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Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint. A thing is "free" if it can change its state easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being without undue or unjust constraints, or enslavement, and is an idea closely related to the concept of liberty. A person has the freedom to do things that will not, in theory or in practice, be prevented by other forces. Outside of the human realm, freedom generally does not have this political or psychological dimension. A rusty lock might be oiled so that the key has freedom to turn, undergrowth may be hacked away to give a newly planted sapling freedom to grow, or a mathematician may study an equation having many degrees of freedom. In mechanical engineering, "freedom" describes the number of independent motions that are allowed to a body or system, which is generally referred to as degrees of freedom."

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  • NASA Dedicates Facility to Mathematician, Presidential Medal Winner
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>>> OKAY, GOOD AFTERNOON. I'M CLAYTON TURNER, DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF NASA'S LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER, AND IT IS MY HONOR TO WELCOME EVERYONE TO TODAY'S SPECIAL EVENT -- THE OFFICIAL NAMING CEREMONY OF THE FUTURE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. AT THIS TIME, PLEASE SILENCE YOUR CELL PHONES AS WE HONOR OUR NATION WITH THE POSTING OF OUR COUNTRY'S COLORS BY THE U.S. JOINT BASE LANGLEY EUSTIS COLOR GUARD, AND THE SINGING OF OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM BY NASA LANGLEY RESEARCHER KERRY GOUGH. \M O SAY, CAN YOU SEE BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT \M \M WHAT SO PROUDLY WE HAILED AT THE TWILIGHT'S LAST GLEAMING? \M \M WHOSE BROAD STRIPES AND BRIGHT STARS THROUGH THE PERILOUS FIGHT \M \M O'ER THE RAMPARTS WE WATCHED WERE SO GALLANTLY STREAMING? \M \M AND THE ROCKETS' RED GLARE THE BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR \M \M GAVE PROOF THROUGH THE NIGHT THAT OUR FLAG WAS STILL THERE \M \M OH, SAY, DOES THAT STAR-SPANGLED BANNER YET WAVE \M \M O'ER THE LAND OF THE FREE \M \M AND THE HOME OF THE BRAVE? \M\M >> TURN, POST. POST. MARCH. >> YOU CAN TAKE YOUR SEATS, PLEASE. ALTHOUGH SHE NEEDS VERY LITTLE INTRODUCTION, FIRST AND FOREMOST PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING BACK TO NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER TODAY'S SPECIAL GUEST OF HONOR, NASA LANGLEY RETIREE AND "HUMAN COMPUTER," KATHERINE G. JOHNSON. [ APPLAUSE ] ALSO JOINING HER TODAY ARE HER HUSBAND, JAMES, AND DAUGHTERS, JOYLETTE HYLICK AND KATHERINE MOORE. WE ALSO HAVE SOME VERY SPECIAL GUESTS JOINING US TODAY, AND IT'S MY HONOR TO INTRODUCE THEM. THE HONORABLE BOBBY SCOTT, CONGRESSMAN FROM THE 3rd DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA. [ APPLAUSE ] REPRESENTING CONGRESSMAN SCOTT RIGELL, 2nd DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA, IS HIS DISTRICT DIRECTOR SHANNON KENDRICK. [ APPLAUSE ] THE HONORABLE MARCIA PRICE, DELEGATE TO THE VIRGINIA GENERAL ASSEMBLY FROM THE 95th DISTRICT. [ APPLAUSE ] THE HONORABLE GEORGE WALLACE, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF HAMPTON, [ APPLAUSE ] CITY COUNCILMAN, DONNIE TUCK. [ APPLAUSE ] >> VALERIE PRICE, THE FIRST LADY OF NEWPORT NEWS. [ APPLAUSE ] >> AND OUR KEYNOTE SPEAKER, MARGOT LEE SHETTERLY, AUTHOR OF THE BOOK "HIDDEN FIGURES: THE STORY OF THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN WHO HELPED WIN THE SPACE RACE." I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO RECOGNIZE A COUPLE GUESTS IN OUR AUDIENCE. NASA DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF JON HERCZEG AND NASA CHIEF COUNSEL SUMARA THOMPSON-KING. [ APPLAUSE ] SO THERE'S SOMETHING YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT WHY WE PICKED TODAY TO HOLD THIS SPECIAL EVENT. 55 YEARS AGO, ON MAY 5th, 1961, ALAN SHEPARD BECAME THE FIRST AMERICAN TO EVER FLY IN SPACE. HIS MERCURY CAPSULE, CALLED FREEDOM 7, CARRIED HIM UP ABOUT 116 MILES, AND 15 MINUTES LATER HE LANDED SAFELY 310 MILES DOWNRANGE FROM THE KENNEDY SPACE CENTER IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD WATCHED SHEPARD'S FLIGHT, BUT WHAT THEY DIDN'T KNOW AT THE TIME WAS THAT THE CALCULATIONS THAT GOT HIM INTO SPACE AND SAFELY HOME WERE DONE BY TODAY'S GUEST OF HONOR, KATHERINE JOHNSON. [ APPLAUSE ] I CAN'T IMAGINE WHAT YOU MUST HAVE BEEN FEELING DURING THOSE 15 MINUTES. I WANTED TO ALSO POINT OUT ANOTHER INTERESTING FACT ABOUT TODAY'S EVENT, WHICH IS BEING HELD IN OUR REID CONFERENCE CENTER. C DR. HENRY J.E. REID WAS THE CENTER DIRECTOR WHEN KATHERINE WAS HIRED IN 1953. HE LED LANGLEY FROM 1926 TO 1960, FROM THE BIPLANE ERA TO THE DOWN OF THE SPACE AGE. JUST DOWN THE HALL FROM US IS THE PEARL YOUNG THEATER, NAMED FOR THE FIRST WOMAN HIRED TO DO RESEARCH HERE IN 1922. ALL TOLD, THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES HERE AT LANGLEY, YET ONLY FOUR OF THEM ARE ACTUALLY NAMED AFTER FORMER EMPLOYEES. KATHERINE, TODAY YOU JOIN THAT ELITE GROUP WITH THE OFFICIAL NAMING OF THE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. [ APPLAUSE ] THE COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY IS A 40,000 SQUARE FOOT CONSOLIDATED DATA CENTER THAT WILL ALLOW OUR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS TO PERFORM ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, CRUNCHING DATA AND NUMBERS THAT WILL ONE DAY HELP NASA LAND HUMANS ON MARS, DESIGN QUIETER, FASTER AND MORE EFFICIENT FUTURE AIRCRAFT, AND HELP US BETTER UNDERSTAND OUR CHANGING CLIMATE. IT'S NOT UNLIKE THE WORK THAT KATHERINE DID DURING HER TENURE AT LANGLEY, HELPING NASA SEND THE FIRST AMERICANS INTO SPACE, INTO ORBIT AROUND THE EARTH, AND TO THE MOON AND BACK. EXCEPT SHE DIDN'T HAVE A 40,000 SQUARE FOOT BUILDING FULL OF CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGY. SHE DID MOST OF HER CALCULATIONS BY HAND, OR IN HER HEAD, AND WITH THE HELP OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF HER DAY, MECHANICAL CALCULATOR-TYPE MACHINES CALLED MONROE AND FRIDEN MACHINES. PERHAPS JUST AS AMAZING IS THAT KATHERINE BEGAN HER WORK AT NASA WHEN WOMEN AND MINORITIES WERE MARGINALIZED IN AMERICAN SOCIETY. WHEN SHE STARTED WORK IN 1953 OUR CENTER WAS STILL SEGREGATED, BUT IT WAS HER SKILLS, SPIRIT, CURIOSITY AND DETERMINATION THAT HELPED NOT ONLY SOLVE THE DIFFICULT PROBLEMS OF SPACE TRAVEL, BUT ALSO HELPED BREAK THE RACIAL AND GENDER BARRIERS SHE AND HER COLLEAGUES FACED. NOW IT IS MY HONOR TO INTRODUCE OUR FIRST GUEST SPEAKER, THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF OUR OFFICE OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, MEL FEREBEE. MEL IS WHO INITIALLY PROPOSED THE IDEA OF NAMING THE CRF AFTER KATHERINE, AND THEN WORKED THE APPROVAL PROCESS WITH SENIOR NASA OFFICIALS. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING MEL TO THE STAGE. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, CLAYTON, AND GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYONE. I FIRST HEARD OF DR. JOHNSON'S STORY 41 YEARS AGO HERE AS A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT. MANY OF US ASSEMBLED HERE TODAY KNOW THE STORY, BUT IT'S WORTH HIGHLIGHTING AGAIN. FROM AN EARLY AGE, KATHERINE TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT CAME HER WAY -- HER PASSION FOR NUMBERS AND MATHEMATICS LED HER TO SHARE HER KNOWLEDGE FIRST AS A TEACHER AND THEN TO PURSUE A CAREER AT THE LANGLEY AERONAUTICAL LABORATORY, WHICH BECAME NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER. DURING A TIME WHEN WOMEN AND MINORITIES WERE MARGINALIZED IN AMERICAN SOCIETY, SHE PERSEVERED. SHE EXCELLED AT WHAT SHE DID. HER REPUTATION FOR EXCELLENCE LED TO ASSIGNMENTS THAT WERE CRUCIAL TO AMERICA'S EARLY SPACE PROGRAM. SHE CALCULATED THE LAUNCH WINDOW AND TRAJECTORY OF THE FIRST AMERICAN IN SPACE, ALAN SHEPARD, WHO MADE THAT HISTORIC FLIGHT 55 YEARS AGO. ALSO, TODAY IS THE VERY FIRST NATIONAL ASTRONAUTS DAY. HER REPUTATION FOR ACCURACY WAS SO WELL KNOWN THAT ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN, WHOSE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY WAS THE FIRST TO BE CALCULATED BY AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER, ASKED FOR HER TO CHECK THOSE CALCULATIONS. IN FACT, SHE HELPED THE AGENCY ESTABLISH CONFIDENCE IN THIS NEW ELECTRONIC COMPUTING. DR. JOHNSON WAS ASSIGNED TO WORK ON THE APOLLO 11 MISSION, THE FIRST MISSION WHICH HUMANS LANDED AND WALKED ON THE MOON. AND WHEN OUR NATION IDENTIFIED THE NEED FOR A REUSABLE SPACE VEHICLE, THE SPACE SHUTTLE -- LARGE ENOUGH TO CARRY THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF WHAT HAS NOW BECOME THE WORLD'S ONLY IN-SPACE LABORATORY, THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION -- SHE CALCULATED THOSE ORBITAL TRAJECTORIES TOO. THROUGHOUT HER CAREER AND DURING HER RETIREMENT, SHE TOOK THE TIME TO ENCOURAGE YOUNG PEOPLE, ESPECIALLY GIRLS, TO PURSUE THEIR DREAMS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATH. DR. JOHNSON, THANK YOU FOR SETTING AN EXAMPLE FROM WHICH WE CAN ALL LEARN -- TO FOLLOW YOUR PASSION, EXCEL IN YOUR WORK, AND ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO DO THE SAME. YOU ARE AN INSPIRATION TO ME, AND TO ALL OF US, NOT ONLY HERE AT LANGLEY, BUT ACROSS NASA AND OUR NATION. THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, MEL. AT THIS TIME, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, WE'D LIKE TO SHARE A SHORT VIDEO ABOUT KATHERINE'S CAREER. \M\M \M\M \M\M \M\M \M\M [ APPLAUSE ] \M\M [ APPLAUSE ] >> NASA LANGLEY HAS BEEN PROUD TO CALL HAMPTON HOME FOR ALMOST 100 YEARS AND WE OUR GRATEFUL FOR THE SUPPORT THE CITY AND ITS LEADERS HAVE SHOWN US. WE AT LANGLEY ARE HAPPY TO WELCOME BACK HAMPTON MAYOR GEORGE WALLACE FOR SOME OPENING REMARKS. [ APPLAUSE ] >> GOOD AFTERNOON, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. IT IS ALTOGETHER FITTING AND PROPER THAT WE ARE HERE TODAY TO HONOR A GREAT LADY WITH ANOTHER SYMBOL OF HER LONG AND DISTINGUISHED CAREER. WE KNOW THAT SHE WAS A CHILD PRODIGY WITH A PROLIFIC CAPACITY TO COUNT EVERYTHING FROM THE NUMBERS OF STEPS FROM HER STEPS TO THE CHURCH TO THE NUMBER OF DISHES ON THE SHELF TO COUNTING THE TRAJECTORY OF ASTRONAUT ALAN GLENN'S 1961 AMERICAN FLIGHT TO SPACE. SHE BECAME A SUMA CUM LAUDE GRADUATE AT THE AGE OF 18. SHE WAS AMONG THE EARLY GROUP OF WOMEN HIRED BY NASA TO BECOME KNOWN AS ONE OF THE GROUP OF COMPUTERS IN SKIRTS. HER EXCELLENCE WAS KNOWN AND NOTED EARLY, AND SHE WAS ASKED BY -- AS HAS BEEN INDICATED BY ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN TO DOUBLE CHECK THAT HE MADE THE CORRECT COMPUTER CALCULATION TO MAKE SURE THAT THE NUMBERS WERE CORRECT. SHE'S A WIFE OTHER MOTHER, AND A GOOD FRIEND TO MANY. ON NOVEMBER 4th, 2015, SHE WAS GIVEN THE PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM BY PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA, AS YOU WILL SEE. MOST RECENTLY, HAMPTON ACKNOWLEDGES THE GREAT HAMPTONIAN IN OUR MIDST BY CONVEYING UPON HER THE HIGHEST HONOR THAT WE CAN GIVE, THE DISTINGUISHED CITIZENS MEDAL FOR EXTRAORDINARY SERVICE TO HAMPTON AND AMERICA. TO YOU, MRS. JOHNSON, THANK YOU FOR WHAT YOU HAVE DONE FOR ALL OF US, AND MAY THE RICH REWARDS AND GOOD BLESSINGS CONTINUE TO BE YOURS. THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, MAYOR WALLACE. IN CASE YOU DIDN'T KNOW IT, 20th CENTURY FOX IS CURRENTLY SHOOTING A MAJOR MOTION PICTURE, "HIDDEN FIGURES," WHICH IS SCHEDULED FOR RELEASE LATER THIS YEAR. THE FILM IS BASED UPON THE BOOK WRITTEN BY TODAY'S KEYNOTE SPEAKER, MS. MARGOT SHETTERLY. I'D LIKE TO SHARE WITH YOU A VIDEO MESSAGE FROM SOME OF THE CAST FROM THE MOVIE. >> HELLO, HELLO, HELLO. I JUST WANTED TO PERSONALLY CONGRATULATE A HERO OF MINE, MISS KATHERINE JOHNSON. THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR OPENING UP SO MANY DOORS FOR YOUNG AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN LIKE MYSELF, AND SO MANY OTHERS, WHO USE THEIR INTELLIGENCE AS THEIR POWER TO PERSEVERE THROUGH ALL OBSTACLES THAT MAY BE THROWN THEIR WAY. I LOVE YOU SO MUCH AND I'M SO HONORED TO EVEN TELL YOU THANK YOU. GOD BLESS YOU, MISS KATHERINE, YOU ARE A TRUE ICON. YOU ARE A LEADER AND THE WORLD WILL BE FOREVER BETTER BECAUSE OF YOU. GOD BLESS. >> MRS. KATHERINE JOHNSON, I AM HAPPY THAT YOU ARE BEING, FINALLY BEING, ACKNOWLEDGED FOR YOUR CONTRIBUTIONS TO HISTORY, TO THE WORLD, TO THE SPACE PROGRAM, TO WOMEN OF COLOR, TO OUR HISTORY AND MAY YOUR NAME LONG LIVE ON THAT BUILDING AT LANGLEY. I APPRECIATE YOU AND CONGRATULATIONS. >> I'M TARAJI P. HENSON AND I WANT TO CONGRATULATE YOU, MISS KATHERINE GOBLE JOHNSON, MISS QUEEN JOHNSON, THE BRILLIANT MIND, MISS JOHNSON FOR THE NAMING OF THE BUILDING, RIGHTFULLY DESERVED. YOU DESERVE IT. THEY SHOULD NAME NASA AFTER YOU. I SEE YOU -- THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE. [ LAUGHTER AND APPLAUSE ] >> GREAT MESSAGE FROM 20th CENTURY FOX. WE'LL HAVE TO WORK ON THAT LAST PART. SO CHARLIE BOLDEN DID WANT TO BE HERE TODAY, BUT A SCHEDULING CONFLICT HAS KEPT HIM AWAY. I HAVE A NOTE THAT I WANT TO READ SO HE'S THE PERSON WHO CAN MAYBE START TO GET THAT DONE. DEAR MS. JOHNSON, I'M WRITING TO OFFER MY PROFOUND CONGRATULATIONS TO YOU ON BEING CHOSEN TO BE THE NAMESAKE FOR LANGLEY'S NEWEST BUILDING. ALONG WITH MY GRATITUDE FOR THE TRAIL YOU HAVE BLAZED FOR NASA, THE MATHEMATICIANS, FOR SWIM, FOR SPACE SCIENTISTS, FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS, AND FOR DREAMERS EVERYWHERE. I AM TOLD YOU ONCE REMARKED THAT EVEN THOUGH YOU GREW UP IN THE HEIGHT OF SEGREGATION, YOU DID NOT HAVE TIME TO THINK ABOUT YOUR PLACE IN HISTORY AND THAT YOU NEVER HAD A FEELING OF INFERIORITY. INSTEAD, YOU CONSIDERED YOURSELF AS YOU DESCRIBED IT, AS GOOD AS ANYBODY ELSE BUT NO BETTER. THE TRUTH OF THE MATTER IS THAT YOU ARE BETTER. ARE YOU ONE OF THE GREATEST MINDS EVER TO GRACE OUR AGENCY, OUR COUNTRY, AND BECAUSE OF YOUR MIND, HEART, AND SOUL, MY OWN GRANDDAUGHTERS AND YOUNG AMERICANS LIKE THEM CAN PURSUE THEIR OWN DREAMS WITHOUT A FEELING OF INFERIORITY. THEREFORE, I HOPE TODAY THAT ALL OF US WILL TAKE A STEP BACK AND REFLECT ON YOUR IMPACT. YOU HAVE ALREADY FOREVER LEFT YOUR MARK ON THE LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND ON NASA. NOW THIS MARK WILL BE FORMALLY INSCRIBED ON LANGLEY'S CAMPUS IN THE FORM OF THE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. WITH GREAT AWE AND APPRECIATION, CHARLIE F. BOLDEN, ADMINISTRATOR. [ APPLAUSE ] JOINING US TODAY IS U.S. CONGRESSMAN SCOTT RIGELL'S DISTRICT DIRECTOR FOR THE 2nd DISTRICT. AND SHANNON KENDRICK HAS SOMETHING SPECIAL FOR YOU TODAY, KATH. >> THANK YOU VERY MUCH, GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYONE. IT IS AN HAPPENOR AND A -- AN HONOR AND PRIVILEGE TO BE HERE BEFORE YOU TODAY ON THIS MOST AUSPICIOUS OCCASION. THIS IS MY THIRD AND JUST -- IN ALMOST TWO MONTHS EVENT WHERE YOU ARE RECEIVING YOUR DUE HONOR. AND IT'S WONDERFUL TO PERSONALLY BE HERE TO WITNESS IT. I'D HAVE TO SAY THAT I'M APPRECIATIVE THAT YOU CHARTED A COURSE AND BLAZED A TRAIL FOR US ALL. WE THANK YOU FOR PIONEERING A WAY FOR SO MANY. BECAUSE OF YOU, THERE IS A LIMIT BEYOND THE SKY, AND WE CAN ALL REACH THE STARS. I AM HERE TO SHARE A LETTER FROM THE CONGRESSMAN TO ALL. AND IT BEGINS, DEAR GUESTS, I'M HONORED -- I AM HONORED TO WELCOME YOU ALL TO THE OFFICIAL DEDICATION OF NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER'S NEW KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. THIS IS A DESERVING TRIBUTE TO HONOR KATHERINE'S MANY ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR NATION'S SPACE PROGRAM. KATHERINE BEGAN HER INCREDIBLE CAREER HERE IN VIRGINIA'S SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT AT NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS LANGLEY. SHE ACCOMPLISHED SO MUCH DURING HER TENURE AT NACA AND LATER NASA, INCLUDING CALCULATING THE FLIGHTS OF APOLLO 11 AND ALAN SHEPHERD'S 1961 MERCURY FLIGHT. THE FIRST FLIGHT OF AN AMERICAN HERO INTO SPACE. KATHERINE MADE TREMENDOUS CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR NATION'S SPACE PROGRAM. IT IS RIGHT THAT NASA LANGLEY'S NEWEST BUILDING IS KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. MY WIFE TERRI JOINS ME IN WELCOMING TO THIS EVENT. WE ARE GRATEFUL THAT SO MANY OF YOU HAVE TAKEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO ATTEND AND SHARE YOUR SUPPORT. MINDFUL THAT I WORK FOR YOU, I REMAIN YOURS IN FREEDOM, CONGRESSMAN SCOTT RIGELL. THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, SHANNON. OUR NEXT SPEAKER -- AND PLEASE THANK CONGRESSMAN RIGELL. OUR NEXT SPEAKER IS THE HONORABLE CONGRESSMAN BOBBY SCOTT, A LONG-TIME FRIEND OF OUR CENTER. NOW IN HIS 12th TERM, CONGRESSMAN SCOTT SERVES AS THE RANKING MEMBER ON THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND THE WORKFORCE, WHERE HE LEADS THE FIGHT FOR ACCESS TO QUALITY EARLY, SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION FOR ALL OF AMERICA'S CHILDREN. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING CONGRESSMAN BOBBY SCOTT. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND INTRODUCTION. I'M CERTAINLY HONORED TO BE HERE WITH THE ELECTED OFFICIALS AND OTHER DISTINGUISHED GUESTS INCLUDING MY LONG-TIME FRIEND, JIM JOHNSON. IT'S GOOD TO SEE YOU, JIM. AND AS WE'RE HERE TODAY TO CELEBRATE THE 55th ANNIVERSARY OF ALAN SHEPHERD BECOMING THE FIRST AMERICAN IN SPACE, AS WE CELEBRATE THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF DR. JOHNSON AND DEDICATE THE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY, SO THAT ALL OF HER ACCOMPLISHMENTS WILL BE RECOGNIZED NOT ONLY BY THOSE WHO KNEW HER BUT BY THOSE WHEN ARE ABLE TO TELL HER STORY, SO THAT WE'LL BE ABLE TO TELL HER STORY AND INSPIRE OTHERS. DR. JOHNSON HAS HAD A STORIED CAREER AT NASA, WORKING ON EVERY MANNED SPACEFLIGHT PROJECT FROM MERCURY THROUGH THE APOLLO, THROUGH THE SPACE SHUTTLE AND EVEN THE MANNED MISSION TO MARS. THOSE WHO GATHERED HERE TODAY ARE OBVIOUSLY AWARE OF HER ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND AWARDS INCLUDING THREE NASA SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENTS AWARDS, THE NASA APOLLO TEAM GROUP ACHIEVEMENT AWARD, AND OF COURSE THE PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM. WHILE SHE HAS HAD A LONG AND ILLUSTRIOUS CAREER HERE AT NASA, SHE HAS ALSO HAD AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT IMPACT ON OUR COMMUNITY. WE SEE THESE A TRUSTED ELDER AT CARVER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, THE LEADER AT THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION. AND YOU CAN SEE BY THE PINK AND GREEN IN THE AUDIENCE THAT SHE'S ALSO BEEN PRESIDENT OF THE LAMDO OMEGA CHAPTER OF THE ALPHA SORORITY. AS MANY OF YOU KNOW, OUR KEYNOTE SPEAKER'S BOOK, "HIDDEN FIGURES," ON DR. JOHNSON AND OTHER AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN'S WORK AT NASA CHRONICLES THE EARLY MANNED SPACEFLIGHT MISSIONS AND COMPUTATIONS THAT THEY MADE TO MAKE THAT POSSIBLE. AND WE LOOK FORWARD TO THAT -- THAT MOVIE. TO BE HONEST, I ENJOY COMEDIES AND THRILLERS JUST LIKE EVERYBODY ELSE, BUT FRANKLY, DR. JOHNSON'S STORY IS ONE THAT WE OUGHT TO BE TELLING OUR CHILDREN. SHE BROKE DOWN NUMEROUS BARRIERS THROUGHOUT HER CAREER. WHILE SHE PERSONALLY DID NOT REACH THE STARS LIKE THE ASTRONAUTS WHOSE TRAJECTORIES SHE CALCULATED, HER CAREER CAME MIGHTY CLOSE TO THOSE STARS. AND I'VE HEARD THAT YOU CAN JUDGE A SOCIETY BASED ON THOSE THAT -- A SOCIETY BASED ON THOSE THAT REMEMBER. I'M THEY'RE MAKE SURE HER CONTRIBUTIONS AREN'T FORGOTTEN. BOTH NASA AND THE HAMPTON ROADS COMMUNITY ARE FORTUNATE TO HAVE CALLED DR. JOHNSON ONE OF OUR OWN. I'M SURE I SPEAK FOR EVERYBODY HERE TO SAY THAT WE'RE ALL PROUD TODAY TO HONOR HER AND PAY TRIBUTES TO HER ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO NASA OVER THE YEARS. THANK YOU, DR. JOHNSON, AND CONGRATULATIONS. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, CONGRESSMAN SCOTT. U.S. SENATOR TIM KAINE, A FORMER GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA, COULDN'T BE WITH US TODAY, BUT HE WANTED TO SEND ALONG HIS CONGRATULATIONS IN THIS VIDEO MESSAGE. >> HI, I'M SENATOR TIM KAINE. UNFORTUNATELY I CAN'T BE HERE IN PERSON ON THIS SPECIAL OCCASION, BUT I WANT TO THANK NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER FOR INVITING ME TO TAKE PART IN THIS GREAT EVENT. MS. JOHNSON IS BEING RECOGNIZED TODAY BECAUSE OF HER INVALUABLE CONTRIBUTIONS TO OUR NATION'S SPACE PROGRAM DURING HER CAREER AS A NASA MATHEMATICIAN. MS. JOHNSON'S WORK HELPED AMERICA SEND A MAN TO SPACE, AND THEN TO THE MOON. THESE ADVANCES THEN PUSHED THE BOUNDARIES OF EXPLORATION AND PAVED THE WAY FOR OUR CURRENT GOAL OF REACHING MARS. HER 33 YEARS OF SERVICE HELPED NASA TAKE GREAT STRIDES IN SCIENCE AND INNOVATION THAT HAVE NOT BEEN FORGOTTEN IN HER RETIREMENT. IN FACT, PEOPLE ARE STILL BUILDING UPON THE FOUNDATION THAT HER WORK LAID. BUT, AS MANY HAVE SAID BEFORE ME, INCLUDING PRESIDENT OBAMA DURING HIS PRESENTATION OF THE MEDAL OF FREEDOM LAST YEAR, MS. JOHNSON'S IMPACTS ON OUR NATION STRETCH WELL BEYOND HER STELLAR MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS. JUST AS HER WORK CHALLENGED THE LIMITS OF OUR REACH BEYOND EARTH, HER CHARACTER CHALLENGED OUR WAY OF THINKING ABOUT WOMEN IN THE FIELDS OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS AND ENGINEERING. AS A PIONEER FOR WOMEN AND PEOPLE OF COLOR WISHING TO BREAK INTO NEW TECHNICAL FIELDS, MS. JOHNSON HAS SET A PROUD EXAMPLE FOR PEOPLE TO FOLLOW THEIR DREAMS, NO MATTER THE NORMS AND CONVENTIONS, AND TO REACH FOR THE STARS IN THEIR OWN LIVES. MS. JOHNSON MAY NOT HAVE FLOWN TO THE MOON HERSELF, BUT SHE IS A LIVING EXAMPLE OF HOW TO SHOOT FOR THE MOON. MS. JOHNSON, THE COMMONWEALTH IS PROUD TO HAVE YOUR LEGACY AT NASA LANGLEY, AND I SEND MY BEST TO YOU. CONGRATULATIONS ON THESE WONDERFUL AWARDS AND DISTINCTIONS AND TO ALL WHO HAVE SUPPORTED YOU ALONG THE WAY. [ APPLAUSE ] >> AND NOW FOR OUR KEYNOTE SPEAKER. MARGOT SHETTERLY, WHO IS ACCOMPANIED HERE TODAY BY HER PARENTS, BOB AND MARGARET LEE -- [ APPLAUSE ] >> IS NO STRANGER TO NASA LANGLEY. HER FATHER WORKED AS A RESEARCHER IN LANGLEY'S SCIENCE DIRECTORATE. AFTER GROWING UP WITH A FATHER WHO WAS AN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENTIST, AND A MOTHER WHO WAS A PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH AT HAMPTON UNIVERSITY, PERHAPS IT SHOULD COME AS NO SURPRISE THAT MARGOT BECAME SOMEBODY WHO WOULD WRITE ABOUT SCIENTISTS. AND WE'RE SO GLAD THAT SHE DID. WE ARE VERY PLEASED THAT HER BOOK, AND THE MOVIE BASED ON IT, ARE SHINING SUCH A BRIGHT LIGHT ON THE ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PEOPLE LIKE KATHERINE. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING TODAY'S KEYNOTE SPEAKER, MARGOT SHETTERLY. [ APPLAUSE ] >> GOOD AFTERNOON TO EVERYONE, ALL OF OUR DISTINGUISHED GUESTS. IT'S SUCH AN EXCITING THING TO BE HERE. KATHERINE, I AM SO PROUD AND SO THRILLED TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS WONDERFUL CEREMONY TODAY. YOU HAVE DISTINGUISHED YOURSELF WITH OUTSTANDING WORK IN MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTATION, SO IT'S ABSOLUTELY NATURAL AND MAKES ALL THE SENSE IN THE WORLD THAT BUILDING SHOULD BEAR YOUR NAME. FIVE YEARS AGO, I SAT DOWN WITH MRS. JOHNSON FOR THE FIRST TIME TO INTERVIEW HER ABOUT HER LIFE AND CAREER. WHAT'S HAPPENED SINCE THEN HAS BEEN OVERWHELMING TO SAY THE LEAST. HER STORY AND STORY OF WOMEN WHO SERVED OUR COUNTRY AS MATHEMATICIANS HAS CAPTIVATED AMERICA. THERE'S A REASON I NAMED THE BOOK "HIDDEN FIGURES." THEIR STORIES UNTIL THIS POINT HAD REALLY GONE UNRECOGNIZED AND UNTOLD, AND I'M VERY PROUD TO HAVE PLAYED A ROLE IN BRINGING THEIR STORIES THE PUBLIC WHERE THEY DESERVE TO BE. I WON'T MAKE VERY LONG REMARKS. WE'VE HEARD A LOT OF WORDS ABOUT MRS. JOHNSON. WHAT I WANTED TO DO TODAY WAS TO USE HER WORDS TO TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT HER CAREER, HER WORK, AND SOME OF THE OTHER WOMEN THAT I'VE LEARNED ABOUT THROUGH HER BECAUSE MOST BRILLIANT PEOPLE HAVE RESPECT FOR OTHER BRILLIANT PEOPLE. AND THAT'S ONE OF THE THINGS I'VE LEARNED FROM HER. SO I AM LOOKING FORWARD TO SHARING MANY OF THE WORDS THAT SHE HAS SHARED WITH ME OVER THE FIVE YEARS THAT I'VE GOTTEN TO KNOW ABOUT HER AND HER STORY. AS YOU KNOW, SHE STARTED OUT IN THE WEST COMPUTING FACILITIES. WE'VE TALKED ABOUT HERE EARLIER TODAY, THE GUESTS HAVE MENTIONED. THIS WAS A SEGREGATED FACILITY ORIGINALLY. TWO WEEKS AFTER THAT, SHE WAS SENT TO THE FLIGHT RESEARCH DIVISION HERE AT NASA LANGLEY. ANY TIME I'VE ASKED HER ABOUT THE PEOPLE THAT SHE WORKED WITH, THE FIRST THING SHE SAYS IS THEY WERE BRAINY FOLKS, AND SHE JUST LOVED THOSE BRAINY PEOPLE. [ LAUGHTER ] OF COURSE, THE NAMES CHANGED OVER TIME, AND ONE OF THE THINGS I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER IS THOUGH MRS. JOHNSON IS KNOWN FOR HER WORK ON THE SPACE PROGRAM, SHE SPENT FOUR YEARS WORKING ON AIRPLANE SECURITY AND AIRPLANE REGULATIONS AND TRYING TO MAKE AIRPLANES SAFER. SO THE NEXT TIME YOU GET ON AN AIRPLANE, YOU SHOULD ALSO THINK OF HER AND THINK OF THE PEOPLE HERE AT NASA LANGLEY BECAUSE THE AIR SAFETY THAT WE HAVE TODAY IS DUE IN LARGE PART TO THEIR WORK, AS WELL. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT PEOPLE ASK ME CONSTANTLY ABOUT THIS BOOK AND ABOUT THE MOVIE IS WHY HAVEN'T I HEARD THE STORY BEFORE. I THINK ONE OF THE REASONS WHY WE HAVEN'T HEARD IT, IT'S BECAUSE OF THE MODESTY OF MRS. JOHNSON AND THESE WOMEN WHO WERE JUST DOING THEIR JOB. AND I THINK MANY OF US WHO HAVE HAD CONVERSATION WITH HER, WE ASK HOW DID IT FEEL TO BE SUCH AN IMPORTANT PART OF HISTORY? WHAT DID YOU DO TO DEAL WITH THE PRESSURE OF CALCULATING THESE VERY IMPORTANT CALCULATIONS? THE ASTRONAUTS' SAFETY DEPENDED ON IT. SHE MODESTLY SAYS, "I WAS JUST DOING MY JOB." WHAT I WANTED TO DO TODAY WAS TO SHOW YOU A LITTLE IT WHAT THAT JOB ACTUALLY ENTAILED. SO AS YOU CAN SEE HERE, ON THE LEFT, SEPTEMBER, 1960, THIS IS THE RESEARCH REPORT THAT DETAILED THE ORBITAL EQUATIONS THAT THE GROUP THAT SHE WAS IN, THE AEROSPACE MECHANICS GROUP, USED TO PUT A MAN INTO ORBIT. AND YOU CAN SEE SOME OF THE PAGES THERE FROM THE PRESENTATION. NOW, IMAGINE, IF YOU CAN SEE THESE EIGHT PAGES, IMAGINE SOMETHING THAT IS 150 PAGES OF THAT, AND YOU HAVE TO CHECK IT USING THIS MACHINE ON THE LEFT. THIS IS THE WORK THAT SHE WAS ASKED TO DO IN THE COUNTDOWN TO THE FLIGHT IN WHICH JOHN GLENN TOOK A HUGE STEP AND WAS THE FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH. THAT'S PRESSURE. BUT MRS. JOHNSON STOOD UP TO THAT PRESSURE. HER NUMBERS WERE RIGHT, AND THEY USED HER NUMBERS TO HELP CALIBRATE AND CHECK THE COMPUTERS WHICH WERE NEW AT THAT TIME. AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER, YOU CAN'T LOOK IN THE EYE. A HUMAN COMPUTER, YOU CAN. YOU CAN ASK QUESTIONS. THAT'S ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THEY ASKED THIS BRILLIANT WOMAN TO MAKE SURE THAT EVERYTHING WAS IN ORDER BEFORE JOHN GLENN TOOK OFF FOR THE HEAVENS. IT WASN'T VERY LONG INTO MY CONVERSATIONS WITH MRS. JOHNSON BEFORE I HEARD THE NAME DOROTHY LAW -- DOROTHY VAUGHN. I HEARD IT OVER AND OVER AGAIN. I ASKED HER, WHO'S DOROTHY VAUGHN. SHE SAID, DOROTHY VAUGHN WAS MY ORIGINAL SUPERVISOR. WHEN SHE WAS SENT ORIGINALLY TO THE WEST COMPUTING AUDIENCE, IT WAS JUST TWO WEEKS, BUT SHE WORKED FOR MRS. DOROTHY VAUGHN. NO DOROTHY VAUGHN CAME HERE TO HAMPTON ROADS DURING WORLD WAR II. SHE WAS A MATH TEACHER AT ROBERT MOTON HIGH SCHOOL WHICH GAINED A MEASURE OF FAME ALSO IN ITS ROLE LEADING UP TO THE BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION DECISION. MRS. VAUGHN WAS THE HEAD OF THE GROUP CALLED THE WEST COAST COMPUTERS. MRS. JOHNSON HAS TOLD ME MANY TIMES ABOUT THE RESPECT THAT SHE HAD FOR MRS. VAUGHN AND FOR HER TALENT. WHAT SHE SAID OVER AND OVER IS, DOT VAUGHN OF THE SMARTEST OF ALL THE GIRLS. SO HERE'S AN EXAMPLE HERE OF MRS. VAUGHN'S WORK. AS A SUPERVISOR -- AND SHE WAS PROMOTED IN 1951 TO THE HEAD OF THE WEST AREA COMPUTING GROUP. PER MY RESEARCH, I BELIEVE THAT MAKES HER THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN SUPERVISOR IN THE HISTORY OF NASA. NOW, THIS IS IN 1951. I THINK IT'S VERY IMPRESSIVE. HERE'S AN EXAMPLE OF MRS. VAUGHN'S WORK. SHE WAS DRAFTED TO HELP CONSULT ON A HANDBOOK USINGAL BRAYIC METHODS ON THE FRIEDEN -- USING ALGEBRAIC METHODS ON THE FRIEDEN AND ALGORITHM MACHINES. PRETTY IMPORTANT WHEN YOU CONSIDER THAT THEY FORM ALL THE RESEARCH AND LATER SPACE RESEARCH THAT WAS DONE HERE AT FACILITY. BEFORE DOROTHY VAUGHN TOOK THE HELM AT THE WEST COMPUTERS, A WOMAN NAMED MARJORIE HANNAH WAS THE HEAD OF THE GROUP. NOW, MARJORIE WAS IN THE EAST COMPUTING GROUP, AND THIS WAS THE GROUP OF THE WHITE WOMEN AT THE CENTER. SHE WAS APPOINTED TO HEAD THIS GROUP. MARJORIE WAS SOMEBODY WHO TOOK THIS ASSIGNMENT VERY SERIOUSLY. SHE TREATED THE WOMEN IN HER GROUP AS EQUALS. AND THIS IS SOMETHING THAT WE TAKE FOR GRANTED NOW. SHE ACTUALLY SOCIALIZED WITH THE WOMEN IN HER GRUMP -- HER GROUP. SHE INVITED THEM TO HER HOME. THERE WAS -- THIS WAS A BIG DEAL IN THOSE DAYS. SHE WAS ALSO A VERY GOOD MATHEMATICIAN. IN 1948 SHE CO-AUTHORED A REPORT WITH SAM CTASOFF. I'M SURE PEOPLE REMEMBER HIS NAME. HE WENT ON TO BECOME THE CHIEF SCIENTIST AT NASA LANGLEY. IN 1948, MARJORIE HANNAH WAS MOVED TO THE FULL SCALE, AND SHE AND SAM KATSOFF CO-AUTHORED A REPORT. SHE WENT ON TO CO-AUTHOR ANOTHER REPORT. SHE WAS MOVED OVER TO MRS. JOHNSON'S DIVISION AND CO-AUTHORED ANOTHER REPORT WITH AN ENGINEER ON SOMETHING CALLED THE GRAND TOUR OF THE OUTER PLANETS. THIS OF THE IDEA THAT A SPACESHIP WOULD LEAVE THE EARTH AND HOP FROM MARS TO SAT ATTORNEY JUPITER USING THE GRAVITY OF EACH PLANET TO SLINGSHOT IT TO ANOTHER PLANET. SHE RECEIVED AN AWARD FOR THIS IN 1970. WHEN I MENTIONED HER NAME TO MRS. JOHNSON, SHE SAID THAT SHE THOUGHT MARJORIE HANNAH WAS SOMEBODY WHO HADN'T RECEIVED THE CREDIT THAT SHE DESERVED. SO WHAT I WANTED TO DO TODAY WAS TO MENTION HER NAME TO YOU SO THAT YOU GUYS KNOW WHAT WORK SHE DID. NOW HERE'S SOMEBODY WHOSE NAME AND FACE I THINK IS VERY FAMILIAR TO US -- [ APPLAUSE ] DR. CHRISTINE DARDEN. SHE WASN'T ABLE TO BE HERE TODAY. SHE'S IN COLORADO VISITING HER GRANDCHILDREN. SHE STARTED OUT IN 1967 AT THE CENTER. THIS WAS AT THE VERY END OF THE COMPUTING POOL. AND DR. DARDEN STARTED WHAT WAS CALLED AT THE TIME A DATA ANALYST, WHICH IS SORT OF THE NAME FOR THE WORK THAT THE WOMEN DID. IT CHANGED OVER TIME. IT WAS COMPUTERS, SOMETIMES IT WAS MATHEMATICIAN, MATH AIDES, THERE WERE DIFFERENT WORDS AND DIFFERENT NAMES FOR THAT WORK OVER TIME. BUT WHAT DR. DARDEN REALLY WANTED TO DO WAS TO BE AN ENGINEER, AND TO DO HER OWN RESEARCH. SO AFTER A COUPLE OF YEARS IN THE COMPUTING POOL, SHE WENT TO HER DIVISION CHIEF. AND I THINK THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE HERE AT NASA AND WHO UNDERSTAND THE HIERARCHY CAN JUST IMAGINE THE IDEA OF SOMEBODY WHO'S ADATA ANALYST WHO'S BEEN HERE FOR FOUR YEARS GOING TO THE DIVISION CHIEF, A PRETTY IMPORTANT PERSON. WHAT SHE SAID WAS, I DON'T UNDERSTAND WHY IS IT THAT WOMEN WHO COME IN HERE ARE HIRED AS DATA ANALYSTS, WHEREAS MEN ARE HIRED AS ENGINEER. WHAT I WANT TO DO IS I WANT TO DO MY OWN RESEARCH. I WANT THE SAME PRIVILEGES THAT THE MEN HAVE. YOU AND WHY IS THIS? SO THE DIVISION CHIEF DIDN'T REALLY HAVE A GOOD ANSWER TO THAT. BUT TWO WEEKS LATER, HE MADE THE TRANSFER, AND DR. DARDEN WAS ABLE TO CONTINUE HER OWN RESEARCH, START HER OWN RESEARCH. AND ON THE LEFT, YOU'LL SEE THE COVER FROM HER PIONEERING REPORT IN 1975. AND SO WHAT SHE DID, AND THIS WAS A TIME WHEN COMPUTERS REALLY WERE COMING INTO USE HERE AND NOT JUST SPACE BUT ALSO IN AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH. SHE MODELED THE SONIC BOOM. THE CRACK THAT WE HEAR LIKE THUNDER CLAPS WHEN A VEHICLE SUPERSEDES THE SPEED OF SOUND. HER MODEL IS STILL THE BASIS FOR INDUSTRY STANDARD SONIC BOOM SOFTWARE THAT'S STILL USED IN THE INDUSTRY TODAY. AND SHE IS SOMEBODY WHEN -- THERE ARE MANY TIMES WHEN I TALK TO MRS. JOHNSON AND I WOULD ASK ABOUT HER WORK. SHE WOULD SAY, NO, I WANT TO TALK ABOUT CHRISTINE DARDEN. SHE SAID TO ME -- AND YOU KNOW THAT MRS. DARDEN GOES INTO SCHOOLS. SHE'S EXTREMELY ENERGETIC ABOUT GETTING STUDENTS INTERESTED IN S.T.E.M. CAREERS. SHE SAID, I MENTION CHRISTINE DARDEN EVERY CHANCE I GET BECAUSE SHE IS A MODEL OF HOW FAR MATHEMATICAL TALENT CAN TAKE YOU. NOW IF ALL THE WORDS THAT I'VE HEARD MRS. JOHNSON SAY, AND AT THIS POINT THERE ARE MANY, AND THERE HAVE SO MANY INTERESTING THINGS I'VE LEARNED FROM B HER AND FROM HER, I THINK THE ONE THAT STAYS WITH ME MOST IS THIS -- AND WE'VE HEARD IT MENTIONED HERE A LITTLE BIT EARLIER. YOU ARE NO BETTER THAN ANYONE ELSE, AND NO ONE IS BETTER THAN YOU. I THINK IT'S TEMPTING FOR US TO FOCUS ON THE PART OF NO ONE IS BETTER THAN YOU. I THINK THE REAL SUBTLETY AND THE MEAT AND POWER OF THE STATEMENT IS THE PART THAT SAYS, YOU ARE NO BETTER THAN ANYONE ELSE. AND REALLY, THIS IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY MRS. JOHNSON'S STORY HAS CAPTIVATED US. SHE HAS SUCH A TOWERING TALENT, BUT SHE'S GONE OUT OF HER WAY TO RECOGNIZE TALENT IN OTHER PEOPLE, REGARDLESS OF THEIR GENDER, OF THEIR RACE, OF THEIR BACKGROUND. IF YOU'RE A SMART PERSON, THEN, YOU KNOW, SHE WANTS TO HAVE A CONVERSATION WITH YOU. AND SHE SEES YOU AS AN EQUAL. THAT IS SOMETHING, A GREAT LESSON THAT I HAVE LEARNED. KATHERINE, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR EVERYTHING THAT YOU'VE GIVEN US, FOR WHAT YOU'VE GIVEN ME. THANK YOU FOR YOUR CAREER, FOR SHINING ON THE TALENTS OF OTHER PEOPLE, AND CONGRATULATIONS FOR THIS WELL-DESERVED HONOR. [ APPLAUSE ] >> THANK YOU, MARGOT. >> GYM I'M GOING TO GO OFF SCRIPT HERE A LITTLE BIT. YOU'VE HEARD US MENTION ALAN SHEPHERD'S FLIGHT AND JOHN GLENN'S FLIGHT. YOU'VE HEARD US MENTION IT SEVERAL TIMES. THAT'S NOT BECAUSE WE DIDN'T HAVE ENOUGH MATERIAL TO ADD, THAT'S BECAUSE OF HOW IMPRESSED WE ARE. THOSE OF US THAT DO THIS AND HAVE THOSE 40,000-FOOT FACILITIES WITH LARGE COMPUTERS AND COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS, WE ARE COMPLETELY BLOWN AWAY AND AWED BY WHAT DO YOU AND YOUR COLLEAGUES DID. WE'D LIKE TO THANK YOU AGAIN FOR THAT. [ APPLAUSE ] AT THIS TIME, I'D LIKE TO CALL FORWARD MEL FEREBEE, AND THE DIRECTOR OF OUR CENTER OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE, LORETTA KELEMEN, FOR THE OFFICIAL UNVEILING OF THE PLAQUE THAT COMMEMORATES THE NAMING OF THE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY. KINDERGARTEN RAIN, I'LL READ THE CITATION FROM THE PLAQUE, KATHERINE JOHNSON WAS HIRED AS A RESEARCH MATHEMATICIAN AT LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER WHEN IT WAS A LABORATORY OF THE NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS, THE AGENCY THAT PRECEDED NASA. HER INCOMPARABLE MATHEMATICAL SKILLS INFLUENCED EVERY MAJOR SPACE PROGRAM FROM MERCURY THROUGH SPACE SHUTTLE. SHE IS KNOWN ESPECIALLY FOR THE CALCULATIONS OF THE 1961 TRAJECTORY FOR ALAN SHEPARD'S MERCURY SPACECRAFT FLIGHT, FIRST AMERICAN IN SPACE, THE VERIFICATION OF JOHN GLENN'S 1962 MERCURY SPACECRAFT FLIGHT, THE FIRST FLIGHT CALCULATION MADE BY AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER, AND THE 1969 APOLLO 11 FLIGHT TO THE MOON. DURING A CEREMONY AT THE WHITE HOUSE IN 2015, PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA PERSONALLY AWARDED HER THE PRESIDENTIAL MEDAL OF FREEDOM, OUR NATION'S HIGHEST CIVILIAN HONOR. KATHERINE, ON BEHALF OF NASA ADMINISTRATOR CHARLIE BOLDEN, ALL OF THE EMPLOYEES HERE AT NASA LANGLEY, AND ALL NASA EMPLOYEES PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE, I WOULD LIKE TO PRESENT YOU WITH THIS REPLICA OF THE PLAQUE. [ APPLAUSE ] KATHERINE, THIS PLAQUE WILL BE PERMANENTLY MOUNTED IN THE BUILDING'S LOBBY AS A REMINDER OF ALL YOUR AMAZING CONTRIBUTIONS. LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, BEFORE WE #NAME? >> THANK YOU. ON BEHALF OF THE BOARDOF DIRECTORS LED BY DR. DOROTHY BUCHANAN WILSON AND THE 300,000 LADY OF ALPHA KAPPA ALPHA SORORITY, INC., IT IS MY HONOR TO PRESENT THESE ROSES TO OUR SORORITY MEMBER, DR. KATHERINE JOHNSON. [ APPLAUSE ] >> LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, BEFORE WE CONCLUDE TODAY'S CEREMONY THERE IS ONE LAST PIECE OF OFFICIAL BUSINESS WE HAVE TO TAKE CARE OF. KATHERINE PLAYED A PIVOTAL ROLE IN THE SUCCESS OF OUR NATION'S HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAM. SOME OF THE KEY HUMANS INVOLVED IN THAT PROGRAM ARE THE ASTRONAUTS THEMSELVES. PERHAPS MORE SO THAN ANYONE ELSE IT'S OUR NASA ASTRONAUTS WHO HAVE AN IMMENSE APPRECIATION FOR WHAT IT TAKES TO GET THEM INTO SPACE AND SAFELY HOME AGAIN, WHICH MIGHT BE WHY THE NASA ASTRONAUT CORPS CREATED A SPECIAL AWARD TO RECOGNIZE THOSE WHO HELP THEM DO THE AMAZING THINGS THAT THEY DO -- THE SPACE FLIGHT AWARENESS SILVER SNOOPY AWARD. AT THIS TIME I'D LIKE TO INTRODUCE RETIRED ASTRONAUT AND FORMER NASA LANGLEY ENGINEER LELAND MELVIN. LELAND BEGAN WORKING HERE IN 1989 AND IN 1998 HE WAS SELECTED INTO NASA'S ASTRONAUT CORPS AND WENT ON TO TWO SPACE FLIGHTS, STS-122 IN 2008, AND STS-129 IN 2009, LOGGING MORE THAN 565 HOURS IN SPACE. IN OCTOBER 2010, LELAND WAS NAMED ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR NASA'S OFFICE OF EDUCATION. HE RETIRED FROM NASA IN FEBRUARY 2014. PLEASE JOIN ME IN WELCOMING LELAND TO THE STAGE. [APPLAUSE] >> GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYONE. THIS IS A VERY, VERY BEAUTIFUL DAY. HEY, KATHERINE. [ LAUGHTER ] I'M SO HONORED TO BE HERE WITH FRIENDS AND FAMILY AND COMMUNITY. THIS NASA LANGLEY WAS MY FIRST JOB OUT OF GRADUATE SCHOOL. AND ONE OF THE PEOPLE THAT HAD RETIRED -- SHE RETIRED IN 1986. I CAME ON IN 1989. IT WASN'T LIKE SHE WAS RETIRED BECAUSE I SAW HER ALL THE TIME AT MTA CONVENTIONS AND DOING MATH CONTESTS, INSPIRING YOUNG GIRLS AND YOUNG BOYS TO BE GREAT MATHEMATICIANS AND S.A.T. TUTORIALS AND ALL OF THESE THINGS. SO SHE HELPED MOLD MY CAREER AND MENTORED ME AT A VERY YOUNG AGE AS A PROFESSIONAL HERE AT NASA LANGLEY. SO I'M JUST VERY HONORED AND PROUD TO HAVE ON NATIONAL ASTRONAUT DAY BEING THE RECIPIENT OF THE WORK THAT SHE DID TO GET ME TO SPACE SAFELY. AND I SAY THAT KATHERINE HAS BEEN -- I CALL THIS A SHERO OF MINE, FOR A VERY LONG TIME. AND HER DEDICATION, HER EXCELLENT TO PROFESSIONALISM AND SOCIAL BARRIERS THAT SHE BROKE, AND FOR HER ONGOING COMMITMENT TO INSPIRING THE FUTURE EXPLORERS LIKE MYSELF. ASTRONAUT JEANNETTE EPPS WILL BE THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE TO FLY FROM KAZAKHSTAN TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION FOR A SIX-MONTH TOUR. SO THE LEGALLY THAT KATHERINE JOHNSON HAS GIVEN US WILL HELP THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMAN BE ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION IN A FEW YEARS. AND THAT'S A TESTAMENT TO HER WORK. [ APPLAUSE ] AS CLAYTON TURNER MENTIONED, THE SILVER SNOOPY IS A SPECIAL NASA AWARD GIVEN FOR PROFESSIONAL EXCELLENCE IN VITAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAM. IT IS ALWAYS GIVEN BY A MEMBER OF THE ASTRONAUT CORPS. BY THE WAY, WE HAVE ANOTHER MEMBER POSSIBLY IN THE AUDIENCE IN NASA LANGLEY, DR. CHARLIE KAMATA. IS CHARLIE HERE? YEAH, ONE MORE TIME. HE WAS SUPPOSED TO BE HERE, BUT HE WASN'T ON TIME. CHARLIE GOT INTO THE ASTRONAUT CORPS AND THEN INSPIRED ME TO JOIN SOON AFTER THAT. I WANTED TO GIVE PROPS TO HIM. ANOTHER LANGLEY GUY. THOSE OF US COMPRISING NASA FLIGHT CREWS, ESPECIALLY THE EARLY HEROES OF SPACEFLIGHT, SHEPHERD, GLENN, CRUZ OF APOLLO 11, AND THE MAIDEN VOYAGE OF SPACE SHUTTLE COLUMBIA, RECOGNIZE THAT THE SUCCESS OF EACH MISSION IS MEASURED BY THE DEDICATION TO EXCELLENCE AND TEAMWORK OF SUCH PEOPLE LIKE KATHERINE. HER EFFORTS DEMONSTRATED THAT SHE WAS A VITAL LINK IN THE SUCCESS OF OUR SPACE PROGRAMS. AND WE THANK YOU FOR MANY CONTRIBUTIONS. KATHERINE PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN THIS EFFORT SINCE THE EARLIEST DAYS OF ASTRONAUT TRAVEL UNTIL HER RETIREMENT FROM NASA LANGLEY. KATHERINE, IT IS MY PLEASURE TO PRESENT THE STERLING SILVER SNOOPY TO YOU IN APPRECIATION FOR YOUR EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN CALCULATING TRAJECTORIES IN ORBITS OF AMERICA'S PIONEERING SPACEFLIGHTS. YOU DEMONSTRATED THE TECHNICAL COMPETENCE, DEDICATION, AND PRIDE THAT GUARANTEE MISSION SUCCESS. THIS SILVER SNOOPY PIN WAS FLOWN ABOARD SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS IN 2009 DURING MY SECOND MISSION, STS-129. I'M HONORED TO BESTOW THIS RECOGNITION AS SUCH, ON SUCH A WORTHY RECIPIENT AND DEAR FRIEND, DR. KATHERINE G. JOHNSON. [ APPLAUSE ] >> TESTING, ONE, TWO. I WANT TO SAY THAT A COUPLE OF MONTHS AGO, I GAVE KATHERINE MY FLOWN PIN BECAUSE SHE HAD NOT BEEN GIVEN A PIN YET. NOW WE'RE GOING TO SWAP PINS WITH THE SILVER SNOOPY THAT I'M GOING TO GIVE YOU RIGHT NOW. THIS IS A LETTER OF APPRECIATION FOR PROFESSIONALISM, DEDICATION, AND OUTSTANDING SUPPORT THAT GREATLY ENHANCED SPACEFLIGHT SAFETY AND MISSION SUCCESS. IN RECOGNITION OF THESE ACHIEVEMENTS AND AS A SYMBOL OF OUR SPECIAL THANKS, THE ASTRONAUT TEAM PRESENTS ASTRONAUT'S PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT AWARD TO KATHERINE G. JOHNSON, MAY 5th, 2016, ON ASTRONAUT DAY. [ APPLAUSE ] >> IT IS MY PLEASURE TO RECEIVE THE GIFT YOU HAVE GIVEN ME, THE PRIZES YOU HAVE GIVEN ME. I'VE ENJOYED RECEIVING THEM. AND THEY TELL ME YOU'RE GOING TO PUT A ROOM TO PUT THEM IN. [ LAUGHTER ] WELL, I DO THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION, FOR YOUR KIND NOT. MORE THAN THAT I'M SO HAPPY FOR GIVING MORE RECOGNITION TO WOMEN. ALL THE WORK THAT THEY'VE DONE WHEN THEY NOTICED TO WRITE DOWN WHAT I HAD WORKED ON. I THINK I HAD 20 PAGES. AT THE TIME IT WAS JUST ANOTHER DAY'S WORK. I HAVE ALWAYS DONE MY BEST, AND I ASK THE YOUNG LADIES HERE WHO ARE INTERESTED IN MAJORING IN MATH, THAT'S WHAT YOU LIKE ABOUT MATH, IT GIVES YOU A RIGHT AND A WRONG. THE BEST THEME IN THE WORLD, BUT WHO'S GOING TO SAY WHO WROTE IT, YOU KNOW. BUT IF YOU'VE GOT AN ANSWER TO A PROBLEM THAT SOMEBODY ELSE HAS WORKED ON, YOURS IS THE ANSWER. THAT IS IMPORTANT. SO I THANK YOU FOR RECOGNIZING THAT WOMEN HAVE LONG BEEN DOING A LOT OF THE WORK. [ LAUGHTER ] [ APPLAUSE ] >> AMEN. >> AND YOU WOULD JUST LOOK AT ME AND SEE -- AND YOU DO YOUR SHARE, DO YOUR BEST AT ALL TIMES, TOO, BECAUSE YOU LIKE IT. I LIKE WORK. I LIKE LEARNING. THERE'S A BOY WHOSE FATHER IS HERE, WHO IS GOING TO TEACH ME SPANISH BECAUSE I SPOKE -- I WANTED TO SPEAK SPANISH. WE'RE ALL SPEAKING SPANISH. EVERY TIME HE COMES TO SEE ME WHICH IS NECESSARILY OFTEN NOW THAT I HAVE MOVED, BUT HE COMES AND GIVES ME A SPANISH LESSON KNOWING THAT I LIKE LEARNING. SO I ASK YOU TO ENJOY LEARNING, WANT TO LEARN, AND YOU WILL DO IT, AND YOU WILL USE EVERY BIT OF IT AT SOME TIME. WHO WOULD HAVE THOUGHT THAT 50 YEARS AGO WHEN THEY ASKED ME HOW FAR WERE WE ON A MOON ON A CERTAIN DAY, I COULD OPEN A NO CONFIDENCE VOTEBOOK AND TELL HIM. YOU COULD DO IT EASILY ENOUGH. ALL THE TIME SOMEBODY WANT TO KNOW SOMETHING. HELP THEM. HELP ANYBODY YOU CAN HELP. YOU NEVER KNOW WHO YOU ARE HELPING, BUT THEY WILL APPRECIATE IT, AND SO WILL YOU LATER. THANKS AGAIN FOR EVERYTHING. >> YOU'RE WELCOME. >> YOU'VE GIVEN ME. >> THANK YOU, THANK YOU. [ APPLAUSE ] >> NEXT YEAR WE CELEBRATE OUR CENTENNIAL, THE FIRST NASA CENTER TO DO SO. FOR ALMOST 100 YEARS IT HAS BEEN PEOPLE LIKE KATHERINE, AND THEIR CURIOSITY, PASSION AND BRILLIANCE THAT HAVE HELPED TO SOLVE SOME OF THE MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGES OF OUR TIME. WE TAKE IMMENSE PRIDE IN THE WORK OF THOSE WHO CAME BEFORE US, AND WE CELEBRATE OUR STORIED PAST BY HONORING THEM AND THEIR ACCOMPLISHMENTS. WE ARE ALSO INCREDIBLY EXCITED ABOUT OUR SOARING FUTURE. THE KATHERINE G. JOHNSON COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH FACILITY WILL HELP CARRY THIS CENTER, ITS PEOPLE AND THE AWE-INSPIRING WORK THAT WE DO INTO THE NEXT CENTURY. KATHERINE, THANK YOU IS NOT ENOUGH. THANK YOU VERY MUCH. [ APPLAUSE ] LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, THIS CONCLUDES OUR CEREMONY. THANK YOU FOR COMING AND PLEASE JOIN US FOR A RECEPTION TO CONTINUE THE CELEBRATION OF TODAY'S ANNOUNCEMENT. WE HAVE CAKE AND PUNCH -- CAKE, IT'S SOUTHERN, NOT BEING CHEAP. THANK YOU FOR COMING. THANK YOU.

Contents

Free will

In philosophical discourse, freedom is discussed in the context of free will and self-determination, balanced by moral responsibility.

Advocates of free will regard freedom of thought as innate to the human mind, while opponents regard the mind as thinking only the thoughts that a purely deterministic brain happens to be engaged in at the time.

Social freedom or liberty

Four Freedoms, a series of paintings meant to describe the freedoms for which allied nations fought in World War II.
Four Freedoms, a series of paintings meant to describe the freedoms for which allied nations fought in World War II.

In political discourse, political freedom is often associated with liberty and autonomy in the sense of "giving oneself one's own laws", and with having rights and the civil liberties with which to exercise them without undue interference by the state. Frequently discussed kinds of political freedom include freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom of choice, and freedom of speech.

In some circumstances, particularly when discussion is limited to political freedoms, the terms "freedom" and "liberty" tend to be used interchangeably.[1][2] Elsewhere, however, subtle distinctions between freedom and liberty have been noted.[3] John Stuart Mill, differentiated liberty from freedom in that freedom is primarily, if not exclusively, the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; whereas liberty concerns the absence of arbitrary restraints and takes into account the rights of all involved. As such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others.[4]

Wendy Hui Kyong Chun explains the differences in terms of their relation to institutions:

Liberty is linked to human subjectivity; freedom is not. The Declaration of Independence, for example, describes men as having liberty and the nation as being free. Free will—the quality of being free from the control of fate or necessity—may first have been attributed to human will, but Newtonian physics attributes freedom—degrees of freedom, free bodies—to objects.[5]

Freedom differs from liberty as control differs from discipline. Liberty, like discipline, is linked to institutions and political parties, whether liberal or libertarian; freedom is not. Although freedom can work for or against institutions, it is not bound to them—it travels through unofficial networks. To have liberty is to be liberated from something; to be free is to be self-determining, autonomous. Freedom can or cannot exist within a state of liberty: one can be liberated yet unfree, or free yet enslaved (Orlando Patterson has argued in Freedom: Freedom in the Making of Western Culture that freedom arose from the yearnings of slaves).[5]

Another distinction that some political theorists have deemed important is that people may aspire to have freedom from limiting forces (such as freedom from fear, freedom from want, and freedom from discrimination), but descriptions of freedom and liberty generally do not invoke having liberty from anything.[2] To the contrary, the concept of negative liberty refers to the liberty one person may have to restrict the rights of others.[2]

Other important fields in which freedom is an issue include economic freedom, academic freedom, intellectual freedom, and scientific freedom.

Freedom as a physical concept

In purely physical terms, freedom is used much more broadly to describe the limits to which physical movement or other physical processes are possible. This relates to the philosophical concept to the extent that people may be considered to have as much freedom as they are physically able to exercise. The number of independent variables or parameters for a system is described as its number of degrees of freedom. For example the movement of a vehicle along a road has two degrees of freedom; to go fast or slow, or to change direction by turning left or right. The movement of a ship sailing on the waves has four degrees of freedom, since it can also pitch nose-to-tail and roll side-to-side. An aeroplane can also climb and sideslip, giving it six degrees of freedom.

Degrees of freedom in mechanics describes the number of independent motions that are allowed to a body, or, in case of a mechanism made of several bodies, the number of possible independent relative motions between the pieces of the mechanism. In the study of complex motor control, there may be so many degrees of freedom that a given action can be achieved in different ways by combining movements with different degrees of freedom. This issue is sometimes called the degrees of freedom problem.

Freedom in mathematical theory

In mathematics freedom is the ability of a variable to change in value.

Some equations have many such variables. This notion is formalized as the dimension of a manifold or an algebraic variety. When degrees of freedom is used instead of dimension, this usually means that the manifold or variety that models the system is only implicitly defined. Such degrees of freedom appear in many mathematical and related disciplines, including degrees of freedom as used in physics and chemistry to explain dependence on parameters, or the dimensions of a phase space; and degrees of freedom in statistics, the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.

References

  1. ^ See Bertrand Badie, Dirk Berg-Schlosser, Leonardo Morlino, International Encyclopedia of Political Science (2011), p. 1447: "Throughout this entry, incidentally, the terms freedom and liberty are used interchangeably".
  2. ^ a b c Anna Wierzbicka, Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words (1997), p. 130-31: "Unfortunately... the English words freedom and liberty are used interchangeably. This is confusing because these two do not mean the same, and in fact what [Isaiah] Berlin calls "the notion of 'negative' freedom" has become largely incorporated in the word freedom, whereas the word liberty in its earlier meaning was much closer to the Latin libertas and in its current meaning reflects a different concept, which is a product of the Anglo-Saxon culture".
  3. ^ Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics (2008), p. 9: "Although used interchangeably, freedom and liberty have significantly different etymologies and histories. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Old English frei (derived from Sanskrit) meant dear and described all those close or related to the head of the family (hence friends). Conversely in Latin, libertas denoted the legal state of being free versus enslaved and was later extended to children (liberi), meaning literally the free members of the household. Those who are one's friends are free; those who are not are slaves".
  4. ^ Mill, J.S. (1869)., "Chapter I: Introductory", On Liberty. http://www.bartleby.com/130/1.html
  5. ^ a b Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics (2008), p. 9.

External links

  • "Freedom", BBC Radio 4 discussion with John Keane, Bernard Williams & Annabel Brett (In Our Time, July 4, 2002)
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