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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Countries using open-list proportional representation as of 2020.
  Countries where all parties use an open list
  Countries where most parties use an open list
  Varies by state

Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the order in which a party's candidates are elected. This is as opposed to closed list, in which party lists are in a pre-determined, fixed order by the time of the election and gives the general voter no influence at all on the position of the candidates placed on the party list.

An open list system allows voters to select individuals rather than, or in addition to parties. Different systems give the voter different amounts of influence to change the default ranking. The voter's candidate choices are usually called preference vote; the voters are usually allowed one or more preference votes for the open list candidates.

Open lists differ from mixed-member proportional representation, also known as "personalized proportional representation" in Germany. Some mixed systems, however, may use open lists in their list-PR component.

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Transcription

Variants

Relatively closed

A "relatively closed" open list system is one where a candidate must get a full quota of votes on their own to be assured of winning a seat. (This quota, broadly speaking, is the total number of votes cast divided by the number of places to be filled. Usually, the precise number required is the Hare quota, but the Droop quota can also be used.)

The total number of seats won by the party minus the number of its candidates that achieved this quota gives the number of unfilled seats. These are then successively allocated to the party's not-yet-elected candidates who were ranked highest on the original list.

Examples

Iceland: In both parliamentary and municipal elections, voters may alter the order of the party list or strike candidates from the list completely. How many votes need to be altered in this way to have an effect on the results varies by the number of seats won by the party in the constituency or municipality in question and the candidate's place on the list.[1] In the parliamentary elections of 2007 and 2009, voters altered the party lists enough to change the ranking of candidates within party lists. However, this did not affect which candidates ultimately got elected to parliament.[2]

Norway: In parliamentary elections, 50% of the voters need to vote for a candidate in order to change the order of the party list, meaning that, in practice, it is almost impossible for voters to change the result and it is de facto a closed list system. In county elections there is a threshold of 8%.[3]

Ley de Lemas

The Ley de Lemas allows the voter to indicate on the ballot the preference for different political factions or lists of candidates within a political party.

More open

In a "more open" list system, the quota for election could be lowered from the above amount. It is then (theoretically) possible that more of a party's candidates achieve this quota than the total seats won by the party. It should therefore be made clear in advance whether list ranking or absolute votes take precedence in that case. The quota for individuals is usually specified either as a percentage of the party list quota, or as a percentage of the total votes received by the party.

Example: The quota is 1000 votes and the open list threshold is specified as 25% of the quota, i.e. 250 votes. Therefore, a party which received 5000 votes wins five seats, which are awarded to its list candidates as follows:

Candidate position
on the list
Preference votes 25% of the quota Elected
#1 3500 x (first) x
#2 50 x
#3 150 x
#4 250 x (third) x
#5 100
#6 100
#7 450 x (second) x
#8 50

Candidates #1, #7 and #4 have each achieved 25% of the quota (250 preference votes or more). They get the first three of the five seats the party has won. The other two seats will be taken by #2 and #3, the two highest remaining positions on the party list. This means that #5 is not elected even though being the fifth on the list and having more preference votes than #2.

In practice, with such a strict threshold, only very few candidates succeed to precede on their lists as the required number of votes is huge. Where the threshold is lower (e.g. in Czech parliamentary elections, 5% of the total party vote is the required minimum), results defying the original list order are much more common.

Parties usually allow candidates to ask for preference votes, but without campaigning negatively against other candidates on the list.

Austria

The members of the National Council are elected by open list proportional representation in nine multi-member constituencies based on the states (with varying in size from 7 to 36 seats) and 39 districts. Voters are able to cast a single party vote and one preference votes each on the federal, state and electoral district level for their preferred candidates within that party. The thresholds for a candidate to move up the list are 7% of the candidate's party result on the federal level, 10% on the state level and 14% on the electoral district level.[4] Candidates for the district level are listed on the ballot while voters need to write-in their preferred candidate on state and federal level.

Croatia

In Croatia, the voter can give their vote to a single candidate on the list, but only candidates who have received at least 10% of the party's votes take precedence over the other candidates on the list.[5]

Czech Republic

In Czech parliamentary elections, voters are given 4 preference votes. Only candidates who have received more than 5% of preferential votes at the regional level take precedence over the list.[6] For elections to the European Parliament, the procedure is identical but each voter is only allowed 2 preference votes.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, any candidate who has obtained at least 30% of the quota is automatically elected.[7][needs update]

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the voter can give their vote to any candidate in a list (for example, in elections for the House of the Representatives); the vote for this candidate is called a "preference vote" (voorkeurstem in Dutch). Candidate with at least 25% of the quota takes priority over the party's other candidates who stand higher on the party list but received fewer preference votes. Most people vote for the top candidate, to indicate no special preference for any individual candidate, but support for the party in general. Sometimes, however, people want to express their support for a particular person. Many women, for example, vote for the first woman on the list. If a candidate gathers enough preference votes, then they get a seat in parliament, even if their position on the list would leave them without a seat. In the 2003 elections Hilbrand Nawijn, the former minister of migration and integration, was elected into parliament for the Pim Fortuyn List by preference votes even though he was the last candidate on the list.

Slovakia

In Slovakia, each voter may, in addition to the party, select one to four candidates from the ordered party list. Candidates who are selected by more than 3% of the party's voters are elected (in order of total number of votes) first and only then is the party ordering used. For European elections, voters select two candidates and the candidates must have more than 10% of the total votes to override the party list. In the European election in 2009 three of Slovakia's thirteen MEPs were elected solely by virtue of preference votes (having party-list positions too low to have won otherwise) and only one (Katarína Neveďalová of SMER) was elected solely by virtue of her position on the party list (having fewer preference votes than a number of other candidates who themselves, nevertheless had preferences from fewer than 10 percent of their party's voters).

Sweden

In Sweden, the "most open" list is used, but a person needs to receive 5% of the party's votes for the personal vote to overrule the ordering on the party list.[8] Voting without expressing a preference between individuals is possible, although the parties urge their voters to support the party's prime candidate, to protect them from being beaten by someone ranked lower by the party. The share of voters using the open list option at 2022 Swedish general election was 22.49%.[9]

Most open

Finnish parliamentary election uses the open list method. Here an official poster rack in central Helsinki displays the candidates and their assigned ballot numbers by party.
Ballot during the Finnish parliamentary election of 2011
A campaign bus in Tokyo for (successful) Communist proportional candidate Tomoko Tamura in Japan's 2016 Councillors election. Tamura received roughly half of her votes in Tokyo, other proportional candidates on the same list won most of their votes in other prefectures.[10] The proportional district is nationwide; but limited by a very short legal campaign period, some proportional candidates focus their campaign efforts on only certain regions where they personally or their party have a local base.

The "most open" list system is the one where the absolute number of votes every candidate receives fully determines the "order of election" (the list ranking only possibly serving as a "tiebreaker").

When such a system is used, one could make the case that within every party an additional virtual non-transferable vote election (single or multiple based on the number of preference votes available to the voters) is taking place.

This system is used in all Finnish, Latvian and Brazilian multiple-seat elections. Since 2001, lists of this "most open" type have also been used in the elections to fill the 96 proportional seats in the 242-member upper house of Japan (the other 146 are elected through a majoritarian, SNTV/FPTP system).

Different countries have different methods of breaking ties between candidates. For example, in Finland ties may be resolved by a coin toss, while in Brazil the oldest candidate wins the tie.

Free lists or panachage

A "free list", more usually called panachage, is similar in principle to the most open list, but instead of having just one vote for one candidate in one list, a voter has (usually) as many votes as there are seats to be filled, and may distribute these among different candidates in different lists. Voters may also give more votes to one candidate, in a manner similar to cumulative voting, and delete (German: Streichen or Reihen, French: latoisage) the names of some candidates. This gives the voter more control over which candidates are elected.[11]

It is used in elections at all levels in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Switzerland, in congressional elections in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Honduras, as well as in local elections in a majority of German states, in French communes with under 1,000 inhabitants, and in Czech municipal elections.

Ballot format

Some ways to operate an open list system when using traditional paper-based voting are as follows:

  • One method (used in Belgium and the Netherlands) is to have a large ballot paper with a box for each party and sub-boxes for the various candidates. In Belgium, when electronic voting is used (in Flanders and Ostbelgien), the voter has to choose with an electronic pencil on a touchscreen between lists and blank vote, then on the list's page between the top box (vote for the list without preference for specific candidates) or the box(es) for one or several candidates on the same list.[12]
  • Another method (used in Norway, Slovakia and Spain) is to have a separate ballot paper for each party. To maintain voter secrecy, the voter is handed ballot papers for every party. The voter chooses the candidates (or may vote for the party as a whole) on one of the ballot papers, for example, by drawing circles around the candidate numbers (which is why casting preference votes is called circling in the Czech Republic and Slovakia). Then, the voter puts the party ballot paper into an envelope and puts the envelope into the ballot box.
  • In Brazil, each candidate is assigned a number (in which the first 2 digits are the party number and the others the candidate's number within the party). The voting machine has a telephone-like panel where the voter presses the buttons for the number of their chosen candidate. In Finland, each candidate is assigned a 3-digit number.
  • In Italy, the voter must write the name of each chosen candidate in blank boxes under the party box.

Use

By country

Some of these states may use other systems in addition to an open list, for example first-past-the-post in individual constituencies. Some countries use open list may only be used in one of the chambers of the legislature.

Africa

Americas

Asia-Pacific

Europe

Partially recognized states

Types

Types of open list systems used in the lower house of the national legislature.[36]

Country Legislative body System Variation of open lists Number of votes (for candidates) Apportionment method Electoral threshold Governmental system Notes
Albania Parliament (Kuvendi) Open list party proportional representation d'Hondt method 4% nationally or 2.5% in a district Parliamentary republic
Armenia National Assembly Open list party proportional representation D'Hondt method 5% (parties), 7% (blocs) Parliamentary republic Party lists run-off, but only if necessary to ensure stable majority of 54% if it is not achieved either immediately (one party) or through building a coalition.[37][38] If a party would win more than 2/3 seats, at least 1/3 seats are distributed to the other parties.
Aruba Parliament Open list party proportional representation 0-1 D'Hondt method
Austria National Council Open list party proportional representation More open:

14% on the district level (among votes for the candidates party)

1 in each geographic level of candidate list Hare quota 4% Parliamentary republic
More open:

10% on the regional (state) level (among votes for the candidates party)

Hare quota
More open: 7% of the on the federal level (among votes for the candidates party) d'Hondt method
Belgium Chamber of Representatives Open list party proportional representation As many as there are mandates in the district D'Hondt method 5% (per constitutiency) Constitutional monarchy
Bosnia and Herzegovina House of Representatives Open list party proportional representation 0-1 Sainte-Laguë method Parliamentary directorial republic
Brazil Chamber of Deputies Open list party proportional representation 0-1 D'Hondt method 2% distributed in at least 9 Federation Units with at least 1% of the valid votes in each one of them Presidential republic
Bulgaria National Assembly Open list party proportional representation 0-1 Hare quota 4% Parliamentary republic
Chile Chamber of Deputies Open list party proportional representation 1
Croatia Open list party proportional representation 0-1 5%
Cyprus Open list party proportional representation 0-1 for every 4 seats in the district
Czech Republic Open list party proportional representation 0-4 5%
Democratic Republic of the Congo Parallel voting 0-1 to 0-5 depending on number of mandates in the district
Denmark Folketing (Unicameral legislature) Open list two tier proportional representation with compensating 0-1 2%
East Timor
Ecuador National Congress Open list two tiers proportional representation without compensating
As many as there are mandates in the district Panachage allowed Sainte-Laguë method
El Salvador Legislative Assembly Open list party proportional representation As many as there are mandates in the district Panachage allowed D'Hondt method
Estonia Open list party proportional representation 1 5%
Fiji Open list party proportional representation 1 D'Hondt method 5%
Finland Open list party proportional representation 1 D'Hondt method
Greece Majority bonus 0-1 to 0-5 depending on number of mandates in the district Largest remainder (Hare quota) 3% Nationwide closed lists and open lists in multi-member districts. The winning party used to receive a majority bonus of 50 seats (out of 300), but this system will be abolished two elections after 2016.[39] In 2020 parliament voted to return to the majority bonus two elections thereafter.[40]
Honduras Open list party proportional representation As many as there are mandates in the district Panachage allowed Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Iceland Open list party proportional representation May change order of candidates on list or cross out rejected candidates d'Hondt method
Indonesia Open list party proportional representation 0-1 Sainte-Laguë method 4%
Kosovo Open list party proportional representation 0-5 Sainte-Laguë method
Latvia Open list party proportional representation May vote for as many candidates or reject as many candidates as there are on the list Sainte-Laguë method 5%
Lebanon Open list party proportional representation 0-1 d'Hondt method
Liechtenstein Open list party proportional representation As many as there are mandates in the district 8%
Lithuania Parallel voting 0-5 Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies Open list party proportional representation Panachage (number of votes equal to the number of members elected) May vote for or delete as many candidates as there are mandates in the district Panachage allowed d'Hondt method No de jure threshold Parliamentary system
Netherlands House of Representatives Open list party proportional representation More open

(25% of the quota to override the default party-list)

0-1 d'Hondt method No de jure threshold, but an effective threshold of 0.67% (1/150) for a seat Parliamentary system
Norway Parliament (Storting) Open list Two tier proportional representation with compensating De facto closed list (50% of votes to override) May change order of candidates on list or cross out rejected candidates Sainte-Laguë method 4%
Panama Parallel voting As many as there are mandates in the district Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Peru Open list party proportional representation 0-2 d'Hondt method 5%
Poland Sejm Open list party proportional representation 1 d'Hondt method 5% threshold or more for single parties, 8% or more for coalitions or 0% or more for minorities Parliamentary republic
San Marino Majority jackpot / Open list party proportional representation 1 d'Hondt method 3.5% If needed to ensure a stable majority, the two best-placed parties participate in a run-off vote to receive a majority bonus.
Slovakia Open list party proportional representation 0-4 Largest remainder (Hare quota) 5%
Slovenia Open list party proportional representation Largest remainder (Droop quota) 4%
0-1 d'Hondt method 4%
Sri Lanka Parliament Open list Two tier proportional representation without compensating Panachage

(up to 3 preference votes)[41]

0-3 Hare quota with largest party receives bonus seat de facto d'Hondt method 5%

(per constituency)

Semi-presidential system
? No threshold
Suriname National Assembly Open list party proportional representation Most open 0-1 d'Hondt method No threshold Assembly-independent republic
Sweden Riksdag Open list Two tiers proportional representation with compensating More open

(5% of the party vote to override the default party-list)[42]

0-1 Sainte-Laguë method (leveling seats) 4% nationally or 12%

in a given constituency

Parliamentary system
Switzerland National Council (Lower house of national legislature) Open list party proportional representation Panachage May vote for or delete as many candidates as there are mandates in the district Panachage allowed Hagenbach-Bischoff system No threshold Semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent[43][44] directorial republic

Notes

CEPPS

  1. ^ "Country Profile: Colombia". 2012-06-19. Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  2. ^ "Country Profile: Indonesia". 2010-11-26. Archived from the original on 2016-03-29. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  3. ^ "Country Profile: Sri Lanka". 2010-02-18. Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  4. ^ "Country Profile: Czech Republic". Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  5. ^ "Country Profile: Estonia". 2011-04-15. Archived from the original on 2016-03-30. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  6. ^ "Country Profile: Latvia". August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  7. ^ "Country Profile: Luxembourg". February 4, 2010. Archived from the original on March 27, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  8. ^ "Country Profile: Netherlands". 2010-10-14. Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  9. ^ "Country Profile: Norway". 2011-03-18. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  10. ^ "Country Profile: Slovakia". February 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 1, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  11. ^ "Country Profile: Slovenia". 2012-02-28. Archived from the original on 2016-03-29. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  12. ^ "Country Profile: Sweden". ElectionGuide. Consortium for Elections and Political Process Strengthening. 2010-08-08. Archived from the original on 2016-03-29. Retrieved July 8, 2012.

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