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Southern California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Southern California
Red: The ten counties of Southern California
Red: The ten counties of Southern California
CountryUnited States
Los Angeles
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara
Largest cityLos Angeles
 • Total56,505 sq mi (146,350 km2)
 • Total23,762,904
 • Total$1.95 trillion (2022)

Southern California (commonly shortened to SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. It includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area (the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States)[4][5] as well as the Inland Empire (another large metropolitan area). The region generally contains ten of California's 58 counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Ventura counties.

Although geographically smaller than Northern California in land area, Southern California has a higher population, with 23.76 million residents as of the 2020 census. The sparsely populated desert region of California occupies a significant portion (part of which has even been proposed to be split into a new county due to cultural, economic and geographic differences relative to the rest of the more urban region) of the area: the Colorado Desert, along with the Colorado River, is located on Southern California's eastern border with Arizona, and the Mojave Desert shares a border with Nevada to the northeast. Southern California's southern border with Baja California is part of the Mexico–United States border.

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Constituent metropolitan areas

Southern California encompasses eight metropolitan areas (MSAs), three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area (CSA) with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA. These three MSAs are the Los Angeles metropolitan area (Los Angeles and Orange counties, with 13.3 million people), the Inland Empire (Riverside and San Bernardino counties, including the Coachella Valley cities, with 4.3 million people), and the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area (0.8 million people). In addition, southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, and the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and El Centro (Imperial County) metropolitan areas.

The Southern California Megaregion (or megalopolis) is larger still, extending northeast into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.[6]


San Diego Marina district
Sunset in Venice, a neighborhood in Los Angeles

Within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[7] With a population of approximately 4 million, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of approximately 1.4 million is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay in Laguna Beach

The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino are the five most populous in the state, and are among the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.[8]

The motion picture, television and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, and Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros., and Sony also run major record companies.

Southern California is also home to a large surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, Stüssy, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered there. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; surfers Rob Machado, Timmy Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward live in Southern California. Some of the most famous surf locations are in Southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games,[9] Boost Mobile Pro,[10] and the U.S. Open of Surfing, are held in Southern California. The region is also important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii. The San Diego Yacht Club hosted the three America's Cup races from 1988 to 1995. The first modern-era triathlon was held in San Diego's Mission Bay in 1974. Since then, Southern California, and San Diego in particular, have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing, products, and culture.

Southern California has multiple sports franchises and networks, such as Fox Sports Net.

Many of these locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its beaches. Some of southern California's most popular beaches are Malibu, Laguna Beach, La Jolla, Manhattan Beach, and Hermosa Beach. Southern California is also known for its mountain resort communities, such as Big Bear Lake, Lake Arrowhead, and Wrightwood, and their ski resorts, like Bear Mountain, Snow Summit, Snow Valley Mountain Resort, and Mountain High. The inland desert city of Palm Springs is also popular.[11]

Northern boundary

California counties below the 36th standard parallel

Southern California is generally considered the area of California south of the latitude 35°45',[12] approximately one-third of the state, formed by the northern boundaries of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties, which are not exactly a straight line. Another definition for Southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern geographical barriers, especially when defining California's bioregions.[13][14]

Topography of the border region

Following the acquisition of the territory of California by the United States, several pro-slavery politicians attempted to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing the southern half California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californians (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "cow counties" of Southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by State Governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters to form the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include a portion of the much larger Tulare County and all of San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C., with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[15][16]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined Southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura, and Santa Barbara." This definition left out San Luis Obispo and Kern counties.[17]

Southern California was the name of a proposed new state which failed to get on the 2018 California ballot. The ballot measure proposed splitting the existing state into three parts.[18]

In December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government led by Governor Gavin Newsom divided the state into five regions for the purpose of issuing stay-at-home orders. The Southern California region consists of the following counties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Kern, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura. However, Kern County was grouped with other counties of the San Joaquin Valley, California's central agricultural valley.[19]

Population, land area & population density (2020)
Population Land
Los Angeles County[21] 10,014,009 4,059.28 10,513.49 2,466.94 952.49
San Diego County[22] 3,298,634 4,210.23 10,904.45 783.48 302.50
Orange County[23] 3,186,989 792.84 2,053.45 4,019.71 1,552.02
Riverside County[24] 2,418,185 7,209.27 18,671.92 335.43 129.51
San Bernardino County[25] 2,181,654 20,068.01 51,975.91 108.71 41.97
Kern County[26] 909,235 8,134.65 21,068.65 111.77 43.15
Ventura County[27] 843,843 1,840.79 4,767.62 458.41 176.99
Santa Barbara County[28] 448,229 2,733.94 7,080.87 163.95 63.30
San Luis Obispo County[29] 282,424 3,300.85 8,549.16 85.56 33.03
Imperial County[30] 179,702 4,175.54 10,814.60 43.04 16.62
Southern California 23,762,904 56,525.40 146,400.11 420.39 162.31
California 39,538,223 155,959.34 403,932.84 253.52 97.88

Urban landscape

Percentage of households with incomes above $150,000 across LA County census tracts

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with the Deserts of California (part of which was even proposed to become a new county due to cultural, economic and geographic differences relative to the rest of the more urban region)[31][32][33] that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes megalopolis and the Northeast megalopolis. Much of Southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and RiversideSan Bernardino, each of which are the centers of their respective metropolitan areas, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan region, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Travelling south on Interstate 5, the main barrier to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so interrelated that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley, north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley, and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria, and San Luis Obispo areas.

The skyline of Downtown Los Angeles as seen at sunset in October 2006. Standing 1,018 ft (310 m) high, with 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower was the West Coast's tallest building when it was built in 1989, until the neighboring Wilshire Grand Center surpassed it in 2017.


Köppen climate types of southern California

Most of Southern California has a Mediterranean-like climate, with warm and dry summers, mild and wet winters, where cool weather and freezing temperatures are rare. Southern California contains other types of climates, including semi-arid, desert and mountain, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low to moderate depending on the area. Rain is infrequent, but is often heavy when it does occur, making flash floods an aspect of living in Southern California. This climatic pattern was alluded to in the hit song "It Never Rains (In Southern California)". While snow is very rare in lower elevations, mountains above 5,000 feet (1,500 m) receive plentiful snowfall in the winter.

Since the first decade of the 21st century, droughts and wildfires have increased in frequency as a result of climate change.[34][35]

Natural landscape

Proctor Valley in Chula Vista
Autumn of 2008 in Southern California

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:


Geographic features

View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County
Yucca Valley with Visitor Center in Background in June 2017
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego


List of major fault zones

Note: Plate boundary faults are indicated with a (#) symbol.

Northridge earthquake shake map


Each year, Southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are too small to be felt. Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude (Mw ) 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than Mw  4.0.[36] California as a whole enacted the Alquist Priolo Special Studies Zone Act in the wake of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The act prohibits new construction of residential buildings closer than 50 feet from a surface rupturing active fault zone. In addition, the act improved safety by requiring new structures (both residential and commercial) to be seismically retrofitted. It also required existing infrastructure to comply.

Since 1972, numerous large magnitude earthquakes have struck Southern California with little widespread damage in part due to act. However, exceptions can be noted for epicenters that lie directly on top of densely populated regions such as the Mw  6.7 1994 Northridge Earthquake and, to a lesser extent, the smaller Mw  5.5 2008 Chino Hills earthquake. The Northridge earthquake occurred on a blind-thrust fault directly underneath the San Fernando Valley, which until the earthquake was previously undiscovered. Seismic retrofitting of existing and new construction is aimed to prevent damage and save lives in the aftermath of a major quake, but it cannot guarantee that buildings will be unscathed if the epicenter is relatively close by.

Despite the act already in law, the 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses. The quake caused the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history at an estimated $20 billion.[37]

Many Southern California faults are able to produce a Mw  6.7 earthquake or greater, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce Mw  8.0 or greater. The largest known earthquake in California was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake that ruptured 200+ miles of the San Andreas Fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood. With a recurrence interval of roughly 150 years, this part of the San Andreas fault is well within its window to produce another large earthquake. Along with the southern section of the San Andreas (in the Palm Springs region, which has not ruptured in ~400 years), the entire Southern California portion of the San Andreas Fault is ready to produce a powerful earthquake in the near future.

While the San Andreas Fault is the most well known major earthquake producing fault in California, it is not the only one that can produce large magnitude events. Notable examples include the San Jacinto Fault (a splay of the San Andreas that runs directly under the I-10 & I-215 interchange), the Newport–Inglewood-Rose Canyon Fault (located adjacent to SoFi Stadium and responsible for Signal Hill), the Elsinore Fault (created Lake Elsinore), the Garlock Fault (which marks boundary between of the Sierra Nevada and the Mojave Desert), and the Hollywood fault (which is within feet of Capitol Records and is roughly parallel to Hollywood Boulevard).

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California earthquake forecast,[38] which models earthquake occurrence in California.

List of earthquakes

This is a partial list of earthquakes in Southern California. For a full list, see List of earthquakes in California.

Note: Earthquakes with epicenters in the Los Angeles Metro Area are marked with the (#) symbol. Other earthquakes mentioned indicates shaking was felt in the region.


Historical population
Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2020[20][39][40]
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900.[41]
Ethnic origins in Southern California
Downtown San Bernardino

As of the 2020 United States Census, Southern California has a population of 23,762,904. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, Southern California's population has grown slower than the state average since the 2000s. This is due to California's growth becoming concentrated in the northern part of the state as result of a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768.[42][43] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[44] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[45][46] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.


Los Angeles (with a population of approximately 3.9 million people) and San Diego (at nearly 1.4 million people) are the two largest cities in all of California, and are among the top eight largest cities in the United States.[47] In Southern California, there are also 14 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 48 cities over 100,000 residents. Many of Southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.


Curt Teich map postcard depicting SoCal attractions



Southern California is one of the largest economies in the United States. It is dominated by, and heavily dependent upon, the abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, due to the vast majority of transport that runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and the entertainment industry. Other industries include software, automotive, aerospace, finance, biomedical, ports and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007, and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[48]

Major central business districts

Taco Bell Headquarters in Irvine

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown Riverside, Downtown San Bernardino, Downtown San Diego, and the South Coast Metro. Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Pasadena, Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles proper has many business districts, such as Downtown LA and those lining Wilshire Boulevard, including Mid-Wilshire, the Miracle Mile, Downtown Beverly Hills, and Westwood; others include Century City and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region.

The San Bernardino-Riverside Area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University District which are in the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside.

In Orange County, has highly developed suburban business centers (also known as edge cities) including the Anaheim–Santa Ana edge city along I-5; and another, the South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city that stretches from the South Coast Metro to the Irvine Business Complex; Newport Center; and Irvine Spectrum. Downtown Santa Ana is an important government, arts and entertainment, and retail district.

Downtown San Diego is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and Water parks

Disneyland in Anaheim

Vineyard-Winery American Viticultural Area (AVA) districts

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:


See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California is home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third-busiest by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport, the busiest single-runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at San Bernardino, Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank, and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports.

Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the country's busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the country's second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego.


The following table shows all airports listed by the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) as a hub airport:[49]

Airport ID City
(Metro area)
Category Enplanements
(2011) (mil)
Los Angeles International Airport LAX Los Angeles Large Hub 30.5m
San Diego International Airport SAN San Diego Large Hub 8.5m
John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County Medium Hub 4.2m
Ontario International Airport ONT San Bernardino, Riverside Medium hub 2.3m
Hollywood Burbank Airport BUR Burbank (LA) Medium Hub 2.1m
Long Beach Airport LGB Long Beach (LA) Small Hub 1.5m
Palm Springs International Airport PSP Palm Springs Small Hub 0.8m
Santa Barbara Municipal Airport SBA Santa Barbara Small Hub 0.7m
San Luis Obispo Regional Airport SBP San Luis Obispo Small Hub 0.5m
San Bernardino International Airport SBD San Bernardino, Riverside Small Hub NA

Freeways and highways

Interstate and state highway system of Southern California

Sections of the Southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers.

Interstate Highways
Sign Interstate Freeway name
Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
Interstate 40 Needles Freeway
Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway
Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway
Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway
Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
Interstate 405 San Diego Freeway
Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway
Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway
Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway
Future Interstate 905

Public transportation

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway's combined Super Chief-El Capitan pulls into Los Angeles's Union Passenger Terminal on September 24, 1966.
See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California


Telephone area codes

Colleges and universities

University of California, Los Angeles
California Institute of Technology

Public institutions in the region include:

University of California (10 campuses total; 5 within the SoCal region)

California State University (23 campuses total; 12 within the SoCal region)

Private institutions include:

Parks and recreation areas

Numerous parks provide recreation opportunities and open space. Locations include:


Major professional sports teams in Southern California include:

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. The Bruins and the Trojans both field football teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

See also


  1. ^ "Square Mileage by County". California State Association of Counties. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  2. ^ "State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  3. ^ Gross Domestic Product by County and Metropolitan Area, archived from the original on March 13, 2024, retrieved May 20, 2024
  4. ^ "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. 8 (2). Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California: 38–39. March 1916. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  5. ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-52095-721-3. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  6. ^ "Megaregions". Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  7. ^ The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  8. ^ "California County Population Estimates" (PDF). California Department of Finance. January 7, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  9. ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  10. ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  11. ^ "Palm Springs Travel Guide | U.S. News Travel". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on May 8, 2024. Retrieved June 4, 2024.
  12. ^ Minerals Management Service (1987). Pacific Summary / Index: June 1, 1986 – July 31, 1987. Outer Continental Shelf Oil & Gas Activities. U.S. Department of the Interior. p. 6. Archived from the original on February 21, 2023. Retrieved February 21, 2023.
  13. ^ Smith, Thomas (April 23, 2023). "Where Does Southern California Stop and Northern California Start?". Bay Area Telegraph. Archived from the original on April 25, 2023. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  14. ^ Peter Berg (2014). Cheryll Glotfelty; Eve Quesnel (eds.). The Biosphere and the Bioregion: Essential Writings of Peter Berg. Routledge. p. 265. ISBN 9781134504091. Archived from the original on October 23, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  15. ^ DiLeo, Michael; Smith, Eleanor (1983). Two Californias: The Myths And Realities of a State Divided Against Itself. Covelo, California: Island Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-93328-016-8. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  16. ^ California, Historical Society of Southern (1901). The Quarterly, Volumes 5-6. Historical Society of Southern California. p. 223. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  17. ^ Bernstein, Leilah (December 31, 1999). "L.A. Then AND NOW". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  18. ^ Myers, John (June 13, 2018). "Radical plan to split California into three states earns spot on November ballot". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
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Further reading

  • Castillo-Munoz, Veronica (2016). The Other California: Land, Identity and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands. University of California Press.
  • Deverell, William; Igler, David, eds. (2013). A companion to California history. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Fogelson, Robert M. (1967). The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930., focus on planning, infrastructure, water and business.
  • Friedricks, William (1992). Henry E. Huntington and the Creation of Southern California., on Henry Edwards Huntington (1850–1927), railroad executive and collector, who helped build LA and southern California through the Southern Pacific railroad and trolleys.
  • Garcia, Matt. (2001). A World of Its Own: Race, Labor and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970.
  • Garcia, Mario T. (1972). "A Chicano Perspective on San Diego History". Journal of San Diego History. 18 (4): 14–21. online
  • Lotchin, Roger (2002). Fortress California, 1910–1961. excerpt and text search, covers military and industrial roles.
  • Mills, James R. (1960). San Diego: Where California Began. San Diego: San Diego Historical Society. revised edition online
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. (1972). An End and a Beginning: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1850–1887.
  • O'Flaherty, Joseph S. (1978). Those Powerful Years: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1887–1917.
  • Pryde, Philip R. (2004). San Diego: An Introduction to the Region (4th ed.)., a historical geography
  • Shragge, Abraham. (1994). "A new federal city: San Diego during World War II". Pacific Historical Review. 63 (3): 333–361. doi:10.2307/3640970. JSTOR 3640970. in JSTOR
  • Starr, Kevin (1997). The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. pp. 90–114., covers 1880s–1940
  • Starr, Kevin (2004). Coast of Dreams: California on the Edge, 1990–2003. pp. 372–381.
  • Starr, Kevin (2011). Golden Dreams: California in an Age of Abundance, 1950–1963. pp. 57–87.

External links

34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W / 34.000; -117.000

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