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Simón Bolívar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar. Toro Moreno, José. 1922, Legislative Palace, La Paz.png
Portrait by José Toro Moreno, 1922
1st President of Colombia
In office
24 February 1819 – 4 May 1830
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byDomingo Caycedo
1st President of Bolivia
In office
12 August 1825 – 29 December 1825
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byAntonio José de Sucre
6th President of Peru
In office
10 February 1824 – 28 January 1827
Preceded byJosé Bernardo de Tagle
Succeeded byAndrés de Santa Cruz
Personal details
Born(1783-07-24)24 July 1783
Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, Spanish Empire
Died17 December 1830(1830-12-17) (aged 47)
Santa Marta, Gran Colombia
(today located in Colombia)
Cause of deathTuberculosis
Resting placeNational Pantheon of Venezuela
Nationality
Spouse(s)
Domestic partnerManuela Sáenz
Signature

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (English: /ˈbɒlɪvər,-vɑːr/ BOL-iv-ər, -⁠ar,[1] also US: /ˈblɪvɑːr/ BOH-liv-ar,[2] Spanish: [siˈmom boˈliβaɾ] (listen);[a] 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire. He is known colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator of America.

Simón Bolívar was born in Caracas in the Captaincy General of Venezuela into a wealthy creole family, but lost both parents before he turned ten and lived in several households. As was common for men of upper-class families in his day, Bolívar was sent to be educated abroad, and lived in Spain. While living in Madrid from 1800 to 1802, he was introduced to Enlightenment philosophy and met María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa. The two married in 1802 and returned to Venezuela, where del Toro contracted yellow fever and died within a year of their nuptials. Bolívar traveled in 1803 to France as Napoleon established the First French Empire, then to Rome, where he famously swore to end Spanish rule in the Americas. Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807 and began to discuss Venezuelan independence with other wealthy creoles. Following the collapse of Spanish authority in the Americas as a result of Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula, Bolívar threw himself into revolutionary politics and became an active and zealous combatant in the Spanish American wars of independence.

Bolívar began his military career in 1810 as a militia officer in the Venezuelan War of Independence, fighting Spanish and more native Royalist forces for the first and second Venezuelan republics and the United Provinces of New Granada. After Spanish forces subdued New Granada in 1815, Bolívar was forced into exile in the Republic of Haiti, led by Haitian revolutionary Alexandre Pétion. Bolívar befriended Pétion and, after promising to abolish slavery in South America, received military support from Haiti. Returning to Venezuela, he established a third republic in 1817 and then crossed the Andes in 1819 to liberate New Granada. Bolívar and his allies decisively defeated the Spanish in New Granada in 1819, Venezuela and Panama in 1821, Ecuador in 1822, Peru in 1824, and Bolivia in 1825. Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Panama were merged into the state of Gran Colombia, with Bolívar president as there and in Peru and Bolivia. Despite his best efforts, Bolívar could not hold Gran Colombia together against separatist, federalist inclinations in its member states and in 1830 he was removed from government and almost assassinated. That year, while waiting to board a ship for exile in Europe, Bolívar died of tuberculosis at the age of 47.

Bolívar is regarded as a national and cultural icon throughout Latin America; the nations of Bolivia and Venezuela and their currencies are named after him. His legacy is diverse and far-reaching both within Latin America and beyond. He has been memorialized all over the world in the form of public art or street names and in popular culture.

Early life and family

Simón Bolívar was born on 24 July 1783 in Caracas, capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela, the fourth and youngest child of Juan Vicente Bolívar y Ponte [es] and María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco [es].[3] He was baptized as Simón José Antonio de la Santísma Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios on 30 July.[4] Simón was born into the Bolívar family, one of the wealthiest and most prestigious creole families in the Spanish Americas.[5] The first Bolívar to emigrate to the Americas was Simón de Bolívar, a Basque nobleman and notary official who arrived in Santo Domingo in the mid-16th century.[6] In 1588–89, he joined the staff of Diego Osorio Villegas, Governor of Santo Domingo, when he was named Governor of the Venezuela Province and moved to Caracas.[7] There, Simón de Bolívar's descendants would also serve in the colonial bureaucracy and marry into rich Caracas families.[8] By the time Simón Bolívar was born, the Bolívars owned property throughout Venezuela.[9]

Simón Bolívar's childhood was described by British historian John Lynch as "at once privileged and deprived."[10] Juan Vicente died of tuberculosis on 19 January 1786,[11] and left María de la Concepción Palacios and her father, Feliciano Palacios y Sojo [es],[12] as legal guardians over the Bolívar children's inheritances.[13] Those children – María Antonia [es] (born 1777), Juana [es] (born 1779), Juan Vicente [es] (born 1781), and Simón[14] – were raised separately from each other and their mother, and, following colonial custom, by African house slaves.[15] Simón in particular was breastfed and then raised by a slave named Hipólita [es], whom Bolívar came to view as both a motherly and fatherly figure.[16] On 6 July 1792,[17] María de la Concepción also died of tuberculosis.[18] Believing that his family would inherit the Bolívars' wealth,[19] Feliciano Palacios arranged marriages for María Antonia and Juana and,[20] before dying on 5 December 1793,[21] assigned custody of Juan Vicente and Simón to his sons, Juan Félix Palacios and Carlos Palacios y Blanco [es], respectively.[22]

Education and first journey to Europe, 1793–1802

As a child, Bolívar was notoriously unruly.[23] He came to loathe Carlos,[24] who had no interest in Bolívar other than his inheritance,[25] and neglected his studies.[19] Even before Bolívar's mother died, he spent two years under the tutelage of the Venezuelan lawyer Miguel José Sanz at the direction of the Real Audiencia of Caracas [es], the Spanish court of appeals in Caracas.[26] In 1793, Carlos Palacios enrolled Bolívar at a rudimentary primary school [es] run by Simón Rodríguez.[27] In June 1795, Bolívar fled his uncle's custody for the house of Maria Antonia and her husband.[28] The couple sought formal recognition of his change of residence,[29] but the Real Audiencia decided the matter in favor of Palacios, who sent Simón to live with Rodríguez in his home.[30]

After two months there, Bolívar was moved at the direction of the Real Audiencia back to the Palacios family home.[31] Bolívar promised the Real Audiencia that he would focus on his education, and began to be taught full-time by Rodríguez and by Venezuelan intellectuals Andrés Bello and Francisco de Andújar [es].[32] In 1797, Rodríguez's connection to a pro-independence conspiracy forced him to go into exile,[33] and Bolívar was enrolled in an honorary militia force. When he was commissioned as an officer after a year,[34] his uncles Carlos and Esteban Palacios y Blanco [es] decided to send Bolívar to join the latter in Madrid.[35] There, Esteban was friends with Queen Maria Luisa's favorite, Manuel Mallo.[36]

Miniature portrait of Bolívar in 1800
Miniature portrait of Bolívar in 1800

On 19 January 1799, Bolívar boarded the Spanish warship San Ildefonso at the port of La Guaira,[37] bound for Cádiz.[38] The ship sailed first to Veracruz to load Mexican silver for transit to Spain.[39] The ship arrived on 2 February,[40] but was prevented from leaving for seven weeks by a British blockade of Havana,[41] which allowed Bolívar to travel to Mexico City, capital of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.[42] The San Ildefonso docked in Santoña, on the northern coast of Spain, in May 1799.[43] A little over a week later,[44] Bolívar joined Esteban in Madrid.[45] Esteban found Bolívar to be "very ignorant" and hired tutors to teach him.[46] When he found himself in financial difficulty,[47] Esteban asked Gerónimo Enrique de Uztáriz y Tovar, a Caracas native and government official, to educate Bolívar.[48][49] Uztáriz accepted and Bolívar, who moved into his residence in February 1800,[50] was thoroughly educated.[51]

At the same time, Mallo fell out of the Queen's favor and Manuel Godoy, her previous favorite, returned to power.[52] As members of Mallo's faction at court, Esteban was arrested on pretense,[53] and Bolívar was banished from court following a public incident at the Puerta de Toledo over the wearing of diamonds without royal permission.[54] Bolívar also at this time met María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa, the daughter of another wealthy Caracas creole.[55] They were engaged in August 1800,[56] then were separated when the del Toros left Madrid for a summer home in Bilbao.[57] After Uztáriz left Madrid for a government assignment in Teruel in 1801,[56][58] Bolívar himself left for Bilbao and remained there when the del Toros returned to the capital in August 1801.[59] Early in 1802, Bolívar traveled to Paris while he awaited permission to return to Madrid, which was granted in April.[60]

Return to Venezuela and second journey to Europe, 1802–1805

Bolívar and del Toro, aged 18 and 21 respectively, were married in Madrid on 26 May 1802.[61] The couple boarded the San Ildefonso in A Coruña[62] on 15 June and sailed for La Guaira, where they arrived on 12 July,[56] and settled in Caracas. There, del Toro fell ill and died of yellow fever on 22 January 1803 and was buried in the Bolívar family crypt at Caracas Cathedral.[63] Bolívar was devastated by del Toro's death, and later told Louis Peru de Lacroix, one of his generals and biographers, that he swore to never remarry.[64] By July 1803,[65] Bolívar decided to leave Venezuela for Europe. He entrusted his estates to an agent and his brother and in October boarded a ship bound for Cádiz.[66]

Bolívar arrived in Spain in December 1803, then traveled to Madrid to console his father-in-law.[67] In March 1804,[68] Madrid ordered all non-residents in the city to leave to alleviate a bread shortage brought about by resumed hostilities with Britain.[69] Over April, Bolívar and Fernando Rodríguez del Toro [es], a childhood friend and relative of his wife, made their way to Paris and arrived in time for Napoleon to be proclaimed Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804.[70] They rented an apartment on the Rue Vivienne [fr] and met with other South Americans such as Carlos de Montúfar [es], Vicente Rocafuerte, and Simón Rodríguez, who joined Bolívar and del Toro in their apartment. Bolívar soon thereafter began a dalliance with the Countess Dervieu du Villars,[71] who hosted a salon frequented by members of French high society.[72] It was likely at this salon that Bolívar met the naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, who had traveled through much of Spanish America from 1799 to 1804, and allegedly discussed Spanish American independence with them.[73]

I swear before you [...] that I will not rest body or soul until I have broken the chains binding us to the will of Spanish might!

Simón Bolívar, 15 August 1805[74]

On 2 December 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor in Notre Dame de Paris.[75] Though he remained awed by Napoleon, Bolívar was disgusted and,[76] in April 1805, left Paris with Rodríguez and del Toro on a Grand Tour to Italy.[77] Beginning in Lyon, they traveled to Chambéry, where the philosopher Rousseau had once resided, through the Savoy Alps, and then to Milan.[78] The trio arrived in time to witness Napoleon's coronation as King of Italy on 26 May 1805.[79] From Milan, they traveled down the Po Valley to Venice, then to Florence, and then finally Rome,[80] where Bolívar met among others Pope Pius VII, the French writer Germaine de Staël, and Humboldt again.[81] Rome's sites and history excited Bolívar, and on 18 August 1805, when he, del Toro, and Rodríguez traveled to the Mons Sacer, where the plebs had seceded from Rome, Bolívar swore to end Spanish rule in the Americas.[82]

Political and military career

By April 1806, Bolívar had returned to Paris and desired passage to Venezuela,[83] where Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda had just attempted an invasion with American volunteers.[84] British control of the seas resulting from the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, however, obliged Bolívar to board an American ship in Hamburg in October 1806. Bolívar arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, in January 1807,[85] and from there traveled to Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston.[86] After six months in the United States,[87] Bolívar returned to Philadelphia and sailed for Venezuela, where he arrived in June 1807. He began to meet with other creole elites to discuss independence from Spain.[88] Finding himself to be far more radical than the rest of Caracas high society,[89] however, Bolívar occupied himself with a property dispute with a neighbor, Antonio Nicolás Briceño [es].[90]

In 1807–08, Napoleon invaded the Iberian peninsula and replaced the rulers of Spain with his brother.[91] This news arrived in Venezuela in July 1808.[92] Napoleonic rule was rejected and Venezuelan creoles, though still loyal to Ferdinand VII of Spain, sought to form their own local government in place of the existing Spanish government.[93] When, on 24 November 1808, the creoles presented a petition demanding an independent government to Juan de Casas [es], the Captain-General of Venezuela, he cracked down and arrested the petitioners.[94] Bolívar, who did not sign the petition, was not arrested but was warned to cease hosting or attending seditious meetings.[95] In May 1809, Casas was replaced by Vicente Emparán and his staff, which included Fernando Rodríguez del Toro. Emparán's government, while friendlier to the creoles and connected to some of the opposition leaders,[96] was also resisted by the creoles.[97][98]

By February 1810, French victories in Spain prompted the dissolution of the anti-French Spanish government in favor of a five-man regency council for Ferdinand VII.[99] This news, and two delegates that included Carlos de Montúfar, arrived in Venezuela on 17 April 1810.[100] Two days later, the creoles succeeded in deposing and then expelling Emparán,[101][102] and created the Supreme Junta of Caracas, independent from the Spanish regency but not Ferdinand VII.[103][104] Absent from Caracas for the coup,[105] the Bolívar brothers returned to the city and offered their services to the Supreme Junta as diplomats.[106] In May 1810, Juan Vicente was sent to the United States to buy weapons,[107] while Simón secured a place in a diplomatic mission to Great Britain with the lawyer Luis López Méndez [es], and Andrés Bello by paying for the mission. The trio boarded a British warship, HMS Wellington, in June 1810 and arrived at Portsmouth on 10 July 1810.[108]

The three delegates first met Miranda at his London residence, despite instructions from the Supreme Junta to avoid him, and thereafter received the benefit of his connections and consultation.[109] On 16 July 1810, the Venezuelan delegation met the British foreign secretary, Richard Wellesley, at his residence. Led by Bolívar, the Venezuelans argued in favor of Venezuelan independence. Wellesley stated that it was intolerable for Anglo-Spanish relations,[110] and moreover was using his talks with the Venezuelans to secure access to Spanish American markets for British merchants from the Spanish regency.[111] Subsequent meetings produced no recognition or concrete support from Britain.[112] Finding that he had many shared beliefs with Miranda, however, Bolívar convinced him to come back to Venezuela.[113] On 22 September 1810,[114] Bolívar left for Venezuela aboard HMS <i>Sapphire</i> while López and Bello remained in London as diplomats,[115] and arrived in La Guaira on 5 December.[116] Miranda, whose return to Venezuela the British government did not desire but could not prevent,[117] arrived in La Guaira later in December.[118][b]

Venezuela, 1811–1812

While Bolívar was in England, the Supreme Junta passed liberal economic reforms,[124] restructured government in Venezuela,[125] and began to hold elections for representatives to a congress to be held in Caracas.[125][126] It had also alienated Caracas from the Venezuelan provinces of Coro, Maracaibo, and Guayana, which professed loyalty to the regency council,[127] and began hostilities with them.[128][129] Creating the Patriotic Society [es], Bolívar and Miranda campaigned for and secured the latter's election to the congress.[130][131] The congress first met on 2 March 1811 and reaffirmed Caracas's allegiance to Ferdinand VII.[125][132] After it was discovered that one of the men leading the congress was a Spanish agent who had escaped with military documents, however,[133] discourse – which Bolívar was prominent in – changed decidedly in favor of independence over 3 and 4 July 1811.[134] Finally, on 5 July, after a near-unaminous vote, the congress declared Venezuela's independence.[131][135]

The declaration of independence created a republic with a weak base of support and enemies in conservative whites, disenfranchised people of color, and already hostile Venezuelan provinces, which received troops and supplies from the Captaincy-Generals of Puerto Rico and Cuba.[136][137] On 13 July 1811,[138] two days after an attempted counterrevolutionary uprising in Caracas,[139] the republic raised its militias to fight the pro-Spanish Royalists.[138] Command of the Republican forces was given to Francisco Rodríguez del Toro [es], the Marquis of Toro [es].[140] This promotion opened a breach between Bolívar and Miranda as Bolívar was a friend of del Toro and remained loyal to him.[141] Following a failed attempt to suppress a Royalist uprising in the city of Valencia later in July,[142] del Toro was replaced with Miranda, who recaptured Valencia [es] on 13 August 1811.[143][144] As a condition of assuming command of the Republican forces, Miranda had Bolívar removed from his command of a militia unit.[145] Bolívar nonetheless fought in the Valencia campaign as part of del Toro's militia[146] and was selected by Miranda to bring news of its recapture to Caracas,[147] where he fruitlessly argued for more punitive and forceful campaigning against the Royalists.[148] On 21 December, congress ratified the Constitution of 1811 [es]. The decentralized government it constructed dismayed Bolívar and Miranda, who desired a centralized government.[149]

I left my house for the Cathedral [...] and the earth began to shake with a huge roar. [...] I saw the church of San Jacinto collapse on its own foundations. [...] I climbed over the ruins and entered, and I immediately saw about forty persons dead or dying under the rubble. I climbed out again and I shall never forget that moment. On the top of the ruins I found Don Simón Bolívar [...]. He saw me and [said], "We will fight nature itself if it opposes us, and force it to obey."

Royalist historian José Domingo Díaz [es], quoted by John Lynch[150]

Beginning in November 1811, Royalist forces began pushing back the Republicans on from the north and east.[151] Then, on 26 March 1812, a powerful earthquake struck Venezuela, devastating areas under Republican control; Caracas itself was almost totally destroyed.[152] Bolívar, who was still in the area of Caracas,[153] rushed into the city to participate in the rescue of survivors and exhumation of the dead.[154] The earthquake also destroyed public support for the republic, as Royalists and Republicans alike believed it to have been divine retribution for declaring independence from Spain.[144][155] By April, a Royalist army under the Spanish naval officer Juan Domingo de Monteverde overran western Venezuela. Miranda,[156][157] retreating east with a desintegrating army,[158] ordered Bolívar to assume command of the coastal city of Puerto Cabello and its fortress,[159] which contained Royalist prisoners and most of the republic's remaining arms and ammunition.[160]

Bolívar arrived at Puerto Cabello on 4 May 1812.[161] On 30 June, a Royalist officer of the fort's garrison released its prisoners, armed them, and turned its cannons on Puerto Cabello.[158][162] Weakened by further shelling, defections, and lack of supplies, Bolívar wrote to Miranda requesting assistance but received none, as the letter arrived too late. On 6 July, Bolívar and his remaining troops fled Puerto Cabello to La Guaira.[163] Believing the republic to be doomed,[158] Miranda decided to capitulate to Monteverde on 12 July,[164] shocking Bolívar and other Republican officers.[165] After formally surrendering his command on 25 July,[166] Miranda made his way to La Guaira with a large sum of money to sail into exile. Before he could leave, however, a group of Republican conspirators that included Bolívar arrested and imprisoned Miranda on 30 July on charges of treason.[167] The very next day, the La Guaira declared for the Royalists and closed its port on Monteverde's orders.[168] Miranda, still incarcerated, was taken into Spanish custody and moved to a prison in Cádiz, where he died on 16 July 1816.[169]

New Granada and Venezuela, 1812–1815

Bolívar escaped La Guaira early on 31 July 1812 and rode to Caracas,[170] where he hid from arrest in the home of Esteban Fernández de León [es], the Marquis de Casa León [es]. Bolívar and Casa León convinced Francisco Iturbe, a friend of the Bolívar family and of Monteverde, to intercede on Bolívar's behalf and secure escape from Venezuela for him. Iturbe persuaded Monteverde to issue Bolívar a passport for his role in Miranda's arrest,[171] and on August 27 he sailed for Curaçao. He and his uncles Francisco and José Félix Ribas arrived on 1 September. Late in October, the exiles arranged for passage to the city of Cartagena in New Granada (now Colombia) to offer their services to the United Provinces of New Granada.[172] They arrived in November and were welcomed by Manuel Rodríguez Torices, president of the Free State of Cartagena [es],[173] who instructed his commanding general, Pierre Labatut, to give Bolívar a military command. Labatut, a former partisan of Miranda, begrudgingly obliged and on 1 December 1812[174] placed Bolívar in command of the 70-man garrison of a town on the lower Magdalena River.[175]

Engraving of Bolívar
1917 engraving of Bolívar

While en route to his posting, Bolívar issued the Cartagena Manifesto, outlining what he believed to be the causes of the Venezuelan republic's defeat and his political program. In particular, Bolívar called for the disparate New Granadan republics to help him invade Venezuela to prevent a Royalist invasion of New Granada.[176] Bolívar arrived on the Magdalena River on 21 December and,[177] desiring to clear the river of Royalist forces, immediately prepared for an offensive in spite of orders from Labatut to not act without his direction.[178] He launched that offensive – the Magdalena campaign – on 23 December,[177] and succeeded in his aims by 8 January 1813.[179] Bolívar soon thereafter received a request for assistance from Republican colonel Manuel del Castillo y Rada [es], who was struggling to check a Royalist force advancing into New Granada from Venezuela through the city of Cúcuta.[180][181] On 9 February, Bolívar joined forces with del Castillo to repel the Royalists and together they captured Cúcuta on 28 February.[182]

In early March 1813, Bolívar set up his headquarters in Cúcuta and sent José Félix Ribas to request permission to invade Venezuela.[183] Though rewarded with honorary citizenship in New Granada and a promotion to the rank of brigadier general,[184] that permission did not come until 7 May because of del Castillo's opposition to the invasion. When a limited invasion was permitted, Castillo resigned his command and was succeeded by Francisco de Paula Santander, who also refused to participate in the invasion.[185] On 14 May, Bolívar launched the Admirable Campaign,[186] in which he issued the Decree of War to the Death, ordering the death of all Spaniards in South America not actively aiding his forces.[187] Within six months, Bolívar pushed all the way to Caracas,[188] which he entered and paraded through on 6 August,[189][190] and then defeated Monteverde near Puerto Cabello and drove him out of Venezuela in October.[191][192] Bolívar returned to Caracas on 14 October and was named "The Liberator" (El Libertador) by its town council,[193] a title first given to him by the citizens of the Venezuelan town of Mérida on 23 May.[194]

On 2 January 1814, Bolívar was made the dictator of a Second Republic of Venezuela,[195] which retained the weaknesses of the first republic.[196][197] Though all of Venezuela but Maracaibo, Coro, and Guayana was controlled by Republicans,[198][199] Bolívar only governed western Venezuela. The east was controlled by Santiago Mariño, a Venezuelan Republican who had fought Monteverde in the east throughout 1813.[200][201] Mariño was unwilling to recognize Bolívar as his superior and Bolívar,[202] already rebuffing requests to restore the 1811 constitution,[203] desired a single, centralized, and stable Venezuelan republic under his governance.[204][205] Venezuela, however, was economically devastated and could not support the republic's armies,[206] and people of color remained disenfranchised and thus unsupportive of the republic.[196][207] The republic was assailed from all sides by slave revolts and Royalist forces,[208] especially the Legion of Hell, an army of llaneros – the colored cowboys of the Llanos, to the south – led by the Spanish warlord José Tomás Boves.[209] Beginning in February 1814, Boves surged out of the llanos and overwhelmed the republic, occupying Caracas on 16 July and destroying Mariño's powerbase – and dying in battle – on 5 December.[210][211][212]

As Boves approached Caracas, Bolívar ordered the city stripped of its gold and silver,[213] which was moved through La Guaira to Barcelona, Venezuela,[214] and from there to Cumaná.[215] Bolívar then led 20,000 of its citizens east.[213] He arrived in Barcelona on 2 August,[216] but following another Royalist victory [es] at Aragua de Barcelona on 17 August 1814, he moved to Cumaná, arriving on 25 August.[217] The next day, he sailed with Mariño to Margarita Island with the gold and silver. The officer in control of the island, Manuel Piar, however, declared Bolívar and Mariño to be traitors, and forced them to return to the mainland.[218] There, Ribas also accused Bolívar and Mariño of treachery, confiscated the treasure,[219] and then exiled the two from Venezuela on 8 September.[220] Bolívar arrived in Cartagena on 19 September and from there journeyed to Tunja to meet with the New Granadan congress,[221] which tasked him with subduing the rival Free and Independent State of Cundinamarca.[222] Bolívar accomplished this on 12 December with the capture of Cundinamarca's capital, Bogotá, and in January 1815 was made the commander of New Granada's armies.[223] Bolívar next grappled with del Castillo, who had taken control of Cartagena.[224] Bolívar began a six-week siege of the city [es] that allowed the Royalists to regain control of the Magdalena.[225] On 8 May, Bolívar made a truce with del Castillo, resigned his command, and sailed for exile on Jamaica.[226] In July, 8,000 Spanish soldiers commanded by Spanish general Pablo Morillo landed at Santa Marta and then besieged Cartagena [es], which capitulated on 6 December; del Castillo was executed.[227][228] In Venezuela, the restored Royalist government confiscated much of Bolívar's property.[229]

Jamaica, Haiti, Venezuela, and New Granada, 1815–1819

Portrait of Bolívar by Arturo Michelena
1895 portrait of Bolívar by Arturo Michelena

Bolívar arrived in Kingston, Jamaica on 14 May 1815 and,[230] like his earlier exile on Curaçao, ruminated on the fall of the Venezuelan and New Granadan republics. He wrote extensively, requesting assistance from Britain and corresponding with merchants based in the Caribbean. This culminated in September 1815 with the Letter from Jamaica, in which Bolívar again laid out his ideology and vision of the future of the Americas.[231] On 9 December, the Venezuelan pirate Renato Beluche brought Bolívar news from New Granada and asked him to join the Republican community in exile in Haiti.[232] Bolívar tentatively accepted and that night escaped assassination by his manservant, who mistakenly killed Bolívar's paymaster as part of a Spanish conspiracy against his life.[233] He left Jamaica eight days later,[234] arrived in Les Cayes on 24 December,[235] and on 2 January 1816 was introduced to Alexandre Pétion, President of the Republic of Haiti by a mutual friend and contact.[236] Bolívar and Pétion impressed and befriended each other and,[237] after Bolívar pledged to free every slave in the areas he occupied, Pétion gave him money and military supplies.[238][239]

Returning to Les Cayes, Bolívar held a conference with the Republican leaders in Haiti and was made supreme leader with Mariño as his chief of staff.[240] The Republicans departed Les Cayes for Venezuela on 31 March 1816 and followed the Antilles eastward.[241] After a delay to allow a lover of Bolívar's to join the fleet, it arrived on 2 May at Margarita Island, controlled by Republican commander Juan Bautista Arismendi.[242] Bolívar next moved to the mainland, where he declared the emancipation of all slaves and annulled of the Decree of War to the Death.[243][c] He took Carúpano on 31 May and sent Mariño and Piar into Guayana to build their own army,[246] and then Ocumare de la Costa on 6 July.[247] There, by 14 July, his forces were defeated and scattered by Royalist general Francisco Tomás Morales, who then captured Ocumare and the Haitian supplies.[248][249] Bolívar fled by sea to Güiria where, on 22 August, he was deposed by Mariño and José Francisco Bermúdez,[250] who tried to kill Bolívar with a sword.[251]

Bolívar returned to Haiti by early September,[252] where Pétion again agreed to assist him.[253] In his absence, the Republican leaders scattered across Venezuela, concentrating in the Llanos, and became disunited warlords.[254] These caudillos declined to recognize Mariño's leadership,[255] and instead sought Bolívar's return. Arismendi wrote to Bolívar and dispatched New Granadan Republican Francisco Antonio Zea to convince him to return. Bolívar and Zea set sail for Venezuela on 21 December with Luis Brión, a Dutch merchant and Republican ally,[256] and arrived ten days later at Barcelona. There, Bolívar issued a decree announcing his return and calling for a congress for a new, third republic.[257] He then wrote to the Republican caudillos, but especially José Antonio Páez, who controlled most of the western Llanos, to unify into a professional army under his leadership.[258][259] On 8 January 1817, Bolívar began marching towards Caracas but was turned back [es] and then pursued to Barcelona by a larger Royalist force,[260] forcing Bolívar to request help Mariño and Piar. Mariño arrived on 8 February and forced a Royalist withdrawal and brought Bermúdez, who then reconciled with Bolívar.[261]

Even with their combined forces, however, Bolívar, Mariño, and Bermúdez could not hold Barcelona.[262] Instead, on 25 March 1817,[263] Bolívar began moving south to join Piar in Guayana, Piar's power base, and establish his own economic and political base there.[264][265] Bolívar met Piar on 4 April,[266] promoted him to the rank of general of the army, and then joined a force of Piar's besieging the city of Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar) on 2 May.[267] Meanwhile, Mariño went east to reestablish his power base and on 8 May convened a congress of ten men, including Brión and Zea, that named Mariño as supreme commander of the Republican forces and reinstated the 1811 constitution.[268] This backfired and provoked the defection of 30 officers, including Rafael Urdaneta and Antonio José de Sucre, to Bolívar.[269] On 30 June, Bolívar granted Piar leave of absence at his request,[270] and then an arrest warrant on 23 July after Piar began fomenting rebellion, alleging that Bolívar had dismissed him because of his African heritage. Piar fled to join Mariño but was captured on 27 September by Manuel Cedeño [es] and brought to Angostura, where he was executed by firing squad on 16 October.[271][272] Bolívar then sent Sucre to reconcile with Mariño,[273] who pledged loyalty to Bolívar on 26 January 1818.[274]

On 17 July 1817, Angostura fell [es] to Bolívar's forces, which then gained control of the Orinoco River in early August.[275][276] Angostura became the provisional Republican capital and in September,[277] Bolívar began creating formal political and military structures for the republic.[278][279] Bolívar then gained recognition as supreme leader from Páez, whom he met at San Juan de Payara on 30 January 1818.[280] In February 1818, the Republicans moved north and took Calabozo, where they defeated Morillo [es],[281] who had returned to Venezuela a year earlier after conquering Republican New Granada.[282][283] Bolívar next advanced towards Caracas and on 16 March was himself defeated [es],[284][285] and was almost assassinated by Spanish infiltrators in April. Illness and additional Republican defeats obliged Bolívar to return to Angostura in May. For the rest of the year, he focused on administrating the republic, rebuilding its armed forces,[286] and organizing elections for a national congress that would meet in 1819.[287][288]

Gran Colombia, 1819–1830

Equestion portrait of Bolívar
c. 1826 equestrian portrait of Bolívar by José Hilarión Ibarra [es]

The congress met in Angostura on 15 February 1819.[289] There, Bolívar gave a speech in which he presented his draft of a constitution [es] for a centralized government modeled on the British government, advocated for racial equality,[290] and relinquished civil authority to the congress.[291] The next day, the congress elected Bolívar as president and Zea as vice president.[288][292] On 27 February,[293] Bolívar left Angostura to rejoin Páez in the west and resumed campaigning [es], indecisively, against Morillo.[288][294] In May, as the annual wet season was beginning in the Llanos, Bolívar met with his officers and revealed his intention to invade New Granada,[295] which he had prepared for by sending Santander to build up Republican forces in Casanare Province in August 1818.[296][297] On 27 May,[298] Bolívar marched with more than 2,000 soldiers toward the Andes[299][300] and left Páez, Mariño, Urdaneta, and Bermúdez to tie down Morillo's forces in Venezuela.[301]

Bolívar entered Casanare Province with his army on 4 June 1819,[302] then met up with Santander at Tame, Arauca, on 11 June.[303] The combined Republican force reached the Eastern Range of the Andes on 22 June and began a gruelling crossing.[304] On 6 July, the Republicans descended the Andes from the Páramo de Pisba [es] at Socha and into the plains of New Granada.[305] After a brief convalescence, the Republicans made rapid progress against the forces of Spanish colonel José María Barreiro Manjón [es] until, on 7 August, the Royalists were routed at the Battle of Boyacá. On 10 August, Bolívar entered Bogotá, which the Spanish officials had hastily abandoned,[306][307] and captured the viceregal treasury and armories.[308] After sending forces to secure Republican control of central New Granada,[309] Bolívar paraded through Bogotá on 18 September with Santander.[310]

Desiring to merge New Granada and Venezuela into a "greater republic of Colombia", Bolívar first established a provisional government in Bogotá with Santander,[311] and then left to resume campaigning against the Royalists in Venezuela on 20 September 1819.[312] En route, he learned that Santander had executed Barreiro and other Royalist prisoners on 11 October[313] and that Zea had been replaced as vice president in September 1819 by Arismendi, who was conspiring with Mariño against Urdaneta and Bermúdez. Bolívar arrived in Angostura on 11 December and, by being conciliatory, restored order.[314] He then proposed the merging of New Granada and Venezuela to the congress on 14 December,[315] which was approved. On 17 December, the congress issued a decree creating the Republic of Colombia, including the regions of Venezuela, New Granada, and the still Spanish-controlled Real Audiencia of Quito (Ecuador), and elected Bolívar and Zea president and vice president respectively.[316]

After Christmas Day, 1819,[317] Bolívar left Angostura to direct campaigns against Royalist forces along the Caribbean coasts of Venezuela and New Granada.[318] He met with Santander in Bogotá in March 1820, then rode to Cúcuta and inspected Republican forces in northern Colombia over April and May 1820.[319] Meanwhile, Morillo's military and political position was fatally undermined by mutiny of Spanish soldiers in Cádiz on 1 January [es], which forced Ferdinand VII to accept a liberal constitution in March.[320][321] News of the mutiny and its consequences arrived in Colombia in the same month and was followed by orders from Spain to Morillo to publicize the constitutuion and negotiate a peace that would return Colombia to the Spanish Empire. Bolívar and Morillo, both seeking to gain leverage over the other,[322] delayed talks until 21 November, when deputations from both sides met in Trujillo, Venezuela.[323] The delegates completed two treaties [es] on 25 November, establishing a six-month truce, a prisoner exchange, and basic rights for combatants. Bolívar and Morillo signed the treaties on 25 and 26 November, then met the next day at Santa Ana de Trujillo [es].[324][325] After this meeting, Morillo turned his command over to his second-in-command, Miguel de la Torre, and then departed for Spain on 17 December.[326]

In February 1821, as Bolívar was traveling from Bogotá to Cúcuta in anticipation of the opening of a new congress there,[327] he learned that Royalist-controlled Maracaibo had defected to Colombia and been occupied by Urdaneta.[328][329] La Torre protested to Bolívar, who refused to return Maracaibo, which led to the renewal of hostilities on 28 April.[330] Over May and June, Colombia's armies made rapid progress until, on 24 June, Bolívar and Páez decisively defeated La Torre at the Battle of Carabobo.[331][332] After reducing Royalist holdings in Venezuela to Puerto Cabello and Maracaibo (which fell in October 1822 and August 1823 respectively)[333] over June and most of July, Bolívar paraded through Caracas on 29 July.[334]

Ecuador and Peru, 1822–1824

Bolívar followed with the Battle of Bombona and the Battle of Pichincha, after which he entered Quito on 16 June 1822.[335] On 26 and 27 July 1822, Bolívar held the Guayaquil Conference with the Argentine General José de San Martín, who had received the title of "Protector of Peruvian Freedom" in August 1821 after partially liberating Peru from the Spanish.[336]

Republic of Bolivia

Portrait by Francis Martin Drexel, 1827
Portrait by Francis Martin Drexel, 1827

On 6 August 1825, at the Congress of Upper Peru, the "Republic of Bolivia" was created.[337] Bolívar is thus one of the few people to have a country named after him. Bolívar returned to Caracas on 12 January 1827, and then back to Bogotá.[338]

Struggles inside Gran Colombia

El Libertador (Bolívar diplomático), 1860
El Libertador (Bolívar diplomático), 1860

Bolívar thought that a federation like the one founded in the United States was impossible in Spanish America.[339] For this reason, and to prevent a break-up, Bolívar sought to implement a more centralist model of government in Gran Colombia, including some or all of the elements of the Bolivian constitution he had written, which included a lifetime presidency with the ability to select a successor (although this presidency was to be held in check by an intricate system of balances).[340]

This move was considered controversial in New Granada and was one of the reasons for the deliberations that took place from 9 April to 10 June 1828. The convention almost ended up drafting a document which would have implemented a radically federalist form of government, which would have greatly reduced the powers of a central administration. The federalist faction was able to command a majority for the draft of a new constitution which has definite federal characteristics despite its ostensibly centralist outline. Unhappy with what would be the ensuing result, pro-Bolívar delegates withdrew from the convention, leaving it moribund.[341]

Two months after the failure of this congress to write a new constitution, Bolívar was declared president-liberator in Colombia's "Organic Decree".[342] He considered this a temporary measure, as a means to reestablish his authority and save the republic, although it increased dissatisfaction and anger among his political opponents.[343] An assassination attempt on 25 September 1828 failed, thanks to the help of his lover, Manuela Sáenz.[344] Bolívar afterward described Sáenz as "Liberatrix of the Liberator".[345] Dissent continued, and uprisings occurred in New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador during the next two years.[341]

After, Bolívar continued to govern in a rarefied environment, cornered by factional disputes. Uprisings occurred in New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador during the following two years. The separatists accused him of betraying republican principles and of wanting to establish a permanent dictatorship.[341] Gran Colombia declared war against Peru when president General La Mar invaded Guayaquil. He was later defeated by Marshall Antonio José de Sucre in the Battle of the Portete de Tarqui, 27 February 1829. Sucre was killed on 4 June 1830.[346]

Death and burial

Bolívar's death, by Venezuelan painter Antonio Herrera Toro
Bolívar's death, by Venezuelan painter Antonio Herrera Toro

Bolívar resigned the presidency on 27 April 1830, intending to leave the country for exile in Europe.[347]

On 17 December 1830, at the age of 47, Simón Bolívar died of tuberculosis[348] in the Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino in Santa Marta, Gran Colombia (now Colombia).

Bolívar's remains were buried in the cathedral of Santa Marta. Twelve years later, in 1842, at the request of President José Antonio Páez, they were moved from Santa Marta to Caracas, where they were buried in the Caracas Cathedral together with the remains of his wife and parents. In 1876, he was moved to a monument set up for his interment at the National Pantheon of Venezuela. The Quinta near Santa Marta has been preserved as a museum with numerous references to his life. In 2010, symbolic remains of Manuela Sáenz, were also interred in Venezuela's National Pantheon.[349]

Poisoning controversy and exhumation

In January 2008, then-President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez set up a commission[350] to investigate theories that Bolívar was the victim of an assassination. On several occasions, Chávez claimed that Bolívar was in fact poisoned by "New Granada traitors".[351] In April 2010, infectious diseases specialist Paul Auwaerter studied records of Bolívar's symptoms and concluded that he might have suffered from chronic arsenic poisoning, but that both acute poisoning and murder were unlikely.[352][353] Later on, in July 2010, Bolívar's body was ordered to be exhumed to advance the investigations;[354] however, in July 2011, international forensics experts released their report, claiming there was no proof of poisoning or any other unnatural cause of death.[355]

Personal beliefs

Bolívar was an admirer of both the American Revolution and the French Revolution.[356] While he was an admirer of U.S. independence, he did not believe that its governmental system could work in Latin America.[357] Thus, he claimed that the governance of heterogeneous societies like Venezuela "will require a firm hand".[358] He felt that the U.S. had been established in land especially fertile for democracy. By contrast, he referred to Spanish America as having been subject to the "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice".[359] If a republic could be established in such a land, in his mind, it would have to make some concessions in terms of liberty. This is shown when Bolívar blamed the fall of the first republic on his subordinates trying to imitate "some ethereal republic" and in the process, not paying attention to the gritty political reality of South America.[360]

Bolívar was an avid reader, particularly of French Enlightenment philosophy. Among his favorite authors were Thomas Hobbes, Baruch Spinoza, the Baron d'Holbach, David Hume, Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[21] Among the books accompanying him as he traveled were Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, Voltaire's Letters and, when he was writing the Bolivian constitution, Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws.[361]

Legacy

Due to the historical relevance of Bolívar as a key element during the process of independence in Hispanic America, his memory has been strongly attached to sentiments of nationalism and patriotism, being a recurrent theme of rhetoric in politics.

In Venezuela, Bolívar left behind a militarist legacy[362] with multiple governments utilizing the memory, image and written legacy of Bolívar as important parts of their political messages and propaganda.[363] Bolívar disapproved of the excesses of "party spirit" and "factions", which led to an anti-political environment in Venezuela.[364] For much of the 1800s, Venezuela was ruled by caudillos, with six rebellions occurring to take control of Venezuela between 1892 and 1900 alone.[364] The militarist legacy was then used by the nationalist dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez[363] and more recently the socialist political movement led by Hugo Chávez.[365][better source needed]

Monuments and physical legacy

The nations of Bolivia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, and their respective currencies (the Bolivian boliviano and the Venezuelan bolívar), are all named after Bolívar. Most cities and towns in Colombia and Venezuela are built around a main square known as Plaza Bolívar, as is Bogotá.[366] There are monuments to Bolívar and public places named after him all over the world, but especially in Latin America.

Several cities in Spain, especially in the Basque Country, have constructed monuments to Bolívar, including a large monument in Bilbao[367] and a comprehensive Venezuelan government-funded museum in Cenarruza-Puebla de Bolívar,[368] his ancestral hometown.

Monuments to Bolívar's military legacy also comprise one of Venezuelan Navy's sail training barques, which is named after him, and the USS Simon Bolivar, a Benjamin Franklin-class fleet ballistic missile submarine which served with the U.S. Navy between 1965 and 1995.

Minor planet 712 Boliviana discovered by Max Wolf is named in his honor. The name was suggested by Camille Flammarion.[369] The first Venezuelan satellite, Venesat-1, was given the alternative name Simón Bolívar after him.

His birthday is a public holiday in Venezuela and Bolivia.

See also

References

  1. ^ In isolation, Simón is pronounced as Spanish [siˈmon], and that is the pronunciation in the recording.
  2. ^ Biographers disagree on the exact date Miranda arrived in Venezuela in December 1810. Arana says 10 December,[119] Lynch says 11 December,[120] Masur and Langley say 12 December,[121][122] Slatta and de Grummond say 13 December.[123]
  3. ^ Masur, Langley, and Arana state that Bolívar issued his proclamation of emancipation in early June.[244] Slatta, de Grummond, and Lynch state that it was issued a month later.[245]

Citations

  1. ^ "Bolívar". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Bolivar, Simon". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  3. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 20, 22; Lynch 2006, p. 2; Langley 2009, p. 4; Arana 2013, pp. 6–8.
  4. ^ Langley 2009, p. 4.
  5. ^ Masur 1969, p. 20; Langley 2009, p. 4; Arana 2013, pp. 7, 17.
  6. ^ Masur 1969, p. 20; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 10; Arana 2013, pp. 8–9.
  7. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 10; Arana 2013, p. 9.
  8. ^ Masur 1969, p. 20; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, pp. 10–11; Langley 2009, p. 4.
  9. ^ Masur 1969, p. 20; Lynch 2006, pp. 4, 10; Langley 2009, p. 4.
  10. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 7.
  11. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 12; Langley 2009, p. xix; Arana 2013, p. 21.
  12. ^ Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, p. 18.
  13. ^ Masur 1969, p. 23; Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, p. 18.
  14. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 11.
  15. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 22–23.
  16. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 22–23; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, pp. 11–12; Lynch 2006, p. 16; Arana 2013, pp. 7–8, 22.
  17. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 12; Langley 2009, p. xix.
  18. ^ Masur 1969, p. 23; Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, p. 24.
  19. ^ a b Arana 2013, p. 25.
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  21. ^ a b Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 13.
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  23. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 23–24; Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, p. 22.
  24. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 17.
  25. ^ Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, p. 25.
  26. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 23–24; Langley 2009, p. 9; Arana 2013, pp. 22–23.
  27. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 17; Arana 2013, p. 32.
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  29. ^ Arana 2013, p. 32.
  30. ^ Masur 1969, p. 25; Lynch 2006, p. 17; Arana 2013, p. 33.
  31. ^ Masur 1969, p. 25; Arana 2013, p. 34.
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  33. ^ Masur 1969, p. 27; Lynch 2006, p. 17; Arana 2013, pp. 36–37.
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  35. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 18; Arana 2013, p. 37.
  36. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 17; Arana 2013, p. 42.
  37. ^ Masur 1969, p. 27; Lynch 2006, p. 18; Arana 2013, p. 38.
  38. ^ Arana 2013, p. 37.
  39. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, pp. 17–18; Arana 2013, p. 39.
  40. ^ Arana 2013, p. 39.
  41. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 18; Arana 2013, p. 39.
  42. ^ Masur 1969, p. 28; Arana 2013, p. 40.
  43. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 18; Lynch 2006, p. 18.
  44. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 18; Arana 2013, p. 43.
  45. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 18; Lynch 2006, p. 19; Arana 2013, p. 43.
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  47. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 19; Arana 2013, p. 44.
  48. ^ Arana 2013, p. 44.
  49. ^ Cardozo Uzcátegui 2011, pp. 17–18.
  50. ^ Cardozo Uzcátegui 2011, pp. 14, 19.
  51. ^ Masur 1969, p. 28; Langley 2009, p. 13; Arana 2013, p. 44.
  52. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 19; Arana 2013, p. 46.
  53. ^ Masur 1969, p. 30; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 18; Arana 2013, p. 46.
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  56. ^ a b c Lynch 2006, p. 20.
  57. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 20; Arana 2013, p. 47.
  58. ^ Cardozo Uzcátegui 2011, p. 18.
  59. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 19; Arana 2013, p. 47.
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  61. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 20; Arana 2013, p. 48.
  62. ^ Arana 2013, p. 48.
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  72. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 23; Arana 2013, p. 54.
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  74. ^ Bushnell 2003, p. 114; Brown 2009, p. 4.
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  77. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 24; Lynch 2006, p. 25; Arana 2013, p. 61.
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  79. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 24; Arana 2013, p. 62.
  80. ^ Masur 1969, p. 41; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 24; Lynch 2006, p. 26; Arana 2013, p. 63.
  81. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 41–42; Arana 2013, pp. 63, 65.
  82. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 24; Lynch 2006, p. 26; Arana 2013, pp. 65–66.
  83. ^ Lynch 2006, p. 27.
  84. ^ Masur 1969, pp. 55–56; Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 30; Lynch 2006, p. 39; Arana 2013, p. 70.
  85. ^ Slatta & de Grummond 2003, p. 25; Arana 2013, p. 71.
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  87. ^ Langley 2009, p. 18.
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Bibliography

Biographies of Simón Bolívar

Works by Simón Bolívar

General reference

Further reading

External links

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