To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Kings County, California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kings County, California
County of Kings
Kings County Courthouse
Flag of Kings County, California
Official seal of Kings County, California
Interactive map of Kings County
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
Country United States
State California
RegionSan Joaquin Valley
Metropolitan areaHanford-Lemoore
EstablishedMarch 22, 1893[1]
Named forKings River
County seatHanford
Largest cityHanford
 • Total1,392 sq mi (3,610 km2)
 • Land1,389 sq mi (3,600 km2)
 • Water2.1 sq mi (5 km2)
Highest elevation3,476 ft (1,059 m)
 • Total152,982
 • Estimate 
 • Density110/sq mi (42/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Area code559
FIPS code06-031
GNIS feature ID277280

Kings County is located in the U.S. state of California. The population was 152,982 at the 2010 census.[5] The California Department of Finance estimated the county's population was 152,940 as of July 1, 2019.[4] The county seat is Hanford.[6]

Kings County comprises the Hanford-Lemoore, CA metropolitan statistical area, which is also included in the Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, CA combined statistical area. It is in the San Joaquin Valley, a rich agricultural region.


Gabriel Moraga named the Kings River as Rio de los Reyes during his 1805-08 expedition. The name was later expanded to the Kings County.
Gabriel Moraga named the Kings River as Rio de los Reyes during his 1805-08 expedition. The name was later expanded to the Kings County.

The area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians including the Tachi Yokuts tribe.[7] It was colonized by Spain, Mexico and the United States.

An 1805 expedition probably led by Spanish Army Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga recorded discovering the river, which they named El Rio de los Santos Reyes (River of the Holy Kings) after the Three Wise Men of the Bible.[8] At the time of the United States conquest of California in 1848, the new government changed the name to Kings River after which the county was named.[8]

In 1880, a dispute over land titles between settlers and the Southern Pacific Railroad resulted in a bloody gun battle on a farm 5.6 mi (9.0 km) northwest of Hanford; seven men died. This event became known as the Mussel Slough Tragedy.

Kings County was formed in 1893 from the western part of Tulare County.[8] In 1909, by an act of the state legislature, 208 square miles (540 km2) of Fresno County territory was added to the northwest portion of Kings County.[9]

Settlers reclaimed Tulare Lake and its wetlands for agricultural development. In surface area, it was formerly the largest body of freshwater west of the Great Lakes, and supported a large population of migratory birds as well as local birds and wildlife. Monoculture has sharply reduced habitat for many species.

In 1928, oil was discovered in the Kettleman Hills located in the southwestern part of Kings County. The Kettleman North Dome Oil Field became one of the most productive oil fields in the United States.[10]

During the Great Depression, over 18,000 cotton pickers in the southern San Joaquin Valley, mostly migrant Mexican workers, went on strike in the California agricultural strikes of 1933. During the strike, 3,500 striking farm workers lived in a four-acre camp on the land of a small farmer on the outskirts of Corcoran. Ultimately, the federal government intervened to force both sides to negotiate a settlement.[11]

Lemoore Army Airfield was established for training and defense during World War II. In 1961, the U.S. Navy opened NAS Lemoore 9 miles (14 km) west of Lemoore, not far from the earlier site.

The completion of the California Aqueduct in the early 1970s brought needed water for agriculture and domestic use to the west side of the county.

Historic sites


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,392 square miles (3,610 km2), of which 1,389 square miles (3,600 km2) is land and 2.1 square miles (5.4 km2) (0.2%) is water.[12]

Kings County is bordered on the north and northwest by Fresno County, on the east by Tulare County, on the south by Kern County and a small part of San Luis Obispo County and on the west by Monterey County.

Table Mountain is the highest point in Kings County at an elevation of 3,476 feet (1,059 m). It is located in the Diablo Range in southwestern Kings County on the boundary between Kings and Monterey counties.

Most of the historic Tulare Lake was within Kings County. Although reclaimed for farming late in the 19th century, it was the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes.



Places by population, race, and income


Historical population
Census Pop.
2019 (est.)152,940[3]0.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[20]
1790–1960[21] 1900–1990[22]
1990–2000[23] 2010–2015[5]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Kings County had a population of 152,982. The census included inmates of the three men's state prisons. According to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, there were 18,640 inmates in Kings County prisons on March 31, 2010, which was 12.2% of the population.[24] The inmate population had been reduced to 13,894 on December 31, 2013.[24] The racial makeup of Kings County was 83,027 (54.3%) White, 11,014 (7.2%) African American, 2,562 (1.7%) Native American, 5,620 (3.7%) Asian, 271 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 42,996 (28.1%) from other races, and 7,492 (4.9%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 77,866 persons (50.9%).[25]

The U.S. Census does not identify how many residents are undocumented immigrants. However, the Public Policy Institute of California issued a report in July 2011, which estimated there were 9,000 illegal immigrants living in Kings County in 2008, which would be 5.8% of the county's population.[26]

According to the California Board of State and Community Corrections, Kings County had the highest incarceration rate of California's 58 counties in 2014 at 1,384 per 100,000 population. Statewide, the rate was 567 per 100,000.[27]


As of the 2000 census, there were 129,461 people, 34,418 households, and 26,983 families residing in the county. However, the California Department of Finance estimates that the population had grown 154,434 as of January 1, 2008.[28] The population density based on the 2000 census was 36/km2 (93/sq mi). There were 36,563 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile (10/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 53.7% White, 8.3% Black or African American, 1.7% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 28.3% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. 43.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.1% were of Portuguese, 6.2% German, 5.3% Irish and 5.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 63.6% spoke English, 30.9% Spanish, 1.4% Tagalog, 1.4% Portuguese and 1.3% Samoan as their first language.

There were 34,418 households, out of which 46.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.0% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.6% were non-families. 17.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.18 and the average family size was 3.56.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 29.0% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 35.0% from 25 to 44, 16.8% from 45 to 64, and 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years in 2000, which had increased to 31.1 by the time of the 2010 census.[29] For every 100 females there were 134.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 148.8 males. The ratio may be attributed to the presence of three men's state prisons in the county.

Government and policing


Kings County is a general law county under the California Constitution. That is, it does not have a county charter. The county is governed by a five-member Board of Supervisors. Supervisors are elected by districts for four-year terms. There are no term limits in effect. The Chairman and Vice-Chairman are elected annually by the Board of Supervisors from among its members. On January 7, 2020, the Board elected Supervisor Doug Verboon as Chairman and Supervisor Craig Pederson as Vice-Chairman to serve during 2020. Other Supervisors include Richard Valle, Joe Neves and Richard Fagundes.[30] The Board of Supervisors appoints a County Administrative Officer. Rebecca Campbell was appointed to that office effective on January 1, 2018. She succeeded Larry Spikes who held the post from 1993 through 2017.[31][32][33]

District Attorney

The Kings County District Attorney is Keith Fagundes. The District Attorney of each of the 58 counties in California is responsible for prosecuting the violation of California state and local laws and ordinances. The District Attorney is the sole criminal prosecuting entity in the county. In addition to the prosecution duties of the District Attorney, the Kings County District Attorney also has civil and criminal investigative authority with its own Bureau of Investigations composed of sworn peace officers with arresting authority. The Kings County District Attorney's Victim-Witness Assistance Program also provides assistance to victims of crime through federal, state, and local resources.

City police departments

Within Kings County, there are four city police departments: Hanford (the county seat), Corcoran, Lemoore, and Avenal.


The Kings County Sheriff-Coroner-Public Administrator is David Robinson. The Kings County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, county jail operation, and coroner services for the entire county. It provides patrol and detective services to the unincorporated areas of the county.[34]

State and federal representation

In the California State Legislature, Kings County is in the  14th Senate District, represented by Democrat Melissa Hurtado,[35] and in the  32nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Rudy Salas.[36][37]

In the United States House of Representatives, Kings County in California's 21st District and is represented by Republican David Valadao.[38]


Voter registration

According to the Kings County Election Office, as of March 24, 2017, 51,323 residents were registered to vote. There were 22,341 voters registered as Republicans, 17,429 registered as Democrats and 9,443 did not state a party preference. The remaining 2,104 registered with minor parties.[39]

Cities by population and voter registration


Kings has long been a strongly Republican county in Presidential elections. The last Democratic candidate for President to win the county was Hubert Humphrey in 1968, and the last to win a majority was Lyndon Johnson in 1964.

Presidential elections results
Kings County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP DEM Others
2020 54.9% 24,072 42.6% 18,699 2.5% 1,090
2016 52.7% 18,093 39.7% 13,617 7.6% 2,600
2012 56.2% 17,671 41.3% 12,979 2.4% 768
2008 56.1% 19,710 42.0% 14,747 1.9% 651
2004 65.4% 21,003 33.7% 10,833 0.9% 274
2000 57.8% 16,377 39.0% 11,041 3.2% 917
1996 47.9% 12,368 43.6% 11,254 8.5% 2,193
1992 41.6% 10,673 38.9% 9,982 19.5% 4,996
1988 56.4% 12,118 42.6% 9,142 1.0% 222
1984 64.1% 13,364 35.1% 7,324 0.8% 160
1980 55.4% 10,531 38.4% 7,299 6.3% 1,191
1976 49.7% 8,263 48.4% 8,061 1.9% 318
1972 56.5% 10,509 39.1% 7,274 4.4% 812
1968 43.1% 7,796 47.8% 8,643 9.2% 1,662
1964 30.5% 5,753 69.4% 13,073 0.1% 14
1960 42.3% 6,991 57.1% 9,439 0.6% 92
1956 42.3% 6,195 57.5% 8,417 0.3% 40
1952 49.2% 7,708 50.1% 7,850 0.7% 113
1948 37.2% 4,289 59.9% 6,909 2.8% 323
1944 34.2% 3,468 65.0% 6,591 0.7% 75
1940 31.8% 3,911 67.4% 8,307 0.8% 102
1936 23.7% 2,226 75.1% 7,062 1.2% 116
1932 26.7% 2,009 69.1% 5,191 4.2% 318
1928 51.5% 2,947 47.2% 2,701 1.3% 73
1924 50.0% 2,812 19.7% 1,109 30.3% 1,703
1920 59.6% 2,806 34.1% 1,604 6.3% 297
1916 39.7% 2,221 51.9% 2,905 8.5% 476
1912 0.0% 0 49.8% 1,967 50.2% 1,981
1908 53.2% 1,198 38.2% 859 8.6% 194
1904 58.7% 1,110 31.5% 595 9.9% 187
1900 51.8% 1,032 43.7% 872 4.5% 90
1896 43.1% 673 55.2% 862 1.8% 28

In November 2008, Kings County voted 73.7% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to define marriage as one man and one woman.[42]


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Cities by population and crime rates


The economy is based on agriculture. About 87% of Kings County's 890,000 acres is agricultural farmland. The gross value of all agricultural crops and products produced during 2018 in Kings County was $2,351,983,000. Kings County is 10th among California counties in agricultural production. The top commodity in 2018 was milk with a value of $676.7 million. Other major agricultural commodities included pistachios, cotton, cattle and calves, almonds and processing tomatoes.[45][46] Another major employer is NAS Lemoore, the U.S. Navy's newest and largest master jet base. According to a Navy study in 2008, payroll, base spending, retiree and veterans' checks total more than $1 billion in annual economic impact to the region.[47] Other important employers include a Del Monte Foods tomato processing plant, Adventist Health, the J. G. Boswell Company, an Olam International tomato processing facility, Leprino Foods, the largest mozzarella cheese maker in the world, the Kings County Government and the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation which operates three state prisons in Kings County.[48]

In 2011–2013, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that the median household income in the county was $47,035 and that 17.6% of the population was below the poverty line.[49] In 2018, according to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, average per capita income was $35,306 in Kings County, which ranked it last of California's 58 counties.[50] Per capita personal income is calculated by dividing the population by the total personal income of the area's residents. In Kings County's case, the U.S. Census Bureau's estimated population of 151,366 was used for that calculation. However, the population estimate includes incarcerated persons with little or no income.

The homeownership rate was 54.2% at the time of the 2010 census.[29] According to Zillow Real Estate Research, an estimated 24% of homeowners in the county owned their homes free and clear in the third quarter of 2012.[51]

Taxable sales in 2015 totaled about $1.7 billion.[52]

Kings County did not escape the effects of the Great Recession. The unemployment rate in May 2012 was 14.9%, up from 10.1% in July 2008. However, the rate had dropped to 9.8% in February 2020 at the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic. The unemployment rate had risen to 16.8% in April of that year.[53] According to the California Employment Development Department, as of December 2012, civilian employment totaled 53,100 and an additional 8,900 people were unemployed. Many residents of Kings County were employed in services (31,900 persons, including 14,800 government employees) and agriculture (5,500 employees) as well as in some manufacturing enterprises (4,300 employees) and construction (1,000 employees).[54] Jeffrey Michael, director of the Business Forecasting Center at the University of the Pacific, stated in an October 2010 newspaper interview that nearly half of Kings County's personal earnings come from government jobs, which pay more than agricultural employment.

Kings County's dairy industry dropped from $670 million in milk sold in 2008 to $411 million in 2009 - a 39% drop.[55] By mid-2009, the price paid to milk producers had dropped to a point that was far below the cost of production according to a July 2009 quote from Bill Van Dam, CEO of the Alliance of Western Milk Producers.[56] By December 2010, milk prices had increased to about $13 per hundredweight from a low of below $10 in 2009. However, the price of corn used for feed had increased because of its use by the ethanol industry. Van Dam was quoted that month as saying that at current prices, dairy operators are at or close to the break-even point.[57] By the summer of 2012, it was reported that despite a milk price of about $15 per hundredweight, the rising cost of cattle feed had caused many dairy farmers to sell all or part of their herds and even file for bankruptcy.[58] In 2014, milk prices were topping $22 per hundredweight and the value of milk sold rose to $970 million in that year.[59] However, by March 2016 milk was reportedly selling closer to $13 per hundredweight.[60]


Kings County has a large annual celebration held each May called Kings County Homecoming Week.[61] In 2015, the event was scaled back to one day and renamed Pioneer Days.[62] The event returned as Kings County Homecoming Week in 2016 but without the traditional parade.[63]


Major highways

Public transportation

Kings Area Rural Transit (KART) operates regularly scheduled fixed route bus service, vanpool service for commuters and Dial-A-Ride (demand response) services throughout Kings County as well as to Fresno.[64]

Amtrak trains stop in Corcoran and Hanford.

Orange Belt Stages provides inter-city bus service to and from Hanford. Connections with Greyhound can be made in Visalia or Paso Robles.


Hanford Municipal Airport is a general aviation airport located just southeast of Hanford. The privately owned airport in Avenal is the home of the Central California Soaring Club.[65]


Incorporated cities

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Formerly proposed new city

Native American Reservation

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Kings County.[66]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 Hanford City 53,967
2 Corcoran City 24,813
3 Lemoore City 24,531
4 Avenal City 15,505
5 Lemoore Station CDP 7,438
6 Armona CDP 4,156
7 Home Garden CDP 1,761
8 Kettleman City CDP 1,439
9 Stratford CDP 1,277
10 Santa Rosa Rancheria[67] AIAN 652
11 Grangeville CDP 469
12 Hardwick CDP 138

See also


  1. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. ^ a b Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
  4. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.


  1. ^ "Kings County". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  2. ^ Table Mountain
  3. ^ a b Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ a b accessed March 31, 2020
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  7. ^ "Tachi Yokut Tribe – The Indians of the San Joaquin Valley were known as Yokuts". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Hoover, p. 132
  9. ^ Brown, Robert L. (1940). History of Kings County. A. H. Cawston. p. 53.
  10. ^ Brown, Robert L. (1940). History of Kings County. A. H. Cawston. p. 123.
  11. ^ Weber, Devra (1994). Dark Sweat. White Gold: California Farm Workers, Cotton and the New Deal. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 79–111. ISBN 0-520-20710-6.
  12. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  14. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B03003. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
  15. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  16. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  17. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  18. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  20. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  21. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  22. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  23. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
  24. ^ a b California, State of. "Monthly Total Population Report Archive". Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  25. ^ "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau.
  26. ^ "Unauthorized Immigrants in California: Estimates for Counties - Public Policy Institute of California". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  27. ^ Hanford Sentinel, March 28–29, 2015
  28. ^ California Department of Finance, Table E-2, California County Population Estimates and Percent Change, Revised July 1, 2000 through Provisional July 1, 2006
  29. ^ a b Fresno Bee, May 15, 2011
  30. ^ accessed January 12, 2020
  31. ^ accessed December 2, 2017
  32. ^ Hanford Sentinel”, December 23, 2017
  33. ^ Hanford Sentinel”, December 27, 2017
  34. ^ accessed January 11, 2019
  35. ^ "Communities of Interest — County". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  36. ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  37. ^ Fresno Bee”, December 6, 2018
  38. ^ "'s  21st Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.
  39. ^ Hanford Sentinel”, April 11, 2017
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 - Report of Registration Archived July 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-10-31.
  41. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  42. ^ Bowen, Debra (December 13, 2008). "Statement of Vote: November 4, 2008, General Election" (PDF). California Secretary of State. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  44. ^ a b c United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, 2012, Table 8 (California). Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  45. ^ 2018 Kings County Crop Report, Kings County Department of Agriculture/Measurement Standards, July 16, 2019
  46. ^ accessed July 21, 2019
  47. ^ Fresno Bee, February 22, 2016
  48. ^ "Major Employers in California". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  49. ^ Hanford Sentinel, November 15–16, 2014
  50. ^ Fresno Bee, November 18, 2019
  51. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  52. ^ Equalization, California State Board of. "Taxable Sales In California 2015 - Board of Equalization". Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  53. ^
  54. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  55. ^ Hanford Sentinel, October 2–3, 2010
  56. ^ Hanford Sentinel, July 11, 2009
  57. ^ Hanford Sentinel, December 18, 2010
  58. ^ Fresno Bee, August 19, 2012
  59. ^ Fresno Bee, June 17, 2015
  60. ^ Hanford Sentinel, March 10, 2016
  61. ^ "accessed 5-9-10". Archived from the original on October 22, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  62. ^ Hanford Sentinel, May 9, 2015
  63. ^ Hanford Sentinel, May 7–8, 2016
  64. ^ "Home - My Kart Bus". My Kart Bus. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  65. ^ "Central California Soaring Club". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  66. ^ "2010 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  67. ^ [1][dead link]

External links

This page was last edited on 25 May 2021, at 00:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.