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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession,[1] separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2] While some critics[who?] may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists[who?] argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.[3]

Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups. Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination.[4] However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.[5]

Motivations

Support for Catalan independence is based on the idea that Catalonia is a nation
Support for Catalan independence is based on the idea that Catalonia is a nation

Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:[6]

  • Emotional resentment and hatred of rival communities.
  • Protection from genocide and ethnic cleansing.
  • Resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language, culture or religion.
  • Influence and propaganda by those inside and outside the region who hope to gain politically from intergroup conflict and hatred.
  • Economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion.
  • Economic motivations: seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group.
  • Preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition.
  • Destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others.
  • Geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires.
  • Continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up.
  • Feeling that the perceived nation was added to the larger state by illegitimate means.
  • The perception that the state can no longer support one's own group or has betrayed their interests.
  • Opposition to political decisions.

Governmental responses

In 1861, the American Civil War started after a separatist movement of southern US states seceded from the United States.
In 1861, the American Civil War started after a separatist movement of southern US states seceded from the United States.

How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent action or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political, social and cultural factors, including movement leadership[7] and the government's response.[5] Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. Some include:[8]

  • accede to separatist demands
  • improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, linguistic, territorial, economic or political
  • adopt "asymmetric federalism" where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations
  • Allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel strongly, through parliamentary voting, referendum, etc.
  • Settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states.

Some governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries.

Ethnic separatism

Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Ethnic separatist movements include the following:

Eurasia
Mural for Catalan independence in Belfast.
Mural for Catalan independence in Belfast.
Silesians demonstrating in Katowice (in Silesia).
Silesians demonstrating in Katowice (in Silesia).
Welsh demonstrating in Cardiff.
Welsh demonstrating in Cardiff.
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine.
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine.
Africa
Oromo Liberation Front rebels in Kenya armed with AK-47 rifles.
Oromo Liberation Front rebels in Kenya armed with AK-47 rifles.
Americas
Australasia

Racial separatism

Some separatist groups seek to separate from others along racial lines. They oppose interracial marriage and integration with other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions; and often separate societies, territories, countries, and governments.

Territories considered for "Aztlán"
Territories considered for "Aztlán"

Religious separatism

Religious separatist groups and sects want to withdraw from some larger religious groups and/or believe they should interact primarily with coreligionists.[citation needed]

Geographic and socioeconomic separatism

Gender and sexist separatism

The relationship between gender and separatism is complex and warrants more research.[42] Separatist feminism is women's choosing to separate from ostensibly male-defined, male-dominated institutions, relationships, roles and activities.[43] Lesbian separatism advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Some separatist feminists and lesbian separatists have chosen to live apart in intentional community, cooperatives, and on land trusts.[44] Queer nationalism (or "Gay separatism") seeks a community distinct and separate from other social groups.[45][46]

See also

Lists

General

References

  1. ^ Free Dictionary; Merriam Webster dictionary; The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current= English 2008.
  2. ^ Harris, R.; Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era: Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 978-90-04-17690-4. 9789004176904
  3. ^ "Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Secession and Secessionism" by Alexandar Pavković - H-Nationalism - H-Net". networks.h-net.org.
  4. ^ Identity Politics. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. November 2, 2007.
  5. ^ a b See D.L. Horowitz's "Patterns of Ethnic Separatism", originally published in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981, vol 23, 165-95. Republished in John A. Hall, The State: Critical Concepts, Routledge, 1994.
  6. ^ Spencer, Metta (1998). Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–4. ISBN 9780847685851.
  7. ^ Link to: Chima, Jugdep. "Effects of Political Leadership on Ethnic Separatist Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, April 12, 2007, (PDF); Chima, Jugdep. "How Does Political Leadership Affect the Trajectories of Ethnic Separatist Insurgencies?: Comparative Evidence from Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, September 01, 2005 (PDF).
  8. ^ Metta Spencer, 5-6.
  9. ^ "Εκδήλωση και ψήφισμα στο Δελβινάκι για την Επέτειο Αυτονομίας της Βορείου Ηπείρου". himara.gr.
  10. ^ "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. May 4, 2007. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  11. ^ The Bavaria's right to separate itself from the Federal Republic of Germany "Das Recht auf Eigenstaatlichkeit" [The Right to Statehood] (in German). landesverband.bayernpartei.de. October 28, 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  12. ^ Harold E. Glass, Ethnic Diversity, Elite Accommodation and Federalism in Switzerland, Publius, Vol. 7, No. 4, Federalism and Ethnicity (autumn, 1977), 31-48. Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ a b Reviews of Katharine Adeney Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Regulation in India and Pakistan, Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.
  14. ^ Muini, S.D.; Rupesinghe, Kumar; Tishkov, Valery A. (1996). "Ethnic conflict, federalism, and democracy in India". Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World. United Nations University Press. ISBN 978-92-808-0908-4.
  15. ^ "China issues call to crush Tibetan 'separatists'". Agence France-Presse. 2009-02-19. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  16. ^ "2014 Kunming attack", Wikipedia, 2019-03-28, retrieved 2019-03-31
  17. ^ African Ethnicities University of Florida online library.
  18. ^ Excerpt from book Ethnic Conflicts in Africa, Okwudiba Nnoli, Distributed by African Books Collective, 1998, 417 Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, University of Florida online library.
  19. ^ Emmy Godwin Irobi, Ethnic Conflict Management in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Nigeria and South Africa, May, 2005, Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.
  20. ^ "Niger, hit by Tuareg revolt, adopts anti-terror law". Reuters. April 20, 2008.
  21. ^ a b Professor Predicts 'Hispanic Homeland' Archived 2012-11-07 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, 2000
  22. ^ Leo, John (June 13, 2007). "Let the Segregation Commence, Separatist graduations proliferate at UCLA". City Journal.
  23. ^ Levit, Nancy (August 29, 2005). Embracing Segregation: The Jurisprudence of Choice and Diversity in Race and Sex Separatism in Schools (PDF). University of Illinois Law Review. University of Illinois. p. 455. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2009.
  24. ^ Arenson, Karen W. (April 19, 2006). "CUNY Program to Help Black Men Is Called Discriminatory". New York Times.
  25. ^ Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (Summer 2006). "Strategy of White Separatism". Journal of Political and Military Sociology.
  26. ^ Howell, Nancy B. "Radical Relatedness and Feminist Separatism". Archived from the original on 2008-06-24.
  27. ^ Brooke, James (12 May 1993). "Santa Cruz Journal; White Flight in Brazil? Secessionist Caldron Boils" – via www.nytimes.com.
  28. ^ Foer, Franklin (November 23, 1997). "Racial Integration". Slate.
  29. ^ Barlow, Rich (April 26, 2008). "Topic turns to Wright case". Boston Globe.
  30. ^ Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (2000). The White Separatist Movement in the United States: "White Power, White Pride!". The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–3, 10. ISBN 9780801865374.
  31. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica on religious separatists".
  32. ^ Goodwin, John Abbot (1888). The Pilgrim republic: an historical review of the colony of New Plymouth. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 1.
  33. ^ "Christian separatist on trial in Indonesia". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2002.
  34. ^ Brummitt, Chris (April 5, 2002). "Christian separatist leader threatens to raise independence flags in Maluku". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 15, 2011.
  35. ^ Hussain, Syed Zarir (December 31, 2002). "Christian separatist group in Tripura target tribal Hindus". Indo-Asian News Service.
  36. ^ "Christian separatist ready for new home". Ventura County Star. June 9, 2007. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
  37. ^ "Colorado Rep. disavows ties to SC Christian separatist group". Associated Press. October 9, 2005.
  38. ^ "Life Among The Bruderhof". The American Conservative. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  39. ^ Pinson, Koppel S. (1958). Simon Dubnow. pp. 13–69.
  40. ^ Lucotte G, Smets P; Smets (December 1999). "Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplotypes of the Y chromosome". Human Biology. 71 (6): 989–993. PMID 10592688.
  41. ^ Punj, Blbir (June 16, 2006). "The Ghost of Khalistan". Sikh Times.
  42. ^ "Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Gendering Secession" by Jill Vickers - H-Nationalism - H-Net". networks.h-net.org.
  43. ^ Frye, Marilyn; Meyers, Diana Tietjens (1997). Some Reflections on Separatism and Power. Feminist Social Thought: A Reader. Routledge. pp. 406–414.
  44. ^ Joyce Cheney, Lesbian Land, Word Weavers Press, 1976.
  45. ^ Mark K. Bloodsworth-Lugo, In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality, SUNY Press, 2007, ISBN 0-7914-7221-3
  46. ^ Richard D. Mohr, Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law, Columbia University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-231-06735-6

Further reading

External links

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