energy resources. Former fossil fuels exporters are expected to lose power, while the positions of former fossil fuel importers and countries rich in renewable energy resources is expected to strengthen.[221]

Several requirements and decisions that may be tied with geopolitical considerations are the sourcing of required materials, ownership of key infrastructure assets and the design of grids, including super grids.[222][223][224][225][226][227][excessive citations]

Transitions to renewable energy have many geopolitical implications such as the potential of revenue losses to lead to political instability in insufficiently prepared fossil-fuel-exporting economies, albeit it is unclear whether the transition will increase or reduce conflict overall. In particular, a study hypothesizes that a "configuration emerges in which fossil fuel importers are better off decarbonizing, competitive fossil fuel exporters are better off flooding markets and uncompetitive fossil fuel producers—rather than benefitting from 'free-riding'—suffer from their exposure to stranded assets and lack of investment in decarbonization technologies".[228][229]

A study found that transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy systems reduces risks from mining, trade and political dependence because renewable energy systems don't need fuel – they depend on trade only for the acquisition of materials and components during construction.[230]

Nations rich in solar and wind energy could become major energy exporters.[231]

Trade in hydrogen could fundamentally redraw the geography of the global energy trade, and international governance and investments that seek to scale up the hydrogen economy could reduce "the risk of market fragmentation, carbon lock-in, and intensified geo-economic rivalry".[232][231][233]

Health and environmental impact

Moving to modern renewable energy has very large health benefits due to reducing air pollution from fossil fuels.[234][235]

Renewable sources other than biomass such as wind power, photovoltaics, and hydroelectricity have the advantage of being able to conserve water, lower pollution[236] and reduce CO2 emissions.

Solar panels change the albedo of the surface, so if used on a very large scale (such as covering 20% of the Sahara Desert), could change global weather patterns.[237]

Biomass

The ability of biomass and biofuels to contribute to a reduction in CO2 emissions is limited because both biomass and biofuels emit large amounts of air pollution when burned and in some cases compete with food supply. Furthermore, biomass and biofuels consume large amounts of water[238] and land (sometimes land that could be used for food production).[239][240] Furthermore, there can be carbon leakage from biomass production.[240] Nevertheless, it could still help reduce carbon dioxide emissions[241] and play an important role as a method of dispatchable generation.[242][243][244][245][246]

Conservation areas, recycling and rare-earth elements

Installations used to produce wind, solar and hydropower are an increasing threat to key conservation areas, with facilities built in areas set aside for nature conservation and other environmentally sensitive areas. They are often much larger than fossil fuel power plants, needing areas of land up to 10 times greater than coal or gas to produce equivalent energy amounts.[247] More than 2000 renewable energy facilities are built, and more are under construction, in areas of environmental importance and threaten the habitats of plant and animal species across the globe. The authors' team emphasized that their work should not be interpreted as anti-renewables because renewable energy is crucial for reducing carbon emissions. The key is ensuring that renewable energy facilities are built in places where they do not damage biodiversity.[248]

The transition to renewable energy depends on non-renewable resources, such as mined metals.[202] Manufacturing of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and batteries requires significant amounts of rare-earth elements[249] which has significant social and environmental impact if mined in forests and protected areas.[250] Due to co-occurrence of rare-earth and radioactive elements (thorium, uranium and radium), rare-earth mining results in production of low-level radioactive waste.[251]

In 2020 scientists published a world map of areas that contain renewable energy materials as well as estimations of their overlaps with "Key Biodiversity Areas", "Remaining Wilderness" and "Protected Areas". The authors assessed that careful strategic planning is needed.[252][253][254]Solar panels are recycled to reduce electronic waste and create a source for materials that would otherwise need to be mined,[255] but such business is still small and work is ongoing to improve and scale-up the process.[256][257][258]

History

Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. The oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form of traditional biomass to fuel fires, dates from more than a million years ago. The use of biomass for fire did not become commonplace until many hundreds of thousands of years later.[259] Probably the second oldest usage of renewable energy is harnessing the wind in order to drive ships over water. This practice can be traced back some 7000 years, to ships in the Persian Gulf and on the Nile.[260] From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times.[261] Moving into the time of recorded history, the primary sources of traditional renewable energy were human labor, animal power, water power, wind, in grain crushing windmills, and firewood, a traditional biomass.

In 1885, Werner von Siemens, commenting on the discovery of the photovoltaic effect in the solid state, wrote:

In conclusion, I would say that however great the scientific importance of this discovery may be, its practical value will be no less obvious when we reflect that the supply of solar energy is both without limit and without cost, and that it will continue to pour down upon us for countless ages after all the coal deposits of the earth have been exhausted and forgotten.[262]

Max Weber mentioned the end of fossil fuel in the concluding paragraphs of his Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus (The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism), published in 1905.[263] Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I. The importance of solar energy was recognized in a 1911 Scientific American article: "in the far distant future, natural fuels having been exhausted [solar power] will remain as the only means of existence of the human race".[264]

The theory of peak oil was published in 1956.[265] In the 1970s environmentalists promoted the development of renewable energy both as a replacement for the eventual depletion of oil, as well as for an escape from dependence on oil, and the first electricity-generating wind turbines appeared. Solar had long been used for heating and cooling, but solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.[266]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Renewable Energy Market Update 2021 / Renewable electricity / Renewables deployment geared up in 2020, establishing a "new normal" for capacity additions in 2021 and 2022". IEA.org. International Energy Agency. May 2021. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021.
  2. ^ "Electricity generation by source". International Energy Agency. Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  3. ^ Ellabban, Omar; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Blaabjerg, Frede (2014). "Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39: 748–764 [749]. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113.
  4. ^ Timperly, Jocelyn (23 February 2017). "Biomass subsidies 'not fit for purpose', says Chatham House". Carbon Brief Ltd © 2020 - Company No. 07222041. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  5. ^ Harvey, Chelsea; Heikkinen, Niina (23 March 2018). "Congress Says Biomass Is Carbon Neutral but Scientists Disagree - Using wood as fuel source could actually increase CO2 emissions". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Renewable Power – Analysis". IEA. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  7. ^ a b REN21. "RENEWABLES 2022 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT". www.ren21.net. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  8. ^ REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2021.
  9. ^ "Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2020". irena.org. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  10. ^ "Global renewable energy trends". Deloitte Insights. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Renewable Energy Now Accounts for a Third of Global Power Capacity". irena.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  12. ^ IEA (2020). Renewables 2020 Analysis and forecast to 2025 (Report). p. 12. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  13. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max; Rosado, Pablo (28 November 2020). "Energy". Our World in Data.
  14. ^ Sensiba, Jennifer (28 October 2021). "Some Good News: 10 Countries Generate Almost 100% Renewable Electricity". CleanTechnica. Archived from the original on 17 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  15. ^ a b c REN21 Renewables Global Futures Report 2017.
  16. ^ Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Gulagi, Ashish; Fasihi, Mahdi; Breyer, Christian (1 February 2021). "Full energy sector transition towards 100% renewable energy supply: Integrating power, heat, transport and industry sectors including desalination". Applied Energy. 283: 116273. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116273. ISSN 0306-2619.
  17. ^ Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-05843-2.
  18. ^ Jacobson, Mark Z.; von Krauland, Anna-Katharina; Coughlin, Stephen J.; Dukas, Emily; Nelson, Alexander J. H.; Palmer, Frances C.; Rasmussen, Kylie R. (2022). "Low-cost solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity for 145 countries". Energy & Environmental Science: 10.1039.D2EE00722C. doi:10.1039/D2EE00722C. ISSN 1754-5692.
  19. ^ a b International Energy Agency (2012). "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012". Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  20. ^ Timperley, Jocelyn (20 October 2021). "Why fossil fuel subsidies are so hard to kill". Nature. 598 (7881): 403–405. Bibcode:2021Natur.598..403T. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02847-2. PMID 34671143. S2CID 239052649. Archived from the original on 17 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  21. ^ a b c "Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries" (PDF). unep.org. United Nations Environment Programme. 2007. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  22. ^ Sütterlin, B.; Siegrist, Michael (2017). "Public acceptance of renewable energy technologies from an abstract versus concrete perspective and the positive imagery of solar power". Energy Policy. 106: 356–366. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.03.061.
  23. ^ Alazraque-Cherni, Judith (1 April 2008). "Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 28 (2): 105–114. doi:10.1177/0270467607313956. S2CID 67817602. Archived from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  24. ^ World Energy Assessment (2001). Renewable energy technologies Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, p. 221.
  25. ^ Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo (2011). "Towards an electricity-powered world". Energy and Environmental Science. 4 (9): 3193–3222. doi:10.1039/c1ee01249e.
  26. ^ Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo (2016). "Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition". Chemistry – A European Journal. 22 (1): 32–57. doi:10.1002/chem.201503580. PMID 26584653.
  27. ^ Volker Quaschning, Regenerative Energiesysteme. Technologie – Berechnung – Simulation. 8th. Edition. Hanser (Munich) 2013, p. 49.
  28. ^ "Renewables – Global Energy Review 2021 – Analysis". IEA. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  29. ^ "Powering the World". Utility Bidder. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  30. ^ Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jones, Matthew W.; O'Sullivan, Michael; Andrew, Robbie M.; Hauck, Judith; Peters, Glen P.; Peters, Wouter; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Le Quéré, Corinne; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. (2019). "Global Carbon Budget 2019". Earth System Science Data. 11 (4): 1783–1838. Bibcode:2019ESSD...11.1783F. doi:10.5194/essd-11-1783-2019. ISSN 1866-3508. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  31. ^ IEA (2002). IEA. Renewable Energy... ... into the Mainstream (PDF). IEA. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  32. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (4 April 2022). "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change" (PDF). IPCC. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  33. ^ Jacobson, Mark Z.; et al. (2015). "100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States". Energy and Environmental Science. 8 (7): 2093–2117. doi:10.1039/C5EE01283J.
  34. ^ Scovronick, Noah; Budolfson, Mark; Dennig, Francis; Errickson, Frank; Fleurbaey, Marc; Peng, Wei; Socolow, Robert H.; Spears, Dean; Wagner, Fabian (7 May 2019). "The impact of human health co-benefits on evaluations of global climate policy". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 2095. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.2095S. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09499-x. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6504956. PMID 31064982.
  35. ^ Gallagher CL, Holloway T (2020). "Integrating Air Quality and Public Health Benefits in U.S. Decarbonization Strategies". Front Public Health. 8: 563358. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.563358. PMC 7717953. PMID 33330312.
  36. ^ Luderer, Gunnar; Pehl, Michaja; Arvesen, Anders; Gibon, Thomas; Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; Fricko, Oliver; Hejazi, Mohamad; Humpenöder, Florian; Iyer, Gokul; Mima, Silvana (19 November 2019). "Environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of alternative power sector decarbonization strategies". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 5229. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.5229L. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13067-8. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6864079. PMID 31745077.
  37. ^ a b Clean Edge (2009). Clean Energy Trends 2009 Archived 18 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine pp. 1–4.
  38. ^ "Global energy transformation: A roadmap to 2050 (2019 edition)". /publications/2019/Apr/Global-energy-transformation-A-roadmap-to-2050-2019Edition. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  39. ^ "Getting the most out of tomorrow's grid requires digitisation and demand response". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  40. ^ REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2011, p. 14.
  41. ^ a b Leone, Steve (25 August 2011). "U.N. Secretary-General: Renewables Can End Energy Poverty". Renewable Energy World. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  42. ^ "Renewable Energy by Country 2021". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  43. ^ REN21. "RENEWABLES 2021 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT". www.ren21.net. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  44. ^ Abnett, Kate (20 April 2022). "European Commission analysing higher 45% renewable energy target for 2030". Reuters. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  45. ^ REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2010.
  46. ^ a b REN21. "RENEWABLES 2021 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT". www.ren21.net. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  47. ^ "IEA SHC || Solar Heat Worldwide". www.iea-shc.org. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  48. ^ a b "Geothermal Heat Pumps - Department of Energy". energy.gov. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  49. ^ a b "Net Zero Foundation". netzerofoundation.org. Archived from the original on 22 February 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  50. ^ "Fast Growth for Copper-Based Geothermal Heating & Cooling". Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  51. ^ IPCC Sixth Assessment Report https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg3/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  52. ^ Mishra, Twesh. "India to develop and build first indigenous Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vessel". The Economic Times. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  53. ^ "Global Solar Atlas". Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  54. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 20.
  55. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 20. Note: Compound annual growth rate 2012-2021.
  56. ^ a b c d e "Electricity". International Energy Agency. 2020. Data Browser section, Electricity Generation by Source indicator. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  57. ^ NREL ATB 2021, Utility-Scale PV.
  58. ^ a b Philibert, Cédric (2011). Solar energy perspectives. International Energy Agency, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris: OECD/IEA. ISBN 978-92-64-12458-5. OCLC 778434303.
  59. ^ "Solar Fuels and Artificial Photosynthesis". Royal Society of Chemistry. 2012. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  60. ^ "Solar - Fuels & Technologies". IEA. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  61. ^ "Energy Sources: Solar". Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  62. ^ NREL.gov U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis Archived 14 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, July 2013 : iv 
  63. ^ thinkprogress.org National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Solar Has The Most Potential Of Any Renewable Energy Source Archived 22 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 30 July 2013
  64. ^ "Renewable Energy". Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. 27 October 2021. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  65. ^ "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  66. ^ Clean Energy Council Australia. "Clean Energy Australia Report 2021" (PDF). Clean Energy Australia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  67. ^ "Wind energy generation by region". Our World in Data. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  68. ^ "Global Wind Atlas". Archived from the original on 18 January 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  69. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 13.
  70. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 13. Note: Compound annual growth rate 2012-2021.
  71. ^ NREL ATB 2021, Land-Based Wind.
  72. ^ "Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
  73. ^ Martin Kaltschmitt, Wolfgang Streicher, Andreas Wiese (eds.): Erneuerbare Energien. Systemtechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Umweltaspekte. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2013, p. 819.
  74. ^ "Electricity – from other renewable sources - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  75. ^ "Offshore stations experience mean wind speeds at 80 m that are 90% greater than over land on average." Evaluation of global wind power Archived 25 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine "Overall, the researchers calculated winds at 80 meters [300 feet] above sea level traveled over the ocean at approximately 8.6 meters per second and at nearly 4.5 meters per second over land [20 and 10 miles per hour, respectively]." Global Wind Map Shows Best Wind Farm Locations Archived 24 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 30 January 2006.
  76. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 8. Note: Excludes pure pumped storage.
  77. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 8. Note: Excludes pure pumped storage. Compound annual growth rate 2012-2021.
  78. ^ NREL ATB 2021, Hydropower.
  79. ^ Moran, Emilio F.; Lopez, Maria Claudia; Moore, Nathan; Müller, Norbert; Hyndman, David W. (2018). "Sustainable hydropower in the 21st century". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (47): 11891–11898. doi:10.1073/pnas.1809426115. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6255148. PMID 30397145.
  80. ^ "DocHdl2OnPN-PRINTRDY-01tmpTarget" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  81. ^ Afework, Bethel (3 September 2018). "Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity". Energy Education. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  82. ^ "Renewable Electricity Capacity and Generation Statistics, June 2018". Archived from the original on 28 November 2018.
  83. ^ Institute, Worldwatch (January 2012). "Use and Capacity of Global Hydropower Increases". Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  84. ^ "Net zero: International Hydropower Association". www.hydropower.org. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  85. ^ "Wave power - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  86. ^ "How Does Ocean Wave Power Work?". Energy Informative. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  87. ^ Unwin, Jack (12 March 2019). "Top five trends in wave power". Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  88. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 27.
  89. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 27. Note: Compound annual growth rate 2012-2021.
  90. ^ NREL ATB 2021, Other Technologies (EIA).
  91. ^ Biomass Energy Center. Biomassenergycentre.org.uk. Retrieved on 28 February 2012.
  92. ^ Scheck, Justin; Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (23 July 2012). "Wood-Fired Plants Generate Violations". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  93. ^ T.A. Volk; L.P. Abrahamson (January 2000). "Developing a Willow Biomass Crop Enterprise for Bioenergy and Bioproducts in the United States". North East Regional Biomass Program. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  94. ^ "Energy crops". crops are grown specifically for use as fuel. BIOMASS Energy Centre. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  95. ^ Howard, Brian (28 January 2020). "Turning cow waste into clean power on a national scale". TheHill. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  96. ^ Energy Kids Archived 5 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved on 28 February 2012.
  97. ^ Demirbas, A. (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy. 86: S108–S117. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.04.036.
  98. ^ Sweet sorghum for food, feed and fuel Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine New Agriculturalist, January 2008.
  99. ^ "Opinion of the EEA Scientific Committee on Greenhouse Gas Accounting in Relation to Bioenergy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  100. ^ a b c REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2011, pp. 13–14.
  101. ^ "WHO - Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health". Archived from the original on 4 January 2016.
  102. ^ "WHO - Household air pollution and health". Who.int. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  103. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 38.
  104. ^ IRENA 2022, p. 38. Note: Compound annual growth rate 2012-2021.
  105. ^ NREL ATB 2021, Geothermal.
  106. ^ Dye, S. T. (2012). "Geoneutrinos and the radioactive power of the Earth". Reviews of Geophysics. 50 (3): 3. arXiv:1111.6099. Bibcode:2012RvGeo..50.3007D. doi:10.1029/2012rg000400. S2CID 118667366.
  107. ^ Gando, A.; Dwyer, D. A.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C. (2011). "Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 4 (9): 647–651. Bibcode:2011NatGe...4..647K. doi:10.1038/ngeo1205. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  108. ^ Nemzer, J. "Geothermal heating and cooling". Archived from the original on 11 January 1998.
  109. ^ "Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency® - DSIRE". DSIRE. Archived from the original on 22 February 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
  110. ^ a b International Energy Agency (2007). Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet (PDF), OECD, p. 3. Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  111. ^ S.C.E. Jupe; A. Michiorri; P.C. Taylor (2007). "Increasing the energy yield of generation from new and renewable energy sources". Renewable Energy. 14 (2): 37–62.
  112. ^ "Defense-scale supercomputing comes to renewable energy research". Sandia National Laboratories. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  113. ^ Duchane, Dave; Brown, Don (December 2002). "Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Research and Development at Fenton Hill, New Mexico" (PDF). Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin. Vol. 23, no. 4. Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology. pp. 13–19. ISSN 0276-1084. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  114. ^ "Australia's Renewable Energy Future inc Cooper Basin & geothermal map of Australia Retrieved 15 August 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2015.
  115. ^ IRENA (2020), Innovation outlook: Ocean energy technologies, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi. https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2020/Dec/IRENA_Innovation_Outlook_Ocean_Energy_2020.pdf
  116. ^ "Sihwa Tidal Power Plant". Renewable Energy News and Articles. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015.
  117. ^ a b Tidal power (PDF), retrieved 20 March 2010[permanent dead link]
  118. ^ Collings AF and Critchley C (eds). Artificial Photosynthesis – From Basic Biology to Industrial Application (Wiley-VCH Weinheim 2005) p ix.
  119. ^ Faunce, Thomas A.; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Rutherford, A. W. (Bill); MacFarlane, Douglas; Moore, Gary F.; Yang, Peidong; Nocera, Daniel G.; Moore, Tom A.; Gregory, Duncan H.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Styring, Stenbjorn (2013). "Energy and environment policy case for a global project on artificial photosynthesis". Energy & Environmental Science. RSC Publishing. 6 (3): 695. doi:10.1039/C3EE00063J.
  120. ^ jobs (23 May 2012). "'Artificial leaf' faces economic hurdle: Nature News & Comment". Nature News. Nature.com. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10703. S2CID 211729746. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  121. ^ "Major infrared breakthrough could lead to solar power at night". 17 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  122. ^ Byrnes, Steven; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico (2014). "Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions". PNAS. 111 (11): 3927–3932. doi:10.1073/pnas.1402036111. PMC 3964088. PMID 24591604.
  123. ^ "In bloom: growing algae for biofuel". 9 October 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  124. ^ "Water vapor in the atmosphere may be prime renewable energy source". techxplore.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  125. ^ "Mapua's Carvey Maigue shortlisted in James Dyson Award for solar device". Good News Pilipinas. 11 November 2020. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  126. ^ "AuREUS Aurora Renewable Energy UV Sequestration". James Dyson Award. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  127. ^ "Mapua student wins international design award for invention made from crop waste". CNN. 20 November 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  128. ^ a b Olauson, Jon; Ayob, Mohd Nasir; Bergkvist, Mikael; Carpman, Nicole; Castellucci, Valeria; Goude, Anders; Lingfors, David; Waters, Rafael; Widén, Joakim (December 2016). "Net load variability in Nordic countries with a highly or fully renewable power system". Nature Energy. 1 (12): 16175. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.175. ISSN 2058-7546. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  129. ^ IPCC 2011, pp. 15–16.
  130. ^ Ramsebner, Jasmine; Haas, Reinhard; Ajanovic, Amela; Wietschel, Martin (July 2021). "The sector coupling concept: A critical review". WIREs Energy and Environment. 10 (4). doi:10.1002/wene.396. ISSN 2041-8396. S2CID 234026069.
  131. ^ "4 questions on sector coupling". Wartsila.com. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  132. ^ "Intelligent, flexible Sector Coupling in cities can double the potential for Wind and Solar". Energy Post. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  133. ^ "Hydropower Special Market Report – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  134. ^ "What role is large-scale battery storage playing on the grid today?". Energy Storage News. 5 May 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  135. ^ Zhou, Chen; Liu, Rao; Ba, Yu; Wang, Haixia; Ju, Rongbin; Song, Minggang; Zou, Nan; Li, Weidong (28 May 2021). "Study on the optimization of the day-ahead addition space for large-scale energy storage participation in auxiliary services". 2021 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems. ICAIIS 2021. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery: 1–6. doi:10.1145/3469213.3471362. ISBN 978-1-4503-9020-0. S2CID 237206056.
  136. ^ Heilweil, Rebecca (5 May 2022). "These batteries work from home". Vox. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  137. ^ a b c d e "Renewable Energy Market Update - May 2022 – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  138. ^ Gunter, Linda Pentz. "Trump Is Foolish to Ignore the Flourishing Renewable Energy Sector". Truthout. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  139. ^ Jaeger, Joel; Walls, Ginette; Clarke, Ella; Altamirano, Juan-Carlos; Harsono, Arya; Mountford, Helen; Burrow, Sharan; Smith, Samantha; Tate, Alison (18 October 2021). "The Green Jobs Advantage: How Climate-friendly Investments Are Better Job Creators". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  140. ^ "Renewable Energy Employment by Country". /Statistics/View-Data-by-Topic/Benefits/Renewable-Energy-Employment-by-Country. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  141. ^ "Energy Transition Investment Hit $500 Billion in 2020 – For First Time". BloombergNEF. (Bloomberg New Energy Finance). 19 January 2021. Archived from the original on 19 January 2021.
  142. ^ Data: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, and Ember Climate (3 November 2021). "Electricity consumption from fossil fuels, nuclear and renewables, 2020". OurWorldInData.org. Our World in Data consolidated data from BP and Ember. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021.
  143. ^ "Majority of New Renewables Undercut Cheapest Fossil Fuel on Cost". IRENA.org. International Renewable Energy Agency. 22 June 2021. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.Infographic (with numerical data) and archive thereof
  144. ^ Chrobak, Ula (28 January 2021). "Solar power got cheap. So why aren't we using it more?". Popular Science. Infographics by Sara Chodosh. Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Chodosh's graphic is derived from data in "Lazard's Levelized Cost of Energy Version 14.0" (PDF). Lazard.com. Lazard. 19 October 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2021.
  145. ^ "Why did renewables become so cheap so fast?". Our World in Data. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  146. ^ "The European Power Sector in 2020 / Up-to-Date Analysis on the Electricity Transition" (PDF). ember-climate.org. Ember and Agora Energiewende. 25 January 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 January 2021.
  147. ^ Heidari, Negin; Pearce, Joshua M. (2016). "A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Liabilities as the Value of Renewable Energy for Mitigating Lawsuits for Climate Change Related Damages". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 55C: 899–908. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.025. S2CID 111165822. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  148. ^ a b "Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2020". Capacity4dev / European Commission. Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate & Sustainable Energy Finance; BloombergNEF. 2020. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  149. ^ "Record clean energy spending is set to help global energy investment grow by 8% in 2022 - News". IEA. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  150. ^ "China's New Plan for Renewable Energy Development Focuses on Consumption". www.fitchratings.com. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  151. ^ Claeys, Bram; Rosenow, Jan; Anderson, Megan (27 June 2022). "Is REPowerEU the right energy policy recipe to move away from Russian gas?". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  152. ^ WWF and World Resources Institute, Corporate Renewable Enegy Buyers Principles Archived 11 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine, published July 2014, accessed 12 July 2021
  153. ^ This article contains OGL licensed text This article incorporates text published under the British Open Government Licence: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Aggregated energy balances showing proportion of renewables in supply and demand, published 24 September 2020, accessed 12 July 2021
  154. ^ a b "Hydropower Status Report". International Hydropower Association. 11 June 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  155. ^ Energy Technology Perspectives: Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. Paris: International Energy Agency. 2006. p. 124. ISBN 926410982X. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  156. ^ "Environmental Impacts of Hydroelectric Power | Union of Concerned Scientists". www.ucsusa.org. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  157. ^ "Hydropower Special Market Report" (PDF). IEA. pp. 34–36. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  158. ^ L. Lia; T. Jensen; K.E. Stensbyand; G. Holm; A.M. Ruud. "The current status of hydropower development and dam construction in Norway" (PDF). Ntnu.no. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  159. ^ "How Norway became Europe's biggest power exporter". Power Technology. 19 April 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  160. ^ "Trade surplus soars on energy exports | Norway's News in English — www.newsinenglish.no". Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  161. ^ "New Transmission Line Reaches Milestone". Vpr.net. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  162. ^ "Succeeding in the global offshore wind market | McKinsey". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  163. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Renewable Electricity Capacity And Generation Statistics June 2018". Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  164. ^ "Solar Energy Projects in California". energy.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  165. ^ "Segs Iii, Iv, V, Vi, Vii, Viii & Ix". Fplenergy.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  166. ^ "Brightsource Ivanpah". ivanpahsolar.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  167. ^ Mearian, Lucas. U.S. flips switch on massive solar power array that also stores electricity: The array is first large U.S. solar plant with a thermal energy storage system Archived 2 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, 10 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
  168. ^ REN21 Renewables Global Status Report 2008, p. 12.
  169. ^ "Crossing the Chasm" (PDF). Deutsche Bank Markets Research. 27 February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 March 2015.
  170. ^ "Solar Integrated in New Jersey". Jcwinnie.biz. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  171. ^ IEA (2014). "Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy" (PDF). iea.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  172. ^ Denis Lenardic. Large-scale photovoltaic power plants ranking 1 - 50 Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine PVresources.com, 2010.
  173. ^ "Biofuels". www.iea.org. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  174. ^ "Industry Statistics: Annual World Ethanol Production by Country". Renewable Fuels Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  175. ^ M. Macedo Isaias; Lima Verde Leal; J. Azevedo Ramos da Silva (2004). "Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil" (PDF). Secretariat of the Environment, Government of the State of São Paulo. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  176. ^ Daniel Budny and Paulo Sotero, ed. (April 2007). "Brazil Institute Special Report: The Global Dynamics of Biofuels" (PDF). Brazil Institute of the Woodrow Wilson Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
  177. ^ "Japan to create bio jet fuel supply chain in clean energy push". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  178. ^ William E. Glassley. Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine CRC Press, 2010.
  179. ^ Khan, M. Ali (2007). "The Geysers Geothermal Field, an Injection Success Story" (PDF). Annual Forum of the Groundwater Protection Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
  180. ^ "Developing Countries Lack Means To Acquire More Efficient Technologies". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  181. ^ Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre/BNEF. Global trends in renewable energy investment 2020, p. 42.
  182. ^ "Changes in primary energy demand by fuel and region in the Stated Policies Scenario, 2019-2030 – Charts – Data & Statistics". IEA. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  183. ^ Energy for Development: The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals pp. 7-9.
  184. ^ a b "Policies". www.iea.org. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  185. ^ Signatory States Archived 26 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  186. ^ "IRENA Membership". /irenamembership. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  187. ^ Tran, Mark (2 November 2011). "UN calls for universal access to renewable energy". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  188. ^ Ken Berlin, Reed Hundt, Marko Muro, and Devashree Saha. "State Clean Energy Banks: New Investment Facilities for Clean Energy Deployment"
  189. ^ "Putin promises gas to a Europe struggling with soaring prices". Politico. 13 October 2021. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  190. ^ Simon, Frédéric (12 December 2019). "The EU releases its Green Deal. Here are the key points". Climate Home News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  191. ^ Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Gulagi, Ashish; Fasihi, Mahdi; Breyer, Christian (1 February 2021). "Full energy sector transition towards 100% renewable energy supply: Integrating power, heat, transport and industry sectors including desalination". Applied Energy. 283: 116273. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116273. ISSN 0306-2619.
  192. ^ Teske, Sven, ed. (2019). Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-05843-2. ISBN 978-3-030-05842-5. S2CID 198078901.
  193. ^ "Cheap, safe 100% renewable energy possible before 2050, says Finnish uni study". Yle Uutiset. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  194. ^ Gulagi, Ashish; Alcanzare, Myron; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Esparcia, Eugene; Ocon, Joey; Breyer, Christian (1 July 2021). "Transition pathway towards 100% renewable energy across the sectors of power, heat, transport, and desalination for the Philippines". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 144: 110934. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.110934. ISSN 1364-0321.
  195. ^ Hansen, Kenneth; et al. (2019). "Status and perspectives on 100% renewable energy systems". Energy. 175: 471–480. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.092. The great majority of all publications highlights the technical feasibility and economic viability of 100% RE systems.
  196. ^ Koumoundouros, Tessa (27 December 2019). "Stanford Researchers Have an Exciting Plan to Tackle The Climate Emergency Worldwide". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  197. ^ Wiseman, John; et al. (April 2013). "Post Carbon Pathways" (PDF). University of Melbourne.
  198. ^ Bank, European Investment (20 April 2022). The EIB Climate Survey 2021-2022 - Citizens call for green recovery. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5223-8.
  199. ^ "Phasing out fossil gas power stations in Europe by 2030 | Airclim". www.airclim.org. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  200. ^ Swartz, Kristi E. (8 December 2021). "Can U.S. phase out natural gas? Lessons from the Southeast". E&E News. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  201. ^ "Climate change: phase out gas power by 2035, say businesses including Nestle, Thames Water, Co-op". Sky News. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  202. ^ a b van Zalk, John; Behrens, Paul (1 December 2018). "The spatial extent of renewable and non-renewable power generation: A review and meta-analysis of power densities and their application in the U.S." Energy Policy. 123: 83–91. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.08.023. ISSN 0301-4215.
  203. ^ Leake, Jonathan. "UK's largest solar farm 'will destroy north Kent landscape'". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  204. ^ McGwin, Kevin (20 April 2018). "Sámi mount new challenge to legality of Norway's largest wind farm". ArcticToday. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  205. ^ "Why do so many people in France hate wind farms?". The Local. France. 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  206. ^ "Norway's public backlash against onshore wind threatens sector growth". Reuters. 25 September 2019. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  207. ^ Gourlay, Simon (12 August 2008). "Wind farms are not only beautiful, they're absolutely necessary". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  208. ^ Department of Energy & Climate Change (2011). UK Renewable Energy Roadmap (PDF) Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine p. 35.
  209. ^ DTI, Co-operative Energy: Lessons from Denmark and Sweden[permanent dead link], Report of a DTI Global Watch Mission, October 2004
  210. ^ Morris C & Pehnt M, German Energy Transition: Arguments for a Renewable Energy Future Archived 3 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Heinrich Böll Foundation, November 2012
  211. ^ International Energy Agency (2007). Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security IEA Information Paper, p. 5. Archived 18 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  212. ^ a b "EU countries look to Brussels for help with 'unprecedented' energy crisis". Politico. 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  213. ^ "European Energy Crisis Fuels Carbon Trading Expansion Concerns". Bloomberg. 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  214. ^ "The Green Brief: East-West EU split again over climate". Euractiv. 20 October 2021. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  215. ^ "In Global Energy Crisis, Anti-Nuclear Chickens Come Home to Roost". Foreign Policy. 8 October 2021. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  216. ^ "Europe's energy crisis: Continent 'too reliant on gas,' says von der Leyen". Euronews. 20 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  217. ^ "The Geopolitics of Renewable Energy". ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  218. ^ "Future Petroleum Geopolitics: Consequences of Climate Policy and Unconventional Oil and Gas". ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  219. ^ Overland, Indra (1 March 2019). "The geopolitics of renewable energy: Debunking four emerging myths". Energy Research & Social Science. 49: 36–40. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2018.10.018. ISSN 2214-6296.
  220. ^ "The transition to clean energy will mint new commodity superpowers". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  221. ^ Overland, Indra; Bazilian, Morgan; Ilimbek Uulu, Talgat; Vakulchuk, Roman; Westphal, Kirsten (2019). "The GeGaLo index: Geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition". Energy Strategy Reviews. 26: 100406. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2019.100406.
  222. ^ Vakulchuk, Roman; Overland, Indra; Scholten, Daniel (1 April 2020). "Renewable energy and geopolitics: A review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 122: 109547. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2019.109547. ISSN 1364-0321. S2CID 213515030.
  223. ^ "Asian "super grid" the first step towards a global, interconnected, renewable energy grid". New Atlas. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 6 November 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  224. ^ Blondeel, Mathieu; Bradshaw, Michael J.; Bridge, Gavin; Kuzemko, Caroline (2021). "The geopolitics of energy system transformation: A review". Geography Compass. 15 (7): e12580. doi:10.1111/gec3.12580. ISSN 1749-8198. S2CID 237821588.
  225. ^ Scholten, Daniel; Bazilian, Morgan; Overland, Indra; Westphal, Kirsten (1 March 2020). "The geopolitics of renewables: New board, new game". Energy Policy. 138: 111059. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111059. ISSN 0301-4215. S2CID 213907107.
  226. ^ "The Geopolitics of Renewable Energy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  227. ^ "The Role of Critical Minerals in Clean Energy Transitions" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  228. ^ Watts, Jonathan; Kirk, Ashley; McIntyre, Niamh; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Kommenda, Niko. "Half world's fossil fuel assets could become worthless by 2036 in net zero transition". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  229. ^ Mercure, J.-F.; Salas, P.; Vercoulen, P.; Semieniuk, G.; Lam, A.; Pollitt, H.; Holden, P. B.; Vakilifard, N.; Chewpreecha, U.; Edwards, N. R.; Vinuales, J. E. (4 November 2021). "Reframing incentives for climate policy action". Nature Energy. 6 (12): 1133–1143. Bibcode:2021NatEn...6.1133M. doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00934-2. ISSN 2058-7546. S2CID 243792305.
  230. ^ Krane, Jim; Idel, Robert (1 December 2021). "More transitions, less risk: How renewable energy reduces risks from mining, trade and political dependence". Energy Research & Social Science. 82: 102311. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2021.102311. ISSN 2214-6296. S2CID 244187364.
  231. ^ a b "In-depth Q&A: Does the world need hydrogen to solve climate change?". Carbon Brief. 30 November 2020. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  232. ^ Van de Graaf, Thijs; Overland, Indra; Scholten, Daniel; Westphal, Kirsten (1 December 2020). "The new oil? The geopolitics and international governance of hydrogen". Energy Research & Social Science. 70: 101667. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2020.101667. ISSN 2214-6296. PMC 7326412. PMID 32835007.
  233. ^ "The New Geopolitics of a Decarbonizing World | Wilson Center". www.wilsoncenter.org. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  234. ^ US EPA, OAR (29 November 2018). "Estimating the Health Benefits per Kilowatt-hour of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  235. ^ Molar-Candanosa, Roberto (16 November 2021). "Health Benefits of Reducing Emissions to Mitigate Climate Change". NASA. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  236. ^ "US transition to electric vehicles would save over 100,000 lives by 2050 – study". The Guardian. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  237. ^ Lu, Zhengyao; Zhang, Qiong; Miller, Paul A.; Zhang, Qiang; Berntell, Ellen; Smith, Benjamin (2021). "Impacts of Large-Scale Sahara Solar Farms on Global Climate and Vegetation Cover". Geophysical Research Letters. 48 (2): e2020GL090789. Bibcode:2021GeoRL..4890789L. doi:10.1029/2020GL090789. ISSN 1944-8007. S2CID 230567825.
  238. ^ Ketzer, Daniel; Weinberger, Nora; Rösch, Christine; Seitz, Stefanie B. (3 May 2020). "Land use conflicts between biomass and power production – citizens' participation in the technology development of Agrophotovoltaics". Journal of Responsible Innovation. 7 (2): 193–216. doi:10.1080/23299460.2019.1647085. ISSN 2329-9460. S2CID 203305602.
  239. ^ The National Academies Press (2008). "Water Issues of Biofuel Production Plants". The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/12039. ISBN 978-0-309-11361-8. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  240. ^ a b Bilgili, Faik; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Kuşkaya, Sevda (1 May 2017). "Can biomass energy be an efficient policy tool for sustainable development?". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 71: 830–845. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.109. ISSN 1364-0321.
  241. ^ Magazzino, Cosimo; Mele, Marco; Schneider, Nicolas; Shahbaz, Muhammad (1 June 2021). "Can biomass energy curtail environmental pollution? A quantum model approach to Germany". Journal of Environmental Management. 287: 112293. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112293. ISSN 0301-4797. PMID 33714048. S2CID 232223051.
  242. ^ Li, Mengyu; Lenzen, Manfred; Yousefzadeh, Moslem; Ximenes, Fabiano A. (1 December 2020). "The roles of biomass and CSP in a 100 % renewable electricity supply in Australia". Biomass and Bioenergy. 143: 105802. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105802. ISSN 0961-9534. S2CID 225173118.
  243. ^ Perkins, Greg (13 August 2018). "Integration of biocrude production from fast pyrolysis of biomass with solar PV for dispatchable electricity production". Clean Energy. doi:10.1093/ce/zky013.
  244. ^ Stark, Matthias; Sonnleitner, Matthias; Zörner, Wilfried; Greenough, Rick (2017). "Approaches for Dispatchable Biomass Plants with Particular Focus on Steam Storage Devices". Chemical Engineering & Technology. 40 (2): 227–237. doi:10.1002/ceat.201600190. hdl:2086/14653. ISSN 1521-4125.
  245. ^ Mensah, Theophilus Nii Odai (2019). "The role of modern bioenergy in solar photovoltaic driven and defossilised power systems : The case of Ghana". Archived from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  246. ^ Hakkarainen, Elina; Hannula, Ilkka; Vakkilainen, Esa (2019). "Bioenergy RES hybrids − assessment of status in Finland, Austria, Germany, and Denmark". Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 13 (6): 1402–1416. doi:10.1002/bbb.2019. ISSN 1932-1031. S2CID 164274938.
  247. ^ McGrath, Matt (25 March 2020). "Climate change: Green energy plant threat to wilderness areas". bbc.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  248. ^ "Habitats Under Threat From Renewable Energy Development". technologynetworks.com. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  249. ^ Månberger, André; Stenqvist, Björn (1 August 2018). "Global metal flows in the renewable energy transition: Exploring the effects of substitutes, technological mix and development". Energy Policy. 119: 226–241. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.04.056. ISSN 0301-4215.
  250. ^ Thomas, Tobi (1 September 2020). "Mining needed for renewable energy 'could harm biodiversity'". Nature Communications. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  251. ^ LawApr. 1, Yao-Hua; 2019; Pm, 4:25 (1 April 2019). "Radioactive waste standoff could slash high tech's supply of rare earth elements". Science | AAAS. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  252. ^ "Mining needed for renewable energy 'could harm biodiversity'". The Guardian. 1 September 2020. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  253. ^ "Mining for renewable energy could be another threat to the environment". phys.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  254. ^ Sonter, Laura J.; Dade, Marie C.; Watson, James E. M.; Valenta, Rick K. (1 September 2020). "Renewable energy production will exacerbate mining threats to biodiversity". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 4174. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.4174S. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17928-5. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7463236. PMID 32873789. S2CID 221467922.
    CC-BY icon.svg
    Text and images are available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Archived 16 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  255. ^ "Solar Panel Recycling". www.epa.gov. 23 August 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  256. ^ "Solar panels are a pain to recycle. These companies are trying to fix that". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  257. ^ Heath, Garvin A.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Remo, Timothy; Cui, Hao; Sinha, Parikhit; Libby, Cara; Shaw, Stephanie; Komoto, Keiichi; Wambach, Karsten; Butler, Evelyn; Barnes, Teresa; Wade, Andreas (July 2020). "Research and development priorities for silicon photovoltaic module recycling to support a circular economy". Nature Energy. 5 (7): 502–510. Bibcode:2020NatEn...5..502H. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0645-2. ISSN 2058-7546. S2CID 220505135. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  258. ^ Domínguez, Adriana; Geyer, Roland (1 April 2019). "Photovoltaic waste assessment of major photovoltaic installations in the United States of America". Renewable Energy. 133: 1188–1200. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2018.08.063. ISSN 0960-1481. S2CID 117685414.
  259. ^ K. Kris Hirst. "The Discovery of Fire". About.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  260. ^ "wind energy". The Encyclopedia of Alternative Energy and Sustainable Living. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  261. ^ "Geothermal Energy". faculty.fairfield.edu. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  262. ^ Siemens, Werner (June 1885). "On the electro motive action of illuminated selenium, discovered by Mr. Fritts, of New York". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 119 (6): 453–IN6. doi:10.1016/0016-0032(85)90176-0. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  263. ^ Weber suggests that the modern economic world will determine the lifestyle of everyone born into it "until the last hundredweight of fossil fuel is burned" (bis der letzte Zentner fossilen Brennstoffs verglüht ist Archived 25 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine).
  264. ^ "Power from Sunshine": A Business History of Solar Energy Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine 25 May 2012
  265. ^ Hubbert, M. King (June 1956). "Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels" (PDF). Shell Oil Company/American Petroleum Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  266. ^ "History of PV Solar". Solarstartechnologies.com. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012.

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 30 June 2022, at 10:55
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.