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Fresno County, California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fresno County, California
County of Fresno
Images, from top down, left to right: Downtown Fresno, looking east from Chukchansi Park, Fresno County Courthouse, Huntington Lake
Official seal of Fresno County, California
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
California's location in the United States
California's location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°45′N 119°39′W / 36.75°N 119.65°W / 36.75; -119.65
Country United States
State California
RegionSan Joaquin Valley
Metro areaFresno-Madera
Named forThe city of Fresno (Spanish for "ash tree")
County seatFresno
Largest cityFresno
 • Total6,011 sq mi (15,570 km2)
 • Land5,958 sq mi (15,430 km2)
 • Water53 sq mi (140 km2)
Highest elevation14,248 ft (4,343 m)
 • Total930,450
 • Estimate 999,101
 • Density150/sq mi (60/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Area code559
FIPS code06-019
GNIS feature ID277274

Fresno County, officially the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of California. As of July 1, 2019, the population was 999,101.[3] The county seat is Fresno,[4] the fifth most populous city in California.

Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the Central Valley, south of Stockton and north of Bakersfield.


The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, and was later settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War.

Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa, Merced and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree"[5] and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala, growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893. The original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the rapidly growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.[citation needed]

The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, and other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires also plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, and was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883.[citation needed]

At the same time residents brought irrigation, electricity, and extensive agriculture to the area. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation. These canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County, also began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. A.Y. Easterby and Clovis Cole (aka the "Wheat King of the Nation") developed extensive grain and cattle ranches. These and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.[citation needed]

The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s (decade), even though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; a dramatic oil gusher in 1909, the biggest in California up until that time, was an event of sufficient excitement to cause the Los Angeles Stock Exchange to close for a day so that its members could come by train to view it. The Coalinga field continues to produce oil, and is currently the eighth-largest field in the state.[6][7]

More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons (950 m3) of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, and Kearney Mansion Museum.[citation needed]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles (15,570 km2), of which 5,958 square miles (15,430 km2) is land and 53 square miles (140 km2) (0.9%) is water.[8]

Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal. It is bordered on the west by the Coast Range and on the east by the Sierra Nevada. It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons (14,000,000 m3) of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States.

Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region.

Fresno was actually named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of which is still alive and standing.[citation needed]

National protected areas


A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, krauskopfite, walstromite, fresnoite, verplanckite, muirite, traskite, and kampfite.[9][10]

In October 2019, the Bureau of Land Management ended a five-year moratorium on leasing federal land in California to fossil fuel companies, opening 725,000 acres (1100 sq. miles; 29,000 ha) to drilling in San Benito, Monterey, and Fresno counties.[11]



Places by population, race, and income


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 2019999,101[2]‹See TfM›[failed verification]7.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]
1790–1960[20] 1900–1990[21]
1990–2000[22] 2010–2015[3]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450. The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 (55.4%) White, 49,523 (5.3%) African American, 15,649 (1.7%) Native American, 89,357 (9.6%) Asian (3.3% Hmong, 1.7% Asian Indian, 1.0% Filipino, 0.8% Laotian, 0.6% Chinese, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Cambodian, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Korean, 0.1% Pakistani, 0.1% Thai), 1,405 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 217,085 (23.3%) from other races, and 42,286 (4.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons (50.3%).[23] 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent; 0.7% of its residents are Salvadoran, and 0.3% of its residents are Puerto Rican.


As of the census[24] of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, and 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile (52/km2). There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile (18/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, and 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.5% were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language.

There were 252,940 households, out of which 41.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.2% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.59.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 32.1% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,725, and the median income for a family was $38,455. Males had a median income of $33,375 versus $26,501 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,495. About 17.6% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.7% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.

Fresno County is also known for having the highest rate of chlamydia in the state. In 2006 it had 545.2 cases per 100,000 people, compared with the statewide average of 363.5.

Metropolitan Statistical Area

The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Fresno County as the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area.[25] The United States Census Bureau ranked the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 56th most populous metropolitan statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.[26]

The Office of Management and Budget has further designated the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as a component of the more extensive Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area,[25] the 49th most populous combined statistical area and the 55th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.[26][27]

Government and policing


The Government of Fresno County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, law, and the Charter of the County of Fresno. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Fresno County. The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas.

The County government is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff,[28] District Attorney, Assessor-Recorder, Auditor-Controller/Treasurer-Tax Collector, and Clerk/Registrar of Voters, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator. As of February 2018 the members of the Fresno County Board of Supervisors are:[29]

  • Brian Pacheco, District 1
  • Steve Brandau, District 2
  • Sal Quintero, District 3,
  • Buddy Mendes, District 4
  • Nathan Magsig, District 5


County Sheriff

The Fresno County Sheriff provides court protection, jail administration, and coroner services for all of Fresno County and its population of approximately of 994,400 residents. They operate the Fresno County Jail in downtown Fresno. The sheriff's provide police patrol and detective services for the unincorporated areas of the county which encompasses approximately 250,000 residents, or 25% of the county's total population. The Sheriff also provides law enforcement services by contract with the municipality of San Joaquin, population 4100.

Municipal police

Municipal police departments in the county are: Fresno, population 500,000; Clovis, 110,000; Sanger, 25,000; Reedley, 24,000; Selma, 23,000; Coalinga, 17,000; Kerman, 14,000; Kingsburg, 12,000; Huron, 7,000; Firebaugh, 8,500; Fowler, 6,500.



Fresno County's voter registration shows a majority of Democratic voters.[30] US Senate races are competitive. County voters preferred Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012, and Hillary Clinton in 2016.

The cities of Clovis, Coalinga, and Kingsburg voted overwhelmingly for Governor Mitt Romney. Reedley did so by much lesser margins and is now a GOP-leaning "swing" city in the county. Huron, Mendota, Orange Cove, Parlier, Fowler, Firebaugh, Fresno, Kerman, Sanger, Selma and San Joaquin voted overwhelmingly for President Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012.[citation needed]

According to the California Secretary of State, in October 2012 there were 410,188 registered voters in Fresno County. 158,267 (38.6%) were registered Republican, 164,663 (40.1%) were registered Democratic, 19,841 (4.8%) are registered with other political parties, and 67,417 (16.4%) declined to state a political party.[citation needed] Republicans have a plurality or majority of voter roll registration in the cities of Clovis, Coalinga, Kingsburg, Reedley, and the unincorporated areas. The other cities and towns have Democratic pluralities or majorities.

From Fresno County's incorporation in 1849, it voted Democratic in every election until the 1904 election in California, when President Theodore Roosevelt stood for re-election. Fresno County backed Roosevelt over his Democratic opponent Alton B. Parker. This did not immediately change the county's voting tendencies, however. It supported southern Democrat Woodrow Wilson in the elections of 1912 and 1916.

Fresno County was generally Republican from the onset of the "roaring 1920s" until the Great Depression, when former President Franklin D. Roosevelt forged the New Deal Coalition that benefitted the agrarian county. From 1932 till 1976 the county consistently voted Democratic, barring Richard Nixon's landslide victory over former Senator George McGovern (D-SD) in the 1972 Presidential Election.

With former President Jimmy Carter's defeat by former President Reagan, Fresno became a GOP-leaning swing county: it barely favored Reagan's successor former President Bush and voted Democratic for Bill Clinton only in his 1992 presidential bid. Republicans won elections in Fresno County by increasing margins from 1996 to 2004, but when the GOP lost ground with Hispanic voters after 2004, the county swung Democratic, voting twice for Barack Obama, and then for Hillary Clinton in 2016, although the last time the Democratic nominee won with an absolute majority of the vote remains the 1964 election.

Presidential election results
Fresno County vote
by party in presidential elections
Year GOP DEM Others
2016 43.21% 124,049 49.24% 141,341 7.55% 21,672
2012 47.94% 124,490 49.72% 129,129 2.34% 6,078
2008 47.91% 131,015 49.99% 136,706 2.10% 5,731
2004 57.38% 141,988 41.68% 103,154 0.94% 2,321
2000 53.14% 117,342 43.05% 95,059 3.82% 8,434
1996 47.42% 98,813 45.32% 94,448 7.26% 15,132
1992 40.67% 89,137 42.17% 92,418 17.16% 37,606
1988 49.95% 94,835 48.79% 92,635 1.26% 2,400
1984 54.30% 104,757 44.74% 86,315 0.97% 1,864
1980 51.13% 82,515 40.43% 65,254 8.44% 13,617
1976 48.10% 72,533 49.71% 74,958 2.20% 3,314
1972 50.44% 79,051 46.38% 72,682 3.18% 4,986
1968 43.60% 59,901 47.42% 65,153 8.98% 12,342
1964 34.33% 46,792 65.57% 89,375 0.10% 141
1960 44.32% 57,930 55.21% 72,164 0.47% 608
1956 43.33% 51,611 56.44% 67,234 0.23% 270
1952 48.95% 54,626 50.30% 56,135 0.75% 837
1948 37.20% 30,379 58.49% 47,762 4.31% 3,524
1944 35.50% 22,668 63.84% 40,769 0.67% 425
1940 29.79% 21,079 69.07% 48,866 1.14% 805
1936 20.94% 11,545 77.75% 42,859 1.31% 722
1932 26.07% 12,134 69.90% 32,528 4.03% 1,875
1928 54.30% 20,687 44.32% 16,884 1.38% 527
1924 44.01% 15,635 12.98% 4,610 43.02% 15,282
1920 55.36% 14,621 36.39% 9,613 8.25% 2,179
1916 41.07% 11,707 49.95% 14,241 8.98% 2,560
1912 0.46% 95 42.96% 8,891 56.58% 11,710
1908 50.89% 6,384 37.81% 4,743 11.30% 1,418
1904 55.78% 4,929 31.86% 2,815 12.36% 1,092
1900 47.34% 3,585 47.41% 3,590 5.26% 398
1896 40.22% 2,686 56.75% 3,790 3.04% 203
1892 37.18% 3,031 42.35% 3,453 20.47% 1,669

In the United States House of Representatives, Fresno County is split among four congressional districts:[32]

In the California State Senate, the county is split among 3 legislative districts:[37]

In the California State Assembly, Fresno County is split between the  23rd Assembly District, represented by Republican Jim Patterson, and the  31st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Joaquin Arambula.[38]

Fresno tends to remain socially conservative while being more moderate on economic issues, which can be seen in Fresno's support for socially conservative proposition amendments but occasionally voting for a Democratic Presidential Candidate if economic times are poor such as former President Bill Clinton's victory over incumbent former President George H.W. Bush in 1992 and President Barack Obama over Senator John McCain in 2008.

On November 4, 2008, Fresno County voted 68.6% for Proposition 8, which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.

Voter registration statistics

Cities by population and voter registration


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Cities by population and crime rates



Agriculture is the primary industry in Fresno County. Ag production totaled $5.3 billion in 2007, making it the number one agricultural county in the nation.[1] Major crops and livestocks include:

Companies based in Fresno County

Major employers


Educational institutions in Fresno County include:

Within the California Community Colleges System, Fresno County is mostly covered by the State Center Community College District and the West Hills Community College District. The following campuses are in Fresno County:[44]

In addition, the Fresno County Public Library operates public libraries throughout the county.


Major highways



Commercial service
General Aviation

Public transportation

  • Fresno Area Express or FAX is the local bus operator in Fresno.
  • Clovis Transit Stageline is the bus service in Clovis.
  • Reedley Transit a.k.a. Dial-A-Ride services Reedley.
  • Fresno County Rural Transit Agency (FCRTA) offers a variety of local and intercity transit services around Fresno County.
  • Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages provide intercity, long-distance bus service.
  • Amtrak San Joaquins stop in Fresno.


Forestiere Underground Garden
Forestiere Underground Garden



Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Fresno County.[45]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 Fresno City 494,665
2 Clovis City 95,631
3 Sanger City 24,270
4 Reedley City 24,194
5 Selma City 23,219
6 Parlier City 14,494
7 Kerman City 13,544
8 Coalinga City 13,380
9 Kingsburg City 11,382
10 Mendota City 11,014
11 Orange Cove City 9,078
12 Firebaugh City 7,549
13 Huron City 6,754
14 Fowler City 5,570
15 Old Fig Garden CDP 5,365
16 Mayfair CDP 4,589
17 Sunnyside CDP 4,235
18 San Joaquin City 4,001
19 Tarpey Village CDP 3,888
20 Squaw Valley CDP 3,162
21 Riverdale CDP 3,153
22 Caruthers CDP 2,497
23 Auberry CDP 2,369
24 Easton CDP 2,083
25 Calwa CDP 2,052
26 Laton CDP 1,824
27 Del Rey CDP 1,639
28 Biola CDP 1,623
29 West Park CDP 1,157
30 Minkler CDP 1,003
31 Malaga CDP 947
32 Tranquillity CDP 799
33 Shaver Lake CDP 634
34 Lanare CDP 589
35 Friant CDP 509
36 Cantua Creek CDP 466
37 Centerville CDP 392
38 Raisin City CDP 380
39 Three Rocks CDP 246
40 Fort Washington CDP 233
41 Cold Springs Rancheria[46] AIAN 184
42 Big Creek CDP 175
43 Bowles CDP 166
44 Monmouth CDP 152
45 Big Sandy Rancheria[47] AIAN 118
46 Table Mountain Rancheria[48] AIAN 64

See also


  1. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. ^ a b Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
  4. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.


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External links

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