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Demographics of California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

California is the most populated U.S. state, with an estimated population of 39.497 million as of 2017.[1] It has people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial, national, and religious backgrounds.

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New York City, New York The Big Apple Empire City, The City of Dreams The City So Nice They Named It Twice and Los Angeles, California The Big Orange, The City of Angels La-La Land, Shaky Town NYC and LA are the two largest cities in the United States. New York has the most people, with a population of 8.5 million, while LA has around 4 million people. CONAN: 4 million people, yeah. That's a pretty big deal. That's a big deal and I wanted to celebrate so ladies and gentleman, let's do this. Jerry would you do the honors please? Yes! Here we go. Yeah! We did it! The New York metropolitan area, however, has 20.3 million people. So about 1 in 16 Americans live there. The Los Angeles metropolitan area has about 13.1 million people. Both are cosmopolitan, world famous cities. Two cities that never seem to sleep- always hustling and bustling. Over the last century, the two cities have dominated and influenced the culture of the rest of the country. It’s like the two forget the fact that the rest of us exist. You see this on mainstream TV. Most national news and entertainment programming occurs in LA or New York, although LA has way more YouTubers than New York. Both are by oceans. NYC by the Atlantic Ocean, and LA by the Pacific. Both are diverse. We’re talking people flock from all over the world to these two cities to start new lives. More than 37% of New York residents were born in another country. Nearly 40% of LA residents were born in another country. Almost half of the residents of LA are considered either Hispanic or Latino. New York has historically been the main way immigrants come to the United States. In both LA and New York, you’ll see lots of ethnic enclaves, or neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic group. Both tend to have younger residents compared to most other cities around the United States, although LA’s a bit younger. It’s really freaking expensive to live in both cities, although LA is about 8.3% less expensive than New York. But it’s a lot more expensive to buy a home in LA. The median household income in both cities is similar. The unemployment rates and job growth rates are also comparable. Related to how expensive it is in both places, of course, is how crowded both cities are. While LA is notorious for its bad traffic, by some metrics New York’s traffic is actually worse. Here’s another surprise. If you look at the entire metro areas, LA, the city known for its sprawl that goes on for miles and miles, has a higher population density than New York. But city proper, ain’t nobody as dense as New York City. We’re talking 27,000 per square mile in NYC versus around 8,000 people per square mile in LA. The average commute time for both cities is way higher than the national average. New Yorkers use more public transportation than LA folks BY FAR. I mean, there’s really no comparison. In LA, people own cars. They drive. In New York, over half of the households don’t own a car. 75% of Manhattan residents don’t. New York has by far the highest rate of public transportation use of any American city. 1 in 3 Americans who use mass transit regularly live in New York or its suburbs. New York has one of the largest subway systems in the world. Los Angeles? No offense, but your mass transit system is a joke. Larry David: Ah come on, open the door! Does this go to Olympic and Hauser? Bus driver: Not all the way, you gotta transfer Larry David: Transfer? Olympic and Hauser? Excuse me, sir, I'm supposed to go to Olympic and Hauser? Man: Yeah, it's easy man. Get off at the La Hacienda stop. You got a couple options. Larry David: Ok, would you tell me when that's coming up? Man: I'm not your babysitter. Figure it out. Both cities used to be under the control of different European countries. New York used to be New Amsterdam, under the control of the Dutch in first half of the 1600s. Los Angeles used to be under Spanish rule in the late 1700s and early 1800s, and then under Mexican rule for awhile. Yeah, let’s go into some history of the two cities. Eh? But before I get too far in New York, I should say this video is a collaboration with M.Laser, who just released a video about the history of New York. M.Laser: Hello! He goes in, like, way more detail than me. But I will give you some bits and pieces here. So New York, it used to be settled by the Russians. M.Laser - Actually no, the New York City area prior to the European colonization was inhabited by the Lenape people Ok well but New York city was named by the British after the York Peppermint Pattie M.Laser - No it wasn’t Agh just go do your video already M.Laser - OK but I am going to need your help. Wait, what did you do? M.Laser - Don’t worry about it Yeah so anyway, now that you’ve got some history of New York, here is a bit of the history of LA. When the Spanish arrived in greater numbers in the 1700s, around 5,000 Native Americans known as the Tongva resided in the Los Angeles basin. NYC was founded in 1624, 157 years before LA. To put that in perspective, Denver is 160 years old. And for decades, Los Angeles was just a sleepy little colonial town along the Pacific Ocean. It was founded on September 4, 1781, by 11 Mexican families, all known as Los Pobladores. Even after the Americans took control of the town in 1848, it remained small. However, that began to change after the completion of the Santa Fe railroad line, which connected Chicago to LA in 1885. After that, the population exploded, going from around 15,000 to 100,000 by 1900. In the early 1900s, filmmakers began flocking to the Los Angeles area to escape Thomas Edison and his Motion Picture Patents Company in New York. You see, in Southern California they could escape the ridiculous licensing fees from Edison’s monopoly. Once the filmmakers got to LA, they stayed for the wonderful weather and wide range of geographical locations and architectural styles nearby. So Hollywood fueled even more growth, as well as innovative aircraft construction during World War II. After World War II, growth remained steady, and while today old industries in the city have dramatically declined, new ones have taken their place. The top three industries in Los Angeles today are entertainment (no surprise there), aerospace, and tourism. The top three in New York are financial services, media, and communications. New York residents are generally more well educated than LA residents. About 39% of New Yorkers have at least a bachelor’s degree compared with 32% of Angelenos. It gets quite a bit colder in New York, although it can get pretty hot in the summer. It has a humid subtropical climate, believe it or not. New York has four seasons. LA has two. A wet season and a dry season. LA has what they call a Mediterranean climate, with moderate, lovely temperatures year-round. And yeah, it can get fairly dry there, which often can cause wildfires that swallow up neighborhoods. Speaking of disasters, LA also has to deal with earthquakes being in the Ring of Fire, and more smog than New York, but it’s not as bad as it used to be there. New York might have a bad winter storm here and there, but usually by the time hurricanes make their way up the East Coast to NYC they have weakened considerably. LA has mountains nearby, New York doesn’t. New York is actually, like five cities. Really they are administrative divisions. They call them boroughs. They all used to be independent places but consolidated. The five are Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island. New York has stricter laws overall than LA. For example, it has a ban on smoking in public. New York also has a higher tax burden than LA. New York has lower property taxes, but slightly higher sales taxes and much higher income taxes. What about tourist attractions? Well New York’s got Times Square, the Statue of Liberty, One World Trade Center, Central Park, The High Line, The Rockefeller Center, and the Empire State Building. LA’s got Hollywood, Universal Studios, Disneyland, Griffith Observatory and Park, The Getty Center, Santa Monica Pier, and Venice Beach. Professional sports teams? Of course. New York’s got the Yankees and Mets for baseball, the Giants and Jets for football, the Knicks and Nets for basketball, and the Devils, Islanders, and Rangers for hockey. LA’s got the Dodgers and Angels for baseball, the Chargers and Rams for football, the Lakers and Clippers for basketball, and the Kings and Ducks for hockey. Other random things. New York has a stock exchange. LA does not. LA has hosted the Olympic games. New York has not. New York was tragically one of the sites of the deadliest terrorist attack in American history. LA hasn’t had a severe earthquake since 1857, back when hardly anyone lived there. That was a magnitude 7.8 on the Richter scale. It this were to happen today, it would be perhaps the deadliest natural disaster in American history. LA has palm trees, New York does not. Strangely, when Los Angeles was founded, it didn’t have any palm trees at all, by the way. Alright, so this is getting way too long. I better wrap this up. The bottom line is, the two cities definitely symbolize two different cultures in the United States. You know, the whole East Coast/West Coast divide. When you’re at both places, you really feel like you’re in the middle of it all. While the two try to dominate over the whole country, it’s nice to know they keep each other in check. I'm here with the Cynical Historian and Grant Hurst and I'm just going to ask them what they think the differences are between New York and LA Cypher: Pizza. That's it. Grant: In LA, no one uses their signal on their cars. In New York, no one drives cars. Mr. Beat: Which do you prefer? Personal preference. Cypher: LA Grant: Probably LA, yeah. Mr. Beat: Ok, why? Cypher: I can still drive, and being able to like, have a house? Grant: Well yeah, as expensive as LA is, it's still cheaper than New York. Mr. Betts: Woah, woah. Mr. Beat. New York versus LA? It's no contest! New York all the way! We have the best people the best cultures, the best landmarks the best buildings, the best pizza the best bagels, the best baseball It's New York all the way. And I know this is a total rip off of that Casey Neistat angle. We still got him, too! What did we miss? What did we get wrong and right? Come on now. I know a ton of you live in either Los Angeles or New York or travel to both regularly. Which is better? Personally, I think I’d rather live in LA honestly. Also, do not forget! This is a collaboration with my friend M.Laser. He released a video about the history of New York City, and I’ve linked it below. So go watch that now if you haven't already. What else do you have to do, really? The laundry? The dishes? That can all wait. M.Laser actually has a whole series on the history of cities around the world. So that means you skip out on a bunch of chores. Thanks to my friends Mr. Betts, the Cynical Historian, and Grant Hurst for appearing in this video. Go check out their channels as well, and thank you for watching!



Historical population
Census Pop.
Sources: 1910-2010[2]

California is the most populated sub-national entity in North America. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world. It has a larger population than either Canada or Australia.[3] Its population is one third larger than that of the next largest state, Texas.[4] California surpassed New York to become the most populous state in 1962.[5] However, according to the Los Angeles Times, California's population growth has slowed dramatically in the 21st century.[6] In 2010, the state's five most populous counties were Los Angeles County, San Diego County, Orange County, Riverside County, and San Bernardino County, with Riverside County having the largest percentage increase in population.[7] The largest metro areas in California, as of 2010, are Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, San Diego, Riverside-San Bernardino, and Sacramento.[8] From 2006 until 2016, the state lost a net population of about 1 million people from domestic emigration;[9] the plurality of whom moved to Texas, yet the population of the state continued to grow due to immigration from overseas.[10]

As of 2006, California had an estimated population of 37,172,015, more than 12 percent of the U.S. population. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 1,557,112 people ( i.e. 2,781,539 births minus 1,224,427 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 751,419 people. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 1,415,879 people, and migration from within the U.S. resulted in a net decrease of 564,100 people. California is the 13th fastest-growing state. As of 2008, the total fertility rate was 2.15.[11] The most recent census reports the population of California as 39,144,818.

The center of population of California is located at 35°27′49″N 119°19′31″W / 35.463595°N 119.325359°W / 35.463595; -119.325359 in Kern County, near the town of Shafter.[12]

No single ethnic group forms a majority of California's population, making the state a minority-majority state. Hispanics (of any race) are the largest single ethnic group in the state.[13] Spanish is the state's second most widely spoken language. Areas with especially large Spanish speaking populations include the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the California-Mexico border counties of San Diego and Imperial, and the San Joaquin Valley. Nearly 43% of Californian residents speak a language other than English at home, a proportion far higher than any other state.[14]

California is home to almost 25% of the country's undocumented population, making up 6% of California's residents overall. Two-thirds of California's undocumented population have lived in the state for more than 10 years.[15]

About 26% of California's public school students in the 2011–12 school year identified themselves as white (non-Hispanic), and 52% of the state's students identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino. The following ethnic groups that made up the statewide public school student body were Asians (11%), African Americans (7%), Native Americans (0.7%), and Pacific Islanders (0.6%). Students of mixed race made up about 2% of the public schools. Hispanics made up the majority of the state's public schools since 2010. Los Angeles Unified School District, the largest school district in California and second largest in the nation, is 73% Hispanic, 10% African American, 9% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 6% Asian, 0.5% Native American, and 0.4% Pacific Islander.[16]

In 2011, there was an estimated 2.6 million undocumented immigrants residing in California.[17]

National origin

Population density
Population density

Racial/Ethnic Makeup of California treating Hispanics as a Separate Category (2017)[18]

  White Non-Hispanic (37.20%)
  Asian Non-Hispanic (14.37%)
  Black Non-Hispanic (5.47%)
  Native American Non-Hispanic (0.37%)
  Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic (0.35%)
  Other Non-Hispanic (0.27%)
  Two or more races Non-Hispanic (3.05%)
  Hispanic Any Race (39.15%)
Pedestrians walking on the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica.
Pedestrians walking on the Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica.

According to 2015 US Census Bureau estimates, California's population was 72.9% White, 14.7% Asian, 6.5% Black or African American, 1.7% Native Americans, 0.5% Pacific Islander and 3.8% from two or more races. By ethnicity, 38.8% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 61.4% Non-Hispanic (of any race). Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in California.[19]

In 2015, California had the largest ethnic/racial minority population in the United States. Non-Hispanic whites decreased from about 76.3 - 78% of the state's population in 1970[20] to 38.0% in 2015.[21] While the population of minorities accounts for 100.7 million of 300 million U.S. residents, 20% of the national total live in California.[22][23]

California has the highest number, and second highest percentage, of Asian Americans by state. Only Hawaii has a higher Asian American percentage than California. While New Mexico and Texas have higher percentages of Hispanics, California has the highest total number of Hispanics of any U.S. state. Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in the state.[24]

The largest named ancestries in California are Mexican (25%), German (9%), Irish (7.7%), English (7.4%) and Italian[25](5.8%); there are 65 other ethnicities with sizable populations in California including Albanians, Australians, Canadians, Haitians, and Somalis as examples. Both Los Angeles and San Francisco have large numbers of residents with English, French, Italian[26], German, Russian and Scandinavian ancestry.[citation needed]

California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., totaling 21,453,934 residents as of the 2010 census. The state has the fifth largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an estimated 2,299,072 residents. California's Asian population is estimated at 4.9 million, approximately one-third of the nation's estimated 15 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 285,512 is the third-largest of any state, behind Arizona and Oklahoma.[27] Other estimates place the Native American population of California at one million.[citation needed]

Demographics of California (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 79.75% 7.65% 1.99% 12.39% 0.69%
2000 (Hispanic only) 30.79% 0.61% 0.85% 0.45% 0.13%
2005 (total population) 79.07% 7.45% 1.93% 13.47% 0.71%
2005 (Hispanic only) 33.59% 0.67% 0.84% 0.47% 0.13%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 5.76% 3.90% 3.58% 16.01% 10.13%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -0.91% 2.80% 1.87% 16.18% 9.65%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 16.36% 16.48% 5.87% 11.68% 12.29%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Since the 2000 U.S. Census, California has been known as the second state in US history (after Hawaii since its statehood in 1959) to have a non-white majority, and since 2014, the first state to have a Latino plurality surpass other racial/ethnic groups. The media discussed the possibility of Latinos becoming a majority in the 21st century,[28] for the first time since statehood (1850) when massive immigration of Anglo-Americans during the California Gold Rush of 1848-49 reduced Spanish speakers to 20 percent of the population.


California has the largest population of European Americans of any state. For example, in 2000 California had more Bulgarian Americans, Romanian Americans and Hungarian Americans than any other U.S. state. Los Angeles and San Francisco have large Russian American or Russian populations, as well Ukrainian Americans; and a long history of English, Irish, Italian, German, and Polish communities established by immigrants in the late 19th century. There are also many English Americans, Irish Americans, and French Americans whose ancestors were the original 49ers, also known as the California Gold Rush immigrants. There are also immigrant communities from the former Yugoslavia such as Bosnians, Croatians, Serbians and Macedonians.[citation needed]

California has over one million residents each with Spanish or Portuguese ancestry[citation needed], with communities along coastal parts of the state such as San Diego, Long Beach, Camarillo, Santa Clara Valley (including Cupertino, Gilroy and San Jose), Salinas Valley, Santa Maria Valley, and San Joaquin Valley. A small wave of Danish, Dutch and Swedish immigrants founded towns like Lathrop near Stockton, Artesia near Los Angeles, Kingsburg south of Fresno, Solvang north of Santa Barbara in the late 1800s and the private community of Sveadal located 15 miles south of San Jose and populated entirely by members of the Swedish American Patriotic League.[29] Small colonies of early 19th century Russian settlement under the Russian American Company are in Fort Ross,[30] Calistoga and the Russian River Valley in Sonoma and Napa counties. Small Amish/Mennonite colonies exist in an area bordered by the towns Oakdale, Riverbank and Ripon near Modesto and in Reedley, Sanger and Orange Cove near Fresno in the San Joaquin Valley; and in the outer Salinas Valley.[31]

The most important Italian community in California is in North Beach District at San Francisco. The 60% of californian italo-americans are from northern Italy. Others numerous groups are from Tuscany and Sicily.[32]

The state also has over 2,000 Circassian Americans with a little community in Anaheim.

California has a large Roma community.[33]


Main Article: Hispanics and Latinos in California

Latinos, mainly Mexican Americans, form major portions of the population of Southern California, especially in Los Angeles, as well as the San Joaquin Valley. The city of Los Angeles is often said to be the largest Mexican community in the United States. Census records kept track of the growth since 1850, but Mexicans and Mexican-Americans have lived in California since Spanish Colonial times. However, the number and percentage population of Latinos living in California increased rapidly in the late 20th century. The result is that, today, Latinos are the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles County, at over 40 percent of the county's population. Latinos are predominantly concentrated in the older eastern and southern suburbs surrounding downtown Los Angeles and northern Long Beach, the southern/eastern San Fernando Valley, and the San Gabriel/Pomona Valleys. They also comprise sizable communities in Arvin, Bakersfield, Delano, El Monte, Fontana, Fresno, Indio, La Puente, Ontario, Oxnard, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San José, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, Stockton, Vallejo, Watsonville and Yuba City. In Santa Ana in Orange County, Latinos comprise 75 percent of the population. Nearby Anaheim is over half Latino, and Orange County's population is 30-35 percent Latino.

The Imperial Valley on the U.S.-Mexican border is about 70–75% Latino; communities with many Latinos can also be found in Riverside County, especially at its eastern end, and the Coachella Valley. The Central Valley has many Mexican American migrant farm workers. Latinos are the majority in 14 counties: Colusa, Fresno, Glenn, Imperial, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, Santa Cruz, Tulare and Yolo counties.

Latinos make up at least 20% of the San Francisco Bay Area. Many live in San Mateo, Alameda, Contra Costa and Santa Clara counties, as well in San Francisco. The Napa Valley and Salinas Valley have predominantly Latino communities established by migrant farm workers. San Jose is about 30-35 percent Latino, the largest Latino community in northern California, while the Mission District, San Francisco and Lower/West Oakland has barrios established by Mexican and Latin American immigrants. The Mexican American communities of East Los Angeles and Logan Heights, San Diego, as well the San Joaquin Valley are centers of historic Chicano and Latino cultures.

California also has the largest populations of Hispanics/Latinos in the country. Most of the state's Latinos have Mexican ancestry, having the largest Mexican population in the United States, making up about 31 percent of the state population. California has a large and diverse population, having the largest Central American, especially Salvadorans population in the United States. Guatemalan Americans are spread out in Southern California after previously being centered in Los Angeles between 1970 and 2010. California also has many Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, Honduran Americans, and Nicaraguan Americans, along with people of Brazilian, Chilean, Colombian, Peruvian and other South American ancestry. Los Angeles has had the United States' largest Central American community, as well as the largest Mexican American community, since the 1910s. In fact, the 1900 census record finds 319 to 619 out of 100,000 residents in the city of Los Angeles were "Spanish" or "Mexican". (see Demographics of Los Angeles). Nearly 31 percent of Los Angeles itself is of Mexican descent, having the largest Mexican population of any city in the United States.

In Mariposa County, there is a very small community of Californios or Spanish American people as they identify themselves, that dates back before the U.S. annexation of California. Hornitos is home to an estimated 1,000 people and many are "Californios". The community's "Spanish" Californio culture is closely linked with Mexico and other Latin American nations. Spanish colonial/Mexican/Latino influences was always a major part of California after it became part of the U.S. since 1848 and its statehood in 1850.[citation needed]

Asian Americans

The state has a long history of established Asian American communities, including Chinese since the 1850s, Japanese since the 1880s, and Filipinos for over a century. A large wave of Asian immigration since 1965 brought in more Chinese along with Koreans and Southeast Asians after the Vietnam war ended in the late 1970s. South Asians are also a fast-growing group.

As of the 2010 Census there were a total of 17,941,286 respondents who claimed to be Asian American and Asian.[34] Out of these respondents in the United States,[35] 30.9% live in California, with 5,556,592 Asian Americans being counted by the 2010 Census.[36] This is a 1.5 million growth in population from the 2000 census, making Asian Americans 14.9 percent of the state's population.[37] Out of those almost 5.6 million Asian Americans in California there are 1,474,707 Filipinos, 1,349,111 Chinese, 647,589 Vietnamese, 590,445 Indians, 505,225 Koreans, 428,140 Japanese, 109,928 Taiwanese, 102,317 Cambodians, 91,224 Hmong, 69,303 Laotians, 67,707 Thais, 53,474 Pakistanis, 39,506 Borneons, Sumatrans, and Indonesians, 17,978 Burmese, 11,929 Sri Lankans, 10,494 Bangladeshis, 6,231 Nepalese, 5,595 Malaysians, 4,993 Mongolians, 1,513 Singaporeans, 1,377 Okinawans, and 750 Bhutanese.[36]

Filipino Americans are particularly numerous in Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Francisco, San Diego, San Mateo and Solano counties, and in southern California communities such as Artesia, Baldwin Park, Carson, Cerritos, Covina, West Covina, and the Eagle Rock district of Los Angeles. Around San Diego, many Filipinos live in the communities of Mira Mesa, National City, and Chula Vista. Delano near Bakersfield, other towns in the San Joaquin Valley, the Inland Empire of Riverside-San Bernardino, Coachella Valley-Imperial Valley region [38], Salinas, Stockton and Lathrop, and the Santa Maria/San Luis Obispo area also have large Filipino American populations. Daly City south of San Francisco has a large Filipino population and is the largest percentage wise in the United States. As of the 1980s, Filipinos have been the largest population of Asians in California.[39] Twenty percent of registered nurses, in 2013, in California are Filipino.[40]

Chinese Americans are numerous in San Francisco, Oakland, the East Bay, South Bay, the Central Coast of California, Sacramento, San Diego, and the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County. The San Francisco Bay Area has a greater concentration of Cantonese-speaking Chinese than any other region in the United States. The Mexican border community of Calexico, California in addition to Mexicali has large numbers of Chinese Mexican Americans, that is, Mexican Americans of Chinese ancestry. Smaller Chinese communities can also be found in San Jacinto Valley, Lake Elsinore, and Victorville.

Southern California has perhaps the largest Taiwan-born Chinese American community in the U.S., particularly in the San Gabriel Valley (i.e. Walnut and Diamond Bar), Buena Park, Cerritos, West Covina, Irvine, communities in the South Bay, Los Angeles and southern Orange County. Many minority groups from China also live in California, for example, there are Tibetan, Mongolian and Uyghur Americans concentrated in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Orange County, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach area.

Large Korean American communities exist in the Koreatown area of Los Angeles, the eastern San Gabriel Valley, the San Fernando Valley, Cerritos/Long Beach, South Bay, Los Angeles, northern Orange County and San Diego area. There is another large Korean American population in the San Francisco Bay Area, and Koreans are growing in number in the suburban Inland Empire region, in cities such as Chino Hills, Corona, Desert Hot Springs and Loma Linda south of San Bernardino. Since 1990, the Korean American and African American populations relocated westward and northward in the Los Angeles area.

The South Bay area and Little Tokyo have a large Japanese American community. Japanese Americans, however, are also concentrated in San Francisco and across the Bay Area, San Jose, the Salinas Valley and Santa Cruz County; and smaller communities in the Sacramento, Fresno, Bakersfield, Anaheim, San Diego, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara and Stockton areas. Despite the presence of Japanese goods stores, media outlets and restaurants in the state, most "Little Tokyos" and "Japantowns" were evacuated during the forced relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II (see Japanese American Internment). As a result, most Japanese Americans in urban areas do not reside in historical Japanese communities.

California has the largest American population of Southeast Asians, concentrated in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, Sacramento, and Fresno areas. This includes the Hmong and Vietnamese, including Chinese Vietnamese. Long Beach has one of the largest Cambodian American communities in the United States. The neighboring cities of Westminster and Garden Grove have the largest Vietnamese American community outside of Vietnam and are often dubbed "Little Saigon". Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrants also settled in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially San Jose, Santa Clara and Sunnyvale, as well across the San Joaquin Valley and in San Diego.

Over 6,000 Laotian Americans live in the Fresno area, including an even larger Hmong American community, the second-largest of its kind. Other Hmong colonies in the Central Valley of California and Northern California developed since the end of the Vietnam war (1975–79).

California also has a Thai American community of over 250,000, concentrated in Southern California, with small Thai and Southeast Asian communities in Perris and Banning in the Inland Empire region. Los Angeles has the largest Thai population outside of Thailand and is also home to the world's first Thai Town. About 150,000 Indonesians live in Southern California, primarily the Los Angeles and San Diego areas.

California has the largest Indian American population in the U.S. Many live in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, San Diego, and the San Francisco Bay Area. The Los Angeles suburbs of Artesia and Cerritos have large Indian American communities. San Jose, Fremont, and other Silicon Valley cities have many Indian Americans who are employed in the high-tech industry. Many Indian Americans are in Central Valley cities such as Stockton, Bakersfield, Fresno, Yuba City, and the Imperial Valley. Most South Asians in California are Indian American, but there are also Pakistani Americans, Bangladeshi Americans, and Sri Lankan Americans (see Sinhalese and Tamils) esp. concentrated in the San Gabriel Valley (Covina Valley) of the Los Angeles area.

Over 50,000 Afghan Americans are concentrated in the East Bay primarily in Alameda County and its communities of Fremont and Hayward; Afghans also live throughout the state (esp. Orange County and Ventura County).

Pacific Islanders

The state has 150,000 residents with Pacific Islander ancestry. Most, 80,000, are Native Hawaiians of measurable Polynesian ancestry; many also have Asian, European, or other ancestries. There are also 25,000 Samoan Americans originally from American Samoa or Western Samoa. Most live in Long Beach and the Los Angeles suburbs of Carson, Artesia, Cerritos, and Redondo Beach, Oceanside, and Upland. About 10,000 Chamorros from Guam and Northern Mariana Islands live in northern California, the largest Micronesian community in the mainland United States. An estimated 10,000 Tahitians from French Polynesia live in southern California.

There are also many Palauans in southern California, specifically in the San Diego area, including Vista. Only 677 in Vista alone in the 2010 US Census. Members of the Palauan community often also have Malay, Indonesian, Micronesian, Melanesian, Japanese, and other east Asian ancestries. Many Chuukese or Trukese live in San Diego, while the original settlers on Truk Island are Spanish and German but most Truukese now are Japanese and Korean, then Filipino and some Chinese, and finally the arrival of American expatriates. Many came to the Oceanside area due to the military installations around the city, which has the oldest Polynesian or Pacific Islander community.

Middle Eastern/North African Americans

The state also has over 715,000 Arab Americans, with large communities in Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles (most in the state), Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego, Sacramento and Stanislaus counties. They represent all Arab and Middle Eastern nationalities, the most numerous being of Gaza and West Bank (see Palestinian Americans) followed by those from Syria (see Syrian Americans) and Lebanon (about half- 1.5 out of 3.1 million estimated- (see Lebanese Americans) live in California), Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Arabs have resided in California since the 1920s, most notably in Orange County in the section of Little Arabia (Anaheim, California) and the San Diego area.

About 500,000 Iranian Americans live throughout Southern California, including about 20% of the population of Beverly Hills.[41] Iranian American communities also flourish in the San Fernando Valley, Orange County, San Diego and the San Joaquin Valley. The majority of Iranian Americans immigrated after the ouster of the pro-U.S. Shah regime of Iran in the late 1970s.

California also has the third largest Greek American population in the United States, behind New York and Massachusetts.

There is also large population of Assyrian/Chaldean descent living in the Central Valley, with large communities in Modesto, Ceres and Turlock, as well as throughout the Central Coast and the California Desert (i.e. the Coachella and Imperial valleys). San Diego has one of the largest concentrations of Chaldean immigrants in the United States.[42]

California is also home to 600,000 Armenian Americans, with many in Glendale north of Los Angeles, as well as a large community in Fresno. As of 1988 California had about 500,000 ethnic Armenians with over half of them living in Greater Los Angeles.[43]

Turkish Americans and Azerbaijani Americans form moderately-sized communities in both Los Angeles and San Francisco.

Blacks/African Americans

California has 2.3 million African Americans as of 2010, the largest population of Black or African Americans in the western U.S,[19] and the 5th largest Black population in the United States. Cities that have the largest share of African Americans and have historically been Black cultural centers include (11 largest in the state): Compton, Inglewood, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland, Richmond, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego and Vallejo.

There are many other cities and towns in the state with sizeable African American populations. These include:

Northern: Berkeley, Dublin, East Palo Alto, Emeryville, Fairfield, Hayward, Marin City, Piedmont, San Leandro, and Suisun City.

Central: Bakersfield, Fresno, Kings-Tulare counties, Merced, Modesto, and Stockton.

Southern: Adelanto, Altadena, Apple Valley, California City, Carson, Corona, Desert Hot Springs, Fontana, Gardena, Hawthorne, Lakewood, Lancaster, Lynwood, Moreno Valley, National City, Oceanside, Palmdale, Palm Springs, Pasadena, Perris, Pomona, Rialto, Twentynine Palms, and Victorville.

African Americans are approximately 7 percent of the state population. The state percentage of African Americans has dropped in the 1990s and 2000s, though the state's overall number of African-Americans has increased in that time period. The black population in East and West Oakland and South Central Los Angeles - places where they held the majority for decades - has greatly decreased as the black middle class has relocated to nearby suburbs, including those in the Inland Empire and Antelope Valley in Southern California and the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California. Many African Americans have also moved to the South, where their grandparents may have come from in the "Great Migration" of the mid-20th century.

African Americans have made a contribution to the state's hip-hop and R&B music culture. African-American musical artists born and/or raised in California include: Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, E-40, Nate Dogg, En Vogue, Tony! Toni! Tone!, Too Short, Eazy-E, N.W.A, Keyshia Cole, Digital Underground, JJ Fad, Barry White, The Pointer Sisters and Kendrick Lamar.

Also noted is California has small West Indian (Afro-Caribbean American) and African immigration from countries such as Cape Verde, Eritrea and Ethiopia (i.e. Little Ethiopia in West Los Angeles), Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa (including White South Africans), Tanzania and Yemen across from the Horn of Africa. They established communities in Los Angeles known for a large Ethiopian community and Oakland/Berkeley (East Bay) as well Nuer refugees from South Sudan migrated to the Sacramento area; and the Cape Verdean community in Solano County and the Santa Clara Valley, and the San Diego area.

Native American Indians

As of 2010, California's Native American population of 362,801 was the most of any state.[44] It also has the most Native American tribes, indigenous to the state or not, but the majority of known Californian Indian tribes became extinct in the late 19th century. The U.S. Census includes Latin American Indian, especially immigrants who belonged to indigenous peoples or who have Amerindian heritage from North and South America.

The Cherokee Nation is the largest tribe in the state with a population of 110,000, although the number of Cherokee descendants may surpass 600,000 according to demographers. They are often descendants of Dust Bowl refugees in the 1930s and 1940s who migrated to the state's farming counties and urban areas for jobs. The largest urban American Indian communities are Los Angeles/Long Beach, San Francisco/Oakland, Sacramento, and San Diego areas.[citation needed]

California also has significant populations of the Apache, Choctaw, Creek, Hopi, Zuni, Navajo, Blackfeet, Shoshone, Paiute, Pueblos, Cahuilla and Chumash tribes. The Cahuilla in the Coachella Valley have profited from real estate land leases, and much of Indio and Palm Springs are tribal-owned lands under legal tribal jurisdiction.[45]

Population of California according to racial/ethnic group 1960–2010[48][49]
Census 1960 Census 1970 Census 1980 Census 1990 Census 2000 Census 2010
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Non-Hispanic Whites 14,455,230 92.0 17,761,032 89.0 15,763,992 66.6 17,029,126 57.2 15,816,790 46.7 14,938,836 40.1
Hispanics 4,541,300 19.2 7,687,938 25.8 10,966,556 32.4 14,007,487 37.6
Blacks 883,861 5.6 1,400,143 7.0 1,819,281 7.7 2,208,801 7.4 2,181,926 6.4 2,309,745 6.2
Asians 318,376 2.0 552,364 2.8 1,819,281 5.3 2,845,659 9.6 3,697,513 10.9 4,843,014 13.0
American Indians and Alaska Natives 39,014 0.2 91,018 0.5 201,369 0.9 242,164 0.8 333,346 1.0 372,539 1.0

Birth data

Vital Statistics from 1909-2017[50][51]
Average population Crude birth rate

(per 1,000)

Crude death rate

(per 1,000)

Natural change

(per 1,000)

1909 2,282,000 13.6 13.6 0.0
1910 2,406,000 13.3 13.3 0.0
1911 2,534,000 13.8 13.4 0.4
1912 2,668,000 14.6 13.9 0.7
1913 2,811,000 15.7 13.9 1.8
1914 2,934,000 15.7 12.6 3.1
1915 3,008,000 16.0 13.0 3.0
1916 3,071,000 16.6 13.0 3.6
1917 3,171,000 16.4 13.2 3.2
1918 3,262,000 17.2 17.6 -0.6
1919 3,339,000 17.1 13.8 3.3
1920 3,554,000 18.9 13.2 5.7
1921 3,795,000 19.0 12.4 6.6
1922 3,991,000 18.3 13.0 5.3
1923 4,270,000 18.7 12.6 6.1
1924 4,541,000 19.2 12.6 6.6
1925 4,730,000 18.0 12.1 5.9
1926 4,929,000 16.6 12.0 4.9
1927 5,147,000 16.3 11.9 4.4
1928 5,344,000 15.7 12.4 3.3
1929 5,531,000 14.6 11.8 2.8
1930 5,711,000 14.7 11.6 3.1
1931 5,824,000 14.1 11.7 2.4
1932 5,894,000 13.2 11.5 1.7
1933 5,963,000 12.6 11.4 1.2
1934 6,060,000 12.9 11.2 1.7
1935 6,175,000 13.0 11.8 1.2
1936 6,341,000 13.2 12.0 1.2
1937 6,528,000 14.4 12.3 2.1
1938 6,656,000 15.3 11.4 3.9
1939 6,785,000 15.3 11.3 4.0
1940 6,950,000 16.1 11.5 4.6
1941 7,237,000 17.3 11.3 6.0
1942 7,735,000 19.8 11.0 8.8
1943 8,506,000 20.3 10.6 9.7
1945 9,344,000 19.5 9.8 9.7
1946 9,559,000 22.7 9.8 12.9
1947 9,832,000 24.8 9.7 15.1
1948 10,060,000 23.8 9.7 14.1
1949 10,340,000 23.7 9.7 14.0
1950 10,680,000 22.9 9.3 13.6
1951 11,130,000 23.4 9.3 14.1
1952 11,640,000 24.1 9.3 14.8
1953 12,250,000 24.5 9.1 15.4
1954 12,750,000 24.4 8.7 15.7
1955 13,130,000 24.1 8.8 15.3
1956 13,710,000 24.6 8.8 15.8
1957 14,260,000 24.8 8.7 16.1
1958 14,880,000 23.7 8.5 15.2
1959 15,470,000 23.5 8.4 15.1
1960 15,870,000 23.5 8.5 15.0
1961 16,500,000 23.2 8.3 14.9
1962 17,070,000 22.3 8.3 14.0
1963 17,670,000 21.7 8.4 13.3
1964 18,150,000 20.8 8.4 12.4
1965 18,580,000 19.2 8.3 10.9
1966 18,860,000 17.9 8.3 9.6
1967 19,180,000 17.6 8.2 9.4
1968 19,390,000 17.4 8.3 9.1
1969 19,710,000 17.8 8.4 9.4
1970 19,970,000 17.9 8.2 9.7
1971 20,350,000 17.3 8.3 9.0
1972 20,590,000 15.2 8.2 7.0
1973 20,870,000 14.5 8.3 6.2
1974 21,170,000 14.2 8.0 6.2
1975 21,540,000 14.7 7.9 6.8
1976 21,940,000 14.7 7.7 7.0
1977 22,350,000 15.3 7.5 7.8
1978 22,840,000 15.3 7.6 7.7
1979 23,260,000 15.8 7.6 8.2
1980 23,670,000 16.4 7.6 8.8
1981 24,290,000 17.0 7.8 9.2
1982 24,820,000 17.1 7.5 9.6
1983 25,360,000 17.2 7.4 9.8
1984 25,840,000 16.9 7.4 9.5
1985 26,440,000 17.3 7.7 9.6
1986 27,100,000 17.8 7.4 10.4
1987 27,780,000 17.8 7.4 10.4
1988 28,460,000 18.2 7.5 10.7
1989 29,220,000 18.8 7.4 11.4
1990 29,960,000 19.9 7.1 12.8
1991 30,470,000 20.0 7.0 13.0
1992 30,970,000 19.8 7.0 12.8
1993 31,270,000 18.8 6.9 11.9
1994 31,480,000 18.4 7.1 11.3
1995 31,700,000 17.6 7.0 10.6
1996 32,020,000 17.0 7.0 10.0
1997 35,830,000 16.4 6.8 9.6
1998 32,990,000 15.9 6.9 9.0
1999 33,500,000 15.5 6.8 8.7
2000 33,990,000 15.5 6.7 8.8
2001 34,480,000 15.3 6.7 8.6
2002 34,870,000 15.1 6.7 8.4
2003 35,250,000 15.2 6.6 8.6
2004 35,570,000 15.1 6.7 8.4
2005 35,830,000 15.2 6.4 8.8
2006 36,020,000 15.3 6.6 8.7
2007 36,250,000 15.4 6.4 9.0
2008 36,600,000 15.4 6.4 9.0
2009 36,960,000 14.5 6.1 8.4
2010 37,350,000 13.8 6.2 7.6
2011 37,670,000 13.5 6.3 7.2
2012 38,020,000 13.1 6.3 6.8
2013 38,350,000 13.0 6.5 6.5
2014 38,700,000 12.9 6.3 6.6
2015 39,030,000 12.8 6.5 6.3
2016 39,300,000 12.4 6.7 5.7
2017 39,540,000 11.9 6.8 5.1
Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Ethnicity 2013[52] 2014[53] 2015[54] 2016[55] 2017[56]
Non-Hispanic White 143,531 (29.0%) 144,318 (28.7%) 141,592 (28.8%) 132,780 (27.2%) 127,822 (27.1%)
Asian 76,424 (15.4%) 84,224 (16.7%) 80,269 (16.3%) 73,843 (15.1%) 72,049 (15.2%)
African 31,977 (6.5%) 31,654 (6.3%) 30,546 (6.2%) 23,936 (4.9%) 23,441 (5.0%)
Pacific Islander ... ... ... 1,851 (0.4%) 1,809 (0.4%)
American Indian 3,590 (0.7%) 3,509 (0.7%) 3,510 (0.7%) 1,447 (0.3%) 1,411 (0.3%)
Hispanic 238,496 (48.2%) 237,539 (47.2%) 234,237 (47.6%) 228,982 (46.8%) 220,122 (46.7%)
Total California 494,705 (100%) 502,879 (100%) 491,748 (100%) 488,827 (100%) 471,658 (100%)

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

  • Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in California (as of 2010)[57]
Language Percentage of population
Spanish 28.46%
Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) 2.80%
Tagalog 2.20%
Vietnamese 1.43%
Korean 1.08%
Armenian and Persian (tied) 0.52% (each)
Japanese 0.43%
Russian 0.42%
Hindi and Arabic (tied) 0.38% (each)
French 0.36%

As of 2010, 20,379,282 of California residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 10,672,610 spoke Spanish, 1,231,425 Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 796,451 Tagalog, 559,932 Vietnamese, 367,523 Korean, 192,980 Armenian, and Persian was spoken as a main language by 203,770 of the population over the age of five. In total, 14,644,136 of California's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[57]

Comparatively, according to the 2007 American Community Survey, 42.6 percent of California's population older than five spoke a language other than English at home, with 73 percent of those also speaking English well or very well, while 9.8 did not speak English at all.[58]

California had the highest concentration of Vietnamese or Chinese speakers in the United States, second highest concentration of Korean or Spanish speakers in the United States, and third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers in the United States.[58] California was historically one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, and is home to more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families.[59][60] A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages of Mexico that are spoken among California farmworkers.[61]

Over 200 languages are known to be spoken and read in California, with Spanish used as the state's "alternative" language. California has more than 100 indigenous languages, making California one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world. All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 1]

The official language of California has been English since the passage of Proposition 63 in 1986.[62] However, many state, city, and local government agencies still continue to print official public documents in numerous languages.[63] For example, the California Department of Motor Vehicles offers the written exam for the standard C Class driver's license in 31 languages along with English, and the audio exam in 11 languages.[64] The politics of language is a major political issue in the state, especially in regard to language policy controlling the teaching and official use of immigrant languages.

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken English in California since the late 20th Century. This dialect, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from the dialects used in other regions of the country.[65]


Religion in California (2014)[66]
Religion Percent
Roman Catholic
No religion
Latter-day Saint

California has the most Roman Catholics in the United States, ahead of New York State, as well as large Protestant, non-religious, Jewish, and Muslim populations. It also has the largest Latter-day Saint population outside of Utah.[67] The state also has a large American Jewish community, the largest in the western U.S., mainly concentrated in Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Palm Springs. It also has large Muslim communities in west Los Angeles, San Diego, Beverly Hills, Orange County, Santa Clara County, and the Modesto area. Religions indigenous to California includes LaVeyan Satanism.[68]

Most Roman Catholics in California are of Mexican, other Hispanic, Spanish, Irish, Italian and Filipino ancestry. The population of Catholic Californians is rapidly growing due to the influx of Latin American and Filipino immigrants. In the state, Roman Catholicism is highly represented among non-Hispanic European-Americans, but less represented among non-Hispanic African-Americans. Protestantism is the majority Christian denomination in non-Hispanic black and white groups.

The largest Christian denominations in California in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,079,310; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 529,575; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 471,119. Jewish congregations had 994,000 adherents, or 3% of the Californian population.[69]

Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintō, Sikhism, and Taoism were introduced in part by Asian immigrants. As the twentieth century came to a close, forty percent of all Buddhists in America resided in Southern California. The Los Angeles metropolitan area has become unique in the Buddhist world as the only place where representative organizations of every major school of Buddhism can be found in a single urban center.[70][verification needed] The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Northern California and Hsi Lai Temple in Southern California are two of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere.

California has the highest Hindu population in the United States,[71] most of them Indian Americans.[72] Many of the prominent Hindu temples including the Malibu Hindu Temple are located in California.

With almost one million Jews, California has the highest number of Jews of any state except New York. Many Jews live in the West Los Angeles and (esp. west) San Fernando Valley regions of Los Angeles. [73] At the present time, one of California's Senators, Dianne Feinstein, is Jewish. Historic synagogues include Beth Jacob Congregation (Beverly Hills, California), Congregation B'nai Israel (Sacramento, California), and Temple Israel (Stockton, California). Chabad,[74] The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute,[75] and Aish HaTorah are active in California.

California also has the largest Muslim community in the United States, an estimated one percent of the population, mostly residing in Southern California. Approximately 100,000 Muslims reside in San Diego.[citation needed]

California has more members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Temples than any state except Utah.[76] Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have played important roles in the settlement of California throughout the state's history. For example, a group of a few hundred Latter-day Saint converts from the Northeastern United States and Europe arrived at what would become San Francisco in the 1840s aboard the ship Brooklyn, more than doubling the population of the small town. A group of Latter-day Saints also established the city of San Bernardino in Southern California in 1851.[67] According to the LDS Church 2014 statistics, 780,200 Latter-day Saints reside in the state of California, attending almost 1400 congregations statewide.[67]

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is headquartered in Loma Linda in San Bernardino county 60 miles east of Los Angeles, where the church members form the majority of the town's population. The SDA church there has a university, a free hospital and a TV station (3ABN or the 3 Angels Broadcasting Network). The town is known for a large number of centenarians who live over 100 years of age.[77]

A Pew Research Center survey revealed, however, that California is less religious than the rest of the United States: 62% of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of the belief "in God or a universal spirit", while in the nation 71% say so. The survey also revealed that 48% of Californians say religion is "very important", while the figure for the U.S. in general is 56%.[78]

Income and socioeconomic factors

California's income distribution is quite broad compared to the country's as a whole; its proportions of residents with no income and of residents with income over $100,000 are both higher than the national average. This broad distribution combined with high housing and living costs give California an abnormally high poverty rate. The Census Bureau’s Supplemental Poverty Measure, calculated by comparing household income to a locally-adjusted poverty threshold, reports that 20.7% of California's population has income insufficient for their basic needs, as compared to 12.9% for the U.S. as a whole.[79] This calculation of income includes the benefits of California welfare programs such as food stamps and earned income tax credits — without these, the state's poverty rate would be 28%.[80]

A comparison of the distributions of California (left) and U.S. (right) households by their income relative to their estimated cost of living, showing the higher rates of poverty and near-poverty in California. Uses 2017 CPS data[79] about incomes in 2016. Comparison is of NAS Family Income minus Medical Out-of-Pocket to CE-Based Poverty Threshold with CPI-U and Geographical Price Adjustments, as per [1].
A comparison of the distributions of California (left) and U.S. (right) households by their income relative to their estimated cost of living, showing the higher rates of poverty and near-poverty in California. Uses 2017 CPS data[79] about incomes in 2016. Comparison is of NAS Family Income minus Medical Out-of-Pocket to CE-Based Poverty Threshold with CPI-U and Geographical Price Adjustments, as per [1].

The trends of low income in California are complex; from 1975 to 2014, real (inflation-adjusted) incomes have alternated between rises and sharp declines. These incomes have decreased overall for those outside the top 20th percentile, with the bottom 20th percentile seeing an average decline of 1% per year during that period.[81][82] Correspondingly, the percent of Californians with income below their poverty threshold has risen and fallen, but has on average increased by a tenth of a percentage point per year.[83]

Increasing income inequality has had many effects on Californians' lives, including on life expectancy, which can be taken as a proxy for health or even general welfare. A study conducted by Clarke et al.[84] related life expectancy to socioeconomic status (SES, an index including income and other related factors), finding that Californians in the top 20% by SES live on average six years longer than those in the bottom 20% (81 years, compared to 75). This disparity becomes even more pronounced when intersected with race: White males in the top 20% live 14 years longer than African American males in the bottom 20% (for females, the difference is 10 years).[84]

The complexity of the state's low-income trends were visible when, in response to growing Chinese and Spanish-speaking populations, the city of Oakland implemented the nation's first policy of recruiting bilingual applicants for public-facing city jobs in 2001. This increased the employment of Hispanic and Chinese bilinguals throughout the public workforce, but also lowered (monolingual) Black employment.[85]

See also

Media related to Demographics of California at Wikimedia Commons


  1. ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi


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