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Juan Manuel Fangio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Juan Manuel Fangio
Fangio in 1952
Born(1911-06-24)24 June 1911
Balcarce, Argentina
Died17 July 1995(1995-07-17) (aged 84)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Formula One World Championship career
NationalityArgentina Argentine
Active years19501951, 19531958
TeamsAlfa Romeo, Maserati, Mercedes, Ferrari
Entries52 (51 starts)
Championships5 (1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957)
Career points245 (277 914)[1]
Pole positions29
Fastest laps23
First entry1950 British Grand Prix
First win1950 Monaco Grand Prix
Last win1957 German Grand Prix
Last entry1958 French Grand Prix

Juan Manuel Fangio (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈfanχjo], Italian pronunciation: [ˈfandʒo]; 24 June 1911 – 17 July 1995), nicknamed El Chueco ("the bowlegged" or "bandy legged one") or El Maestro ("The Master" or "The Teacher"), was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers' Championship five times.[2]

From childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8. In 1940, he competed with Chevrolet, winning the Grand Prix International Championship and devoted his time to the Argentine Turismo Carretera becoming its champion, a title he successfully defended a year later. Fangio then competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949, where he achieved further success.

He won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 46 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams (Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Maserati), a feat that has not been repeated. He holds the highest winning percentage in Formula One – 46.15% – winning 24 of 52 Formula One races he entered.[3] Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, which he won four times in his career, more than any other driver.[4][5]

After retirement, Fangio presided as the honorary president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987, a year after the inauguration of his museum, until his death in 1995. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world and various activities were held in his honor.

Early life

Fangio's grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires from Italy in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce, a small city in southern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, within three years by making charcoal from tree branches. Giuseppe brought his family, with his 7-year son Loreto, later the racing driver's father, to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region. His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio, slightly to the north. Fangio's parents married on 24 October 1903 and lived on farms, where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason.[6]

Fangio was born in Balcarce on 24 June 1911, San Juan's Day, at 12:10 am.[7] His birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June in the Register of Balcarce.[8] He was the fourth of six children.[9] In his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy-legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal in football games.[9]

Fangio started his education at School No. 4 of Balcarce, before transferring to School No. 1 and 18 Uriburu Av.[8] When Fangio was 13, he dropped out of school and worked in Miguel Angel Casas auto mechanics' workshop as an assistant mechanic.[10] When he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employer's customers. He developed pneumonia, which almost proved fatal,[11] after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest. He was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother.[12]

After recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21. In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires. His driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday, after taking his final physical examination. He returned to Balcarce where he aimed to further his football career. Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangio's hobby of building his own car, and his parents gave him space to do so in a rudimentary shed at the family home.[12]

Early racing career

1950 Simca Gordini T15s, as raced, and retired, at the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans by José Froilán González and Juan Manuel Fangio
1950 Simca Gordini T15s, as raced, and retired, at the 1950 24 Hours of Le Mans by José Froilán González and Juan Manuel Fangio

After finishing his military service, Fangio opened his own garage and raced in local events. He began his racing career in Argentina in 1936, driving a 1929 Ford Model A that he had rebuilt. In the Tourism Highway category, Fangio participated in his first race between 18 and 30 October 1938 as the co-pilot of Luis Finocchietti. Despite not winning the Argentine Road Grand Prix, Fangio drove most of the way and finished 5th. In November of that year, he entered the "400 km of Tres Arroyos ", but it was suspended due to a fatal accident.[13]

During his time racing in Argentina, he drove Chevrolet cars and was Argentine National Champion in 1940 and 1941. One particular race, the 1940 Gran Premio del Norte, was almost 10,000 km (6,250 mi) long, one that Fangio described as a "terrible ordeal". This race started in Buenos Aires on 27 September, and ran up through the Andes and Bolivia to Lima, Peru, and then back to Buenos Aires, taking 15 days, ending on 12 October with stages held each day. This horrendously gruelling race was held in the most difficult and varied conditions imaginable- drivers had to traverse through hot and dry deserts, insect-ridden jungles with crushing humidity, and freezing cold and sometimes snowy mountain passes with 1,000 feet (300 m) cliff drops at extremely high altitude- sometimes in total darkness, all on a mixture of dirt and paved roads. Early in the race Fangio hit a large rock and damaged the car's driveshaft, which in the next town would have to be replaced. Later on at an overnight stop in Bolivia one of the townspeople crashed into Fangio's car and bent an axle- he and his co-driver had to spend all night fixing it. Following this repair the fanblade got loose and punctured the radiator, which meant another repair before it would have to be replaced later. They drove 150 miles through scorching desert with no water, and during a night stint the headlights fell off and they had to be secured with his co-driver's necktie. The weather in the mountains was so cold that Fangio had to drive with his co-driver's arms around him for hours. These mountainous routes in Bolivia and Peru would sometimes involve going up to altitudes of 14,000 feet above sea level- a 40 percent reduction of air thickness, making breathing incredibly difficult and the engine being severely down on power. When he finally got back to Buenos Aires, Fangio had won this race- his first big victory.

In 1941, he beat Oscar Gálvez in the Grand Prix Getúlio Vargas in Brazil, which was a 6-day, 3,731 km (2,318 mi) public road race starting from and ending at Rio de Janeiro, going through various cities and towns all over Brazil such as São Paulo and Belo Horizonte. For the second time, Fangio was crowned champion of Argentine TC. In 1942, he took tenth place in the South Grand Prix. In April he won the race "Mar y Sierras", and then had to suspend activity due to World War II.[13] In 1946, Fangio returned to racing with two races in Morón and Tandil driving a Ford T. In February 1947, Fangio competed at National Mechanics (MN) at the Retiro circuit, and on 1 March, he started the race for Rosario City Award. Subsequently, Fangio triumphed in the 'Double Back Window' Race.[14]

In October 1948, Fangio however suffered a personal tragedy in another gruelling race, this time a point-to-point race from Buenos Aires to Caracas, Venezuela- a 20-day event covering a distance of 9,580 km (5,950 mi) through Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and finally Venezuela. Fangio, with his co-driver Daniel Urrutia battled hard with brothers Juan and Oscar Galvez, and Domingo Marimon throughout. On the 10th day, on the Lima to Tumbes stage in northern Peru, on coastal roads along the Pacific Ocean, Fangio was driving at night in thick fog generated from the ocean in near-pitch black darkness when he approached a left-hand bend at 140 km/h (87 mph) near the village of Huanchaco, not far from the small city of Trujillo. With his cars' lights not helping him much thanks to the thick fog, he approached the bend too fast, lost control of the car and tumbled down an embankment, and Urrutia was thrown out of the car through the front windscreen. Oscar Galvez stopped to help Fangio, who had neck injuries, soon found the badly injured Urrutia. Another competitor, Luciano Marcilla, stopped and took Fangio and Urrutia to the nearest hospital in the town of Chocope 50 km (31 mi) away. Fangio survived but 35-year-old Urrutia did not, suffering multiple fatal cervical and basal skull fractures. Domingo Marimon won the race, but the race was a disaster and was marred by the deaths of 3 spectactors and 3 drivers (including Urrutia).[15] Fangio believed he would never race again and entered a depressed state after the death of his friend, but he soon got out of his saddened state, and his successes in Argentina caught the attention of the Argentine Automobile Club and the Juan Peron-led Argentine government, so they bought a Maserati and sent him to Europe in December 1948 to continue his career.[16][17]

Formula One and sports car racing


Fangio being chased by Alberto Ascari during the 1954 Italian Grand Prix.
Fangio being chased by Alberto Ascari during the 1954 Italian Grand Prix.
Fangio driving a Maserati 250F.
Fangio driving a Maserati 250F.

Fangio was the oldest driver in many of his Formula One races, having started his Grand Prix career in his late 30s. During his career, drivers raced with almost no protective equipment on circuits with no safety features. Formula One cars in the 1950s were very fast, extremely physically demanding to drive; races were much longer than today and demanded incredible physical stamina. Tyres were cross-ply, and far less forgiving; treads often stripped in a race, and spark plugs fouled. There were, of course, no electronic aids or computer intervention. At the end of a GP, drivers often suffered blistered hands, caused by heavy steering and gear changing. Despite Fangio's short career, he was one of the top GP drivers in history, rivalling Tazio Nuvolari.[citation needed]

Fangio had no compunction about leaving a team, even after a successful year or even during a season, if he thought he would have a better chance with a better car. As was then common, several of his race results were shared with teammates after he took over their car during races when his own had technical problems. His rivals included Alberto Ascari, Giuseppe Farina and Stirling Moss. Throughout his career, Fangio was backed by funding from the Argentine government of Juan Perón.[18]

World championship successes

Fangio after winning the 1957 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring.
Fangio after winning the 1957 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring.

Fangio's first Grand Prix race was the 1948 French Grand Prix at Reims, where he started his Simca Gordini from 11th on the grid but retired. Back to South America, during a long-distance race, he went off the road in Peru and tumbled down a mountainside. His co-driver, Daniel Urrutia was thrown out of the car, and when Fangio found him, he was dying. Following Urrutia's death, he considered quitting the sport. But he resolved to carry on and returned to Europe the following year, and raced in Sanremo; having upgraded to a Maserati 4CLT/48 sponsored by the Automobile Club of Argentina he dominated the event, winning both heats to take the aggregate win by almost a minute over Prince Bira. Fangio entered a further six Grand Prix races in 1949, winning four of them against top-level opposition.[17][19]

Alfa Romeo and Monza accident

For the first World Championship of Drivers in 1950, Fangio was taken on by the Alfa Romeo team alongside Farina and Luigi Fagioli. With competitive racing cars following the Second World War still in short supply, the pre-war Alfettas proved dominant. Fangio won each of the three races he finished at Monaco, Spa and Reims-Gueux but Farina's three wins at races Fangio retired from and a fourth-place allowed Farina to take the title, even though Fangio was quicker than Farina, who was able to take advantage of Fangio's mechanical woes. Fangio's most notable victory that year was at Monaco, where he dodged a multi-car pile-up and easily won the race. In 1950s non-championship races Fangio took a further four wins at San Remo, Pau and the fearsome Coppa Acerbo at the 16-mile Pescara public road circuit, and two seconds from eight starts. He also won a handful of races for the Argentine Automobile Club driving a Maserati 4CLT and a Ferrari 166.

Fangio won three more championship races for Alfa in 1951 in the Swiss, French and Spanish Grands Prix, and with the new 4.5-litre Ferraris taking points off his teammates Farina and various others, Fangio took the title at the final race in Spain, finishing six points ahead of Ascari at the Pedralbes street circuit. Fangio also finished 2nd at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone after his horrendously fuel-inefficient Alfa had to make 2 lengthy pit stops for fuel, and he finished 2nd at the German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring after he lost 1st and 2nd gears in his Alfa during an intense battle with Alberto Ascari. [20][17][18][19]

With the 1952 World Championship being run to Formula Two specifications, Alfa Romeo did not have a car for the new formula and were unable to use their supercharged Alfettas, so they withdrew. As a result, the defending champion found himself without a car for the first race of the championship and remained absent from F1 until June, when he drove the British BRM V16 in non-championship F1 races at the public road circuits at Albi in France and Dundrod in Northern Ireland. Fangio had agreed to drive for Maserati in a non-championship race at Monza the day after the Dundrod race, but having missed a connecting flight he decided to drive through the night on pre-motorway mountain roads through the Alps from Lyon, arriving half an hour before the start. Arriving at Monza at 2 p.m., he was badly fatigued and with the race starting at 2:30 p.m., Fangio started the race from the back of the grid but lost control on the second lap, crashed into a grass bank, and was thrown out of the car as it flipped end over end, smashing through trees. He was taken to a hospital in Milan with multiple injuries, the most serious being a broken neck, and spent the rest of 1952 recovering in Argentina.[17][19] Nino Farina, who had won the race, visited Fangio in hospital and gifted him with the winner's laurel wreath.

Maserati and sports car racing successes

In Europe, and back to full racing fitness in 1953, Fangio rejoined Maserati for the championship season, and against the dominant Ferraris led by Ascari he took a lucky win at Monza. Fangio's car had a bad vibration all throughout practice, and he offered the Maserati mechanics 10% of his winnings if they fixed the vibration; they did, and Fangio qualified second, and won the race, setting fastest lap and beating Nino Farina by just 1.4 seconds. Along with that win, Fangio secured three second-places to finish second in the Championship, and also came third first time out in the Targa Florio. He also competed and won one of 2 heats in the Albi Grand Prix, again with BRM and driving the fearsome and powerful Type 15, a car with a 600 hp supercharged V16 that was difficult to drive.

He also competed in one of the most dangerous and prestigious races in Europe: the Mille Miglia, a 1,000 miles (1,600 km) race on open public roads covering nearly all of northern Italy driving an Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM entered by the factory. The Mille Miglia and also another championship race in 1953, the Carrera Panamericana in Mexico were much like the races he competed in South America in the 1940s (except all the roads used in Italy and Mexico were paved). The Alfa team was expected to win, and after Farina, Karl Kling and Consalvo Sanesi all crashed, Fangio was leading when he reached Rome, pushing very hard from when he started in Brescia. Fangio then suffered left front steering arm failure near Bologna and only had consistent steering on the right front; this allowed Mille Miglia expert Giannino Marzotto to catch and beat Fangio by 12 minutes, even though the Argentine driver drove hard to keep up with Marzotto. He ended 1953 by winning the dauntingly dangerous and difficult 2,000 mi (3,200 km) Carrera Panamericana in Mexico driving a Lancia D24; Fangio was able to win this 5-day open public road rally that started at the Guatemala-Mexico border and ended at the Mexico-United States border in Ciudad Juarez, setting a new race time completion record of 18.5 hours (despite Fangio not winning a single stage), some 9 hours faster than the winner of the first event in 1950. The race was marred by multiple spectator fatalities, and the death of 50-year-old Felice Bonetto, like Fangio driving a works Lancia, on the third day of the competition in the town of Silao.[17][19][21]


Mercedes W196 F1 car in Buenos Aires
Mercedes W196 F1 car in Buenos Aires

In 1954 Fangio raced for Maserati until Mercedes-Benz entered competition in mid-season. He won his home Grand Prix in Buenos Aires and at Spa with the iconic 250F. Mercedes-Benz's first race was the French Grand Prix at the fast, straight dominated Reims public road circuit, and he won the race with the streamlined, closed-wheel W196 Monoposto- a car that although difficult to drive was ahead of its time. Fangio spent the race battling with teammate Karl Kling down Reims's long straights. Fangio failed to win at Silverstone, with the closed-wheel car designed for straight-line speed struggling at the high speed corner-dominated circuit. Fangio got the more nimble open-wheeled W196 for the Nürburgring, and won the race, as he did at Bremgarten and then at Monza, the latter with the streamlined car. Monza was a particularly brutal race in that Alberto Ascari had turned up with the new Lancia, and young British up-and-comer Stirling Moss in a private Maserati was also competitive during the race. Ascari and Moss both passed Fangio and raced each other hard until Ascari dropped out with engine problems. Moss's engine blew up near the end of the race and Fangio took victory. Winning eight out of twelve races (six out of eight in the championship) and winning his second championship in that year, he continued to race with Mercedes—driving a further developed W196 with improved performance in 1955 in a team that included Moss.

For 1955, Fangio subjected himself to a training programme which was strenuous in an effort to keep up his fitness levels high which was comparable to his younger rivals. He won a particularly brutal race at the Gran Premio de la República Argentina. This race was run in Buenos Aires during a gruelling 40 °C (104 °F) heat wave, and with track temperature of over 57 °C (135 °F) few drivers other than Fangio were able to complete the race. The W196's chassis had heated up and Fangio's right leg rubbed against the chassis structure, but even after receiving severe burns he kept going; it took him three months to recover from his injuries. 1955 also saw Fangio attempt the Mille Miglia again, this time without a navigator, driving a Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR. After leaving at 6:58 a.m., the car's advanced engine began developing problems when he got to Pescara. The Mercedes mechanics apparently found nothing, and sent him off. Fangio was losing time to Moss and Hans Herrmann, and when he got to Rome the engine was still not running smoothly. Again Fangio was sent away by the mechanics. And when he got to Florence, a few loud bangs were heard, so the mechanics raised the bonnet and they found that one of the fuel injection pipes had broken, so Fangio's 300 SLR was running on seven cylinders instead of eight; this could not be repaired and Fangio drove all the way back to Brescia with a misfiring engine, finishing in 2nd behind Moss. Fangio later surmised that Mercedes felt he could not win the race without a navigator so they did not put as much effort behind preparing his car as they did with the car of Moss, who had a navigator. At the end of the second successful season (which was overshadowed by the 1955 Le Mans disaster in which more than 80 spectators were killed, an accident which happened right in front of and nearly killed him) Mercedes withdrew from racing and after four attempts, Fangio never raced at Le Mans again.[22][17] A number of races were cancelled after this race except for Britain and Italy (which both already had circuits with new and updated safety facilities), which he finished in 2nd in the former and won the latter, allowing him to win his 3rd world championship. Mercedes's last race was the Targa Florio sportscar race, which Mercedes needed to win in order to beat Ferrari and Jaguar to the title; the German firm had skipped the first two races in Buenos Aires and Sebring, Florida. Fangio, driving with Kling finished 2nd to Moss and Peter Collins, allowing Mercedes to win the title by two points over Ferrari.

Last years with Ferrari and Maserati

In 1956 Fangio moved to Ferrari to win his fourth title. Neither Enzo Ferrari nor the Ferrari team manager Eraldo Sculati had a warm relationship with Fangio, despite their shared success with the very difficult-to-drive Ferrari-developed Lancia car. Fangio took over his teammate's cars after he suffered mechanical problems in three races, the Argentine, Monaco and Italian Grands Prix. In each case the points were shared between the two drivers. After the Monaco Grand Prix, where Fangio struggled with the ill-handling Lancia-Ferrari he asked Ferrari if he could have one mechanic exclusively for his car, as Ferrari did not have his mechanics assigned to any of the cars, as Mercedes had. Ferrari granted Fangio's request, and the performance of Fangio's car got a lot better. In addition to winning in Argentina, Fangio won the British and German Grand Prixs at Silverstone and the Nürburgring. At the season-ending Italian Grand Prix, Fangio's Ferrari teammate Peter Collins, who was in a position to win the World Championship with just 15 laps to go, handed over his car to Fangio. They shared the six points won for second place, giving Fangio the World title.[19]

"I have never driven that quickly before in my life and I don't think I will ever be able to do it again."

—Fangio after the 1957 German Grand Prix[23]

In 1957 Fangio returned to Maserati, who were still using the same iconic 250F which Fangio had driven at the start of 1954. Fangio started the season with a hat-trick of wins in Argentina, Monaco and France, before retiring with engine problems in Britain. He also won the 12 Hours of Sebring sportscar race in America driving a Maserati 450S with Jean Behra for the second year running. But at the Grand Prix after Britain, the German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring circuit, Fangio needed to extend his lead by six points to claim the title with two races to spare. From pole position Fangio dropped to third behind the Ferraris of Mike Hawthorn and Collins but managed to get past both by the end of the third lap. Fangio had started with half-full tanks since he expected that he would need new tyres halfway through the race. In the event Fangio pitted on lap 13 with a 30-second lead, but a disastrous stop left him back in third place and 50 seconds behind Collins and Hawthorn. Fangio came into his own, setting one fastest lap after another, culminating in a record-breaking time on lap 20 a full eleven seconds faster than the best the Ferraris could do. On the penultimate lap Fangio got back past both Collins and Hawthorn, and held on to take the win by just over three seconds.[24] With Musso finishing in fourth place, Fangio claimed his fifth title. This performance is often regarded as the greatest drive in Formula One history, and it was Fangio's last win.[17][18][19] Fangio's record of five championships remained unbroken until 2003, when Michael Schumacher won his sixth championship.

After his series of consecutive championships he retired in 1958, following the French Grand Prix. Such was the respect for Fangio that during that final race, race leader Hawthorn, who had lapped Fangio, braked as he was about to cross the line so that Fangio could complete the 50-lap distance in his final race; he crossed the line over two minutes down on Hawthorn. Getting out of the Maserati after the race, he said to his mechanic simply, "It is finished." He was famous for winning races at what he described as the slowest possible speed, in order to conserve the car to the finish. Cars in the 1940s and 1950s were unpredictable in their reliability, with almost any component susceptible to breaking. He won 24 World Championship Grands Prix, 22 outright and 2 shared with other drivers, from 52 entries – a winning percentage of 46.15%, the best in the sport's history (Alberto Ascari, who is second best, holds a winning percentage of 40.63%). Both drivers were already experienced Grand Prix drivers before the world championship started.[17][18]


President Fulgencio Batista of Cuba established the non-Formula One Cuban Grand Prix in Havana in 1957. Fangio won the 1957 event, and had set fastest times during practice for the 1958 race. On 23 February 1958, two gunmen of Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement entered the Hotel Lincoln in Havana and kidnapped Fangio. Batista ordered the race to continue as usual while a crack team of police hunted down the kidnappers. They set up roadblocks at intersections, and guards were assigned to private and commercial airports and to all competing drivers.[25][26][27]

Fangio was taken to three separate houses. His captors allowed him to listen to the race via radio, bringing a television for him to witness reports of a disastrous crash after the race concluded. In the third house, Fangio was allowed his own bedroom but became convinced that a guard was standing outside of the bedroom door at all hours. The captors talked about their revolutionary programme which Fangio had not wished to speak about as he did not have an interest in politics. He later said "Well, this is one more adventure. If what the rebels did was in a good cause, then I, as an Argentine, accept it."[27] He was released after 29 hours, and remained a good friend of his captors afterwards.[28][29]

The captors' motives were to force the cancellation of the race in an attempt to embarrass the Batista regime. After Fangio was handed over to the Argentine embassy soon after the race, many Cubans were convinced that Batista was losing his power because he failed to track the captors down. The Cuban Revolution took over the government in January 1959, and the 1959 Cuban Grand Prix was cancelled. The Fangio kidnapping was dramatized in a 1999 Argentine film directed by Alberto Lecchi, Operación Fangio.[27][30][31][32]

Later life and death

Juan Manuel Fangio driving a Mercedes-Benz W196 in the 1986 Oldtimer Grand Prix at the Nürburgring
Juan Manuel Fangio driving a Mercedes-Benz W196 in the 1986 Oldtimer Grand Prix at the Nürburgring

When Fangio attended the 1958 Indianapolis 500, he was offered $20,000 to qualify in a Kurtis-Offenhauser by the car's owner, George Walther, Jr (father of future Indy 500 driver Salt Walther). Fangio had previously attended the 500 in 1948 at which time he expressed his interest in competing the race. However, he was unable to qualify with a car that did not work properly. Walther allowed Fangio to stand aside (before a contract with British Petroleum came to light), still he did not want another driver to take over Fangio's position.[33]

During the rest of his life after retiring from racing Fangio sold Mercedes-Benz cars, often driving his former racing cars in demonstration laps. Even before he joined the Mercedes Formula One team, in the mid-1950s, Fangio had acquired the Argentine Mercedes concession. He was appointed President of Mercedes-Benz Argentina in 1974, and its Honorary President for Life in 1987.

Fangio was also the flagman for the 1975 Winston 500 (NASCAR race), and was the flagman for the Argentine Grand Prix when it was run from 1972 to 1981.

Fangio was the special guest of the 50th anniversary 1978 Australian Grand Prix at the Sandown Raceway in Melbourne (7 years before the Australian Grand Prix became a round of the World Championship in 1985). After awarding the Lex Davison Trophy to race winner Graham McRae (who stated that meeting Fangio was a bigger thrill than actually winning the race for the 3rd time), the legendary Argentinian drove his 1954 and 1955 World Championship-winning Mercedes-Benz W196 in a spirited 3 lap exhibition against 3 other cars, including the 1966 World Championship winning Brabham BT19 driven by Australia's own triple World Champion Jack Brabham. Despite his car having been given away over 10 years previously to the Repco Brabham, Fangio pushed the Australian all the way to the flag. Before the "race", Fangio (who at 67 years of age and not having raced competitively in 20 years, still held a full FIA Super Licence) had stated his intention of racing and not just putting in a demonstration drive.[34]

At the beginning of the 1980s, Fangio underwent successful bypass surgery to correct a heart condition.[35] He had also been suffering from kidney failure for some time before his death.[9]

In 1980 Konex Foundation granted him the Diamond Konex Award as the best Sportsman of the decade in Argentina. In 1981 Fangio travelled to Monza for the Italian Grand Prix, where he was reunited with his Tipo 159 Alfa Romeo from 1951 and the 1954 Lancia for a couple of demonstrative laps. For the event Fangio was joined by old friends and fellow racers, uncluding Toulo de Graffenried, Luigi Villoresi and Giorgio Scarlatti as well as former Alfa Romeo managers from the 1950s Paolo Marzotto and Battista Guidotti. D50[36]

Following his retirement, Fangio was active in assembling automotive memorabilia associated with his racing career. This led to the creation of the Museo Juan Manuel Fangio, which opened in Balcarce in 1986.[37]

Fangio was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1990. He returned to the spotlight in 1994, when he publicly opposed a new Province of Buenos Aires law denying driving licences to those over 80 (which included Fangio). Denied a renewal of his card, Fangio reportedly challenged Traffic Bureau personnel to a race between Buenos Aires and seaside Mar del Plata (a 400 km (250 mi) distance) in two hours or less, following which an exception was made for the five-time champion.[38]

In 1990, Fangio met the three-time world champion, Ayrton Senna, who had genuinely felt the encounter had reflected the mutual affection for both drivers.[39]

Juan Manuel Fangio died in Buenos Aires in 1995, at the age of 84 from kidney failure and pneumonia; he was buried in his home town of Balcarce. His pallbearers were his younger brother Ruben Renato ("Toto"), Stirling Moss, compatriot racers José Froilán González and Carlos Reutemann, Jackie Stewart and the president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina at the time.[40]

Private life

Andrea Berruet congratulates Fangio after his victory in the 1957 German Grand Prix
Andrea Berruet congratulates Fangio after his victory in the 1957 German Grand Prix

In the early 1950s, Fangio was involved in a road accident when he was forced to swerve to avoid an oncoming truck. The car, a Lancia Aurelia GT clipped a pole, spinning twice and threw Fangio out, which led him to sustain grazed elbows. One passenger stated the incident was the first time Fangio had been so terrified.[41]

Fangio was never married, but was involved in a romantic relationship with Andrea Berruet with whom he broke up in 1960. They had a son named Oscar Cacho Espinosa who was acknowledged as the unrecognised son of Fangio in 2000.[42] In July 2015, an Argentine court ruling ordered exhumation of Fangio's body after Espinosa's claims to be the unacknowledged son of the former race car driver.[43] In December 2015, the Court confirmed that Espinosa was indeed Fangio's son.[44] In February 2016, it was confirmed that Rubén Vázquez is Fangio's son.[45]

His nephew, Juan Manuel Fangio II, is also a successful racing driver.


The website states of Fangio: "Many consider him to be the greatest driver of all time."[46] Several highly successful later drivers, such as Jim Clark, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna, Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton have been compared with Fangio,[citation needed] even as the qualities required for success, levels of competition, and racing rules have changed over time.

"You must always strive to be the best, but you must never believe that you are."

—Juan Manuel Fangio[47]

His record of five World Championship titles stood for 45 years before German driver Michael Schumacher surpassed it in 2003. Schumacher said, "Fangio is on a level much higher than I see myself. What he did stands alone and what we have achieved is also unique. I have such respect for what he achieved. You can't take a personality like Fangio and compare him with what has happened today. There is not even the slightest comparison."[48][49] When Lewis Hamilton equaled Fangio's five titles in 2018 he praised Fangio calling him the "Godfather of our sport"[50]

In October 2020, The Economist ranked champion drivers by the relative importance of car quality to driver skill.[51] According to this ranking, Fangio is Formula 1's best driver of all time. In November 2020, Carteret Analytics used quantitative analysis methods to rank Formula One drivers. According to this ranking, Fangio is Formula 1's best driver of all time.[52]

In his home country of Argentina, Fangio is revered as one of the greatest sportsmen the nation has ever produced. Argentines often refer to him as El Maestro, el mejor,[53][54] which translates into The Master, the best one.

"What he did in his time is something that was an example of professionalism, of courage, of style and as a man, a human being. Every year there is a winner of the championship, but not necessarily a world champion. I think Fangio is the example of a true world champion"

—Ayrton Senna[55]

The first Michel Vaillant story was partly based on an imaginary conflict stirred up by fictional newspaper The New Indian on Fangio winning the World Championship at the Indy 500.

Six statues of Fangio, sculpted by Catalan artist Joaquim Ros Sabaté, stand at race venues around the world: Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires; Monte Carlo, Monaco; Montmeló, Spain; Nürburgring, Germany; Stuttgart-Untertürkheim, Germany; and Monza, Italy.

The Museo Juan Manuel Fangio was established in Balcarce (Fangio's birthplace) in 1986.

Argentina's largest oil company, Repsol YPF, launched the "Fangio XXI" gas brand. The Zonda 2005 C12 F was originally intended to be named "Fangio F1," but was changed out of respect after his death.[citation needed] Maserati created a special website in 2007 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of his fifth and final world championship triumph.[56] A Mercedes-Benz W196R Formula 1 race car, driven by Fangio in his World Championship-qualifying Grand Prix races in 1954 and 1955 was sold for a record $30 million at an auction in England on 12 July 2013.[57]

Racing record

Career highlights

Season Series Position Team Car
1940 Turismo Carretera Argentina[58] 1st Chevrolet Cupé
Gran Premio Internacional del Norte[59] 1st Chevrolet 40 Cupé
1941 Turismo Carretera Argentina[58] 1st Chevrolet Cupé
Gran Premio "Getulio Vargas" Brasil[59] 1st Chevrolet 40 Cupé
Mil Millas Argentinas[59] 1st Chevrolet 40 Cupé
1947 Premios Primavera Mecánica Argentine[59] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Premio de Mecánica Argentina[59] 1st Ford-Chevrolet T
Premio de Mecánica Rioplatense[59] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Turismo Carretera Argentina[59] 3rd Chevrolet Cupé Model 39
Gran Premio de Buenos Aires[59] 3rd Ford-Chevrolet T
Gran Premio de Vendima[59] 3rd Ford-Chevrolet T
1948 Premio Doble vuelta Ciudad de Coronel Pringles[59] 1st Chevrolet Cupé
Gran Premio Otoño[59] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Gran Premio Ciudad de Mercedes[59] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Premio Cien Millas Playas de Necochea[59] 3rd Volpi-Chevrolet
Turismo Carretera Argentina[59] 4th Chevrolet Cupé
1949 Premio Jean Pierre Wimille[60] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Gran Premio Mar del Plata[60] 1st Maserati 4CLT/48
Premio Fraile Muerto[60] 1st Volpi-Chevrolet
Gran Premio di San Remo[60] 1st Scuderia Achille Varzi Maserati 4CLT/48
Grand Prix de Pau[60] 1st Maserati 4CLT/48
Grand Prix du Roussillon[60] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Grand Prix de Marseille[61] 1st Scuderia Achille Varzi Simca-Gordini T15
Gran Premio dell'Autodromo di Monza[62] 1st A.C.A. Achille Varzi Ferrari 166
Gran Premio Internacional San Martín[63] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Grand Prix de l'Albigeois[64] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Gran Premio de Eva Duarte Perón[63] 2nd Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Gran Premio del General Juan Perón y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[63] 2nd Automóvil Club Argentino Ferrari 166
Turismo Carretera Argentina[60] 3rd Chevrolet Cupé
1950 Grand Prix de Pau[65] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Gran Premio di San Remo[66] 1st Scuderia Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo 158
Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco[67] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Grand Prix d'Angoulême[68] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48
Grote Prijs van Belgie[69] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Grand Prix de l'A.C.F.[70] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Grand Prix des Nations[71] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Circuito di Pescara[72] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Gran Premio de Paraná[73] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Ferrari 166 FL
Gran Premio del Presidente Alessandri[73] 1st Automóvil Club Argentino Ferrari 166 FL
500 Millas de Rafaele[74] 1st Anthony Lago Talbot-Lago T26C
Formula One World Championship[75] 2nd Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Gran Premio di Bari[76] 2nd Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Daily Express BRDC International Trophy[72] 2nd Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158
Grand Prix de Marseilles[77] 3rd Scuderia Achille Varzi Ferrari 166 F2
Mille Miglia[78] 3rd Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Competitzione Berlinetta
1951 Formula One World Championship[79] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159
Großer Preis der Schweiz[80] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159A
Grand Prix de l'A.C.F.,[81] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159A
Gran Premio di Bari[82] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159A
Gran Premio de España[83] 1st Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159M
RAC British Grand Prix[84] 2nd Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159B
Großer Preis von Deutschland[85] 2nd Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159B
Gran Premio del General Juan Perón y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[86] 3rd Daimler-Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W154
1952 Grande Prêmio de Interlagos[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
Grande Prêmio da Qunita da Boa Vista[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
Gran Premio del General Juan Perón y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
Gran Premio Maria Eva Duarte de Perón y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
Gran Premio de Uruguay[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
Gran Premio de Montvideo[87] 1st A.C.A. Ferrari 166 FL
1953 Vues des Aples[88] 1st Maserati A6GCM/53
Gran Premio d'Italia[89] 1st Officine Alfieri Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Gran Premio di Modena[90] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Supercortemaggiore[91] 1st Scuderia Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM Spider
Carrera Panamericana[92] 1st Scuderia Lancia Lancia D24 Pininfarina
Formula One World Championship[93] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Mille Miglia[94] 2nd SP.A. Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM
Gran Premio di Napoli[95] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Grand Prix de l'ACF[96] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Daily Express Trophy[97] 2nd Owen Racing Organisation BRM Type 15
RAC British Grand Prix[98] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Großer Preis von Deutschland[99] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM/53
Woodcote Cup[100] 2nd Owen Racing Organisation BRM Type 15
Grand Prix de Bordeaux[101] 3rd Equipe Gordini Gordini T16
Targa Florio[102] 3rd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCS/53
1954 Formula One World Championship[103] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati
Daimler Benz AG
Maserati A6SSG
Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio de la Republica Argentina[104] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6SSG
Grand Prix de Belgique[105] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Grand Prix de I'ACF[106] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Großer Preis von Deutschland[107] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Großer Preis der Schweiz[108] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio d'Italia[109] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
RAC Tourist Trophy[110] 2nd Scuderia Lancia Lancia D24
Grosser Preis von Berlin[111] 2nd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio de España[112] 3rd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
1955 Formula One World Championship[113] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio de la Republica Argentina[114] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[115] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Internationales ADAC-Eifel-Rennen Nürburgring[116] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
Grote Prijs van Belgie[117] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Grote Prijs van Nederland[118] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Sveriges Grand Prix[119] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
Gran Premio d'Italia[120] 1st Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
Gran Premio de Venezuela[121] 1st Equipo Maserati Maserati 300S
Mille Miglia[122] 2nd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
RAC British Grand Prix[123] 2nd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196
RAC Tourist Trophy[124] 2nd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
Targa Florio[125] 2nd Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR
1956 Formula One World Championship[126] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Lancia-Ferrari D50
Ferrari D50
Gran Premio de la Republica Argentina[127] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Lancia-Ferrari D50
Gran Premio de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[128] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Lancia-Ferrari D50
Florida International Grand Prix of Endurance powered by Amoco[129] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 860 Monza
Gran Premio di Siracusa[115] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Lancia-Ferrari D50
RAC British Grand Prix[130] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari D50
Großer Preis von Deutschland[131] 1st Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari D50
Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco[132] 2nd Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari D50
Internationales ADAC 1000 Kilometer Rennen auf dem Nürburgring[133] 2nd Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 860 Monza
Gran Premio d'Italia[134] 2nd Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari D50
Gran Premio de Venezuela[135] 2nd Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 860 Monza
Supercortemaggiore[136] 3rd Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 500 Mondial
1957 Formula One World Championship[137] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Gran Premio de la Republica Argentina[138] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Gran Premio de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[139] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Gran Premio de Cuba[140] 1st Scuderia Madunina Maserati 300S
12-Hour Florida International Grand Prix of Endurance for The Amoco Trophy[141] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 450S
Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco[142] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Circuito de Monsanto[143] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 300S
Grand Prix de l'ACF[144] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Großer Preis von Deutschland[145] 1st Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Gran Premio de Interlagos[146] 1st Maserati 300S
Gran Premio de Bos Vista[146] 1st Maserati 300S
Gran Premio di Pescara[147] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
Gran Premio d'Italia[148] 2nd Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F
1958 Gran Premio de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires[149] 1st Scuderia Sud Americana Maserati 250F
Formula One World Championship[149] 14th Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F

Post-WWII Grandes Épreuves results


Year Entrant Chassis Engine 1 2 3 4 5
1948 Equipe Gordini Simca Gordini T11 Simca-Gordini 1.4 L4 MON SUI FRA
1949 Automóvil Club Argentino Maserati 4CLT/48 Maserati 4CLT 1.5 L4 s GBR BEL

Complete Formula One World Championship results

(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position; races in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Entrant Chassis Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 WDC Pts[1]
1950 Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 158 Alfa Romeo 158 1.5 L8 s GBR
500 SUI
2nd 27
1951 Alfa Romeo SpA Alfa Romeo 159 Alfa Romeo 158 1.5 L8 s SUI
500 BEL
1st 31
1953 Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati A6GCM Maserati A6 2.0 L6 ARG
500 NED
2nd 28
(29 12)
1954 Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F Maserati 250F1 2.5 L6 ARG
500 BEL
1st 42
(57 17)
Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196 Mercedes M196 2.5 L8 FRA
1955 Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz W196 Mercedes M196 2.5 L8 ARG
500 BEL
1st 40
1956 Scuderia Ferrari Lancia-Ferrari D50 Ferrari DS50 2.5 V8 ARG
500 BEL
1st 30
1957 Officine Alfieri Maserati Maserati 250F Maserati 250F1 2.5 L6 ARG
500 FRA
1st 40
1958 Scuderia Sud Americana Maserati 250F Maserati 250F1 2.5 L6 ARG
MON NED 14th 7
Novi Auto Air Conditioner Kurtis Kraft 500F Novi 3.0 L8 s 500
Juan Manuel Fangio Maserati 250F Maserati 250F1 2.5 L6 BEL FRA

* Shared drive.

Car ran with streamlined, full-width bodywork.

Formula One records

Fangio holds the following Formula One records:

Highest percentage of wins 46.15% (24 wins out of 52 entries)
Highest percentage of pole positions 55.8% (29 pole positions out of 52 entries)
Highest percentage of front row starts 92.31% (48 front row starts out of 52 entries)
Oldest World Champion 46 years, 41 days (1957)
World Champion with most teams 4 teams (Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes and Maserati)

Complete 24 Hours of Le Mans results

Year Team Co-Drivers Car Class Laps Pos. Class
1950 France Automobiles Gordini Argentina José Froilán González Gordini T15S S3.0 95 DNF DNF
1951 France Louis Rosier France Louis Rosier Talbot-Lago T26C S5.0 92 DNF DNF
1953 Italy S.P.A. Alfa Romeo Argentina Onofre Marimón Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM S5.0 22 DNF DNF
1955 West Germany Daimler Benz AG United Kingdom Stirling Moss Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR S3.0 134 DNF DNF

Complete 12 Hours of Sebring results

Year Team Co-Drivers Car Class Laps Pos. Class
1954 Italy Scuderia Lancia Co. Italy Eugenio Castellotti Lancia D24 S5.0 51 DNF DNF
1956 Italy Scuderia Ferrari Italy Eugenio Castellotti Ferrari 860 Monza S5.0 194 1st 1st
1957 Italy Maserati Factory France Jean Behra Maserati 450S S5.0 197 1st 1st

Complete 24 Hours of Spa

Year Team Co-Drivers Car Class Laps Pos. Class
1953 Italy S.P.A. Alfa Romeo Italy Consalvo Sanesi Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM Spider S 5 DNF DNF

Complete Mille Miglia results

Year Team Co-Drivers/Navigator Car Class Pos. Class
1950 Italy Augusto Zanardi Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 Competizione S+2.0 3rd 3rd
1952 Italy Giulio Sala Alfa Romeo 1900 Sprint GT2.0 22nd 7th
1953 Italy S.P.A. Alfa Romeo Italy Giulio Sala Alfa Romeo 6C 3000 CM S+2.0 2nd 2nd
1955 West Germany Daimler Benz AG Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR S+2.0 2nd 2nd
1956 Italy Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 290 MM S+2.0 4th 4th

Complete Carrera Panamericana results

Year Team Co-Drivers/Navigator Car Class Pos. Class
1953 Italy Scuderia Lancia Italy Gino Bronzoni Lancia D24 Pinin Farina S+1.6 1st 1st

Indianapolis 500 results

Year Chassis Engine Start Finish Team
1958 Kurtis Kraft Novi DNQ Novi Auto Air Conditioner

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Up until 1990, not all points scored by a driver contributed to their final World Championship tally (see list of points scoring systems for more information). Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; numbers in parentheses are total points scored.
  2. ^ "Juan Manuel FANGIO". Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Statistics Drivers - Wins - By number". Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Statistics Drivers - Wins - By national GP". Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Grands Prix Argentina". Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  6. ^ Donaldson 2003, p. 7-8.
  7. ^ "F1 Fanatics: Juan Manuel Fangio". 31 January 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Biography -First Part 1911-1936". Museo Fangio. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Tremayne, David (18 July 1995). "Obituaries: Juan Manuel Fangio". The Independent.
  10. ^ "Juan Manuel Fangio – Developed Childhood Interest in Cars". Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  11. ^ "Juan Manuel Fangio – Pieced Together Own Race Car". Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  12. ^ a b Donaldson 2003, p. 14-15.
  13. ^ a b "Part Two (1937–1942)". Argentina: Foundation Fangio. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  14. ^ "Part Three (1943–1949)". Argentina: Foundation Fangio. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  15. ^ "Motorsport Memorial -".
  16. ^ Rendall, Ivan (1995) [1993]. The Chequered Flag: 100 years of motor racing. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 166. ISBN 0-297-83550-5.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "Juan-Manuel Fangio – Biography".
  18. ^ a b c d "Juan Manuel Fangio". ESPN UK.
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Juan-Manuel Fangio Profile - Drivers - GP Encyclopedia - F1 History on".
  20. ^ Jones, Hill 1995, p. 16.
  21. ^ "Lancia Wins Big Road Race". Townsville Daily Bulletin. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  22. ^ Donaldson 2003.
  23. ^ "MASERATI AND FANGIO F1 WORLD CHAMPIONS IN 1957". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  24. ^ Edsall, Larry. "Maserati celebrates 60th anniversary of Eldorado racer". The Classic Cars Journal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Cuba Rebels Kidnap Champ Race Driver". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 24 February 1958. p. 1.
  26. ^ "Cuban Rebels Kidnap Argentine Auto Racer". The Newburgh News. 24 February 1958. p. 1.
  27. ^ a b c "Kidnapped in Cuba". ESPN UK.
  28. ^ "Rebels let Fangio see crash on TV". The Bulletin. 26 February 1958. p. 2.
  29. ^ "Fangio Released by Rebels 'Treated Very Well'". The Glasgow Herald. 26 February 1958. p. 7.
  30. ^ "Rebels Free Fangio; Foul Play is Cry in Tragic Cuban Auto Race". The Portsmouth Times. 25 February 1958. p. 1.
  31. ^ "Fangio Kidnapping Convinces Many Batista Powerless". The Free Lance-Star. 26 February 1958. p. 2.
  32. ^ "Operación Fangio" (in Spanish). Cine Nacional. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  33. ^ Davidson, Shaffer 2006, p. 144.
  34. ^ edisjasarevic (13 October 2006). "Fangio vs Brabham, 1978". Retrieved 8 December 2017 – via YouTube.
  35. ^ "Juan Manuel Fangio". Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  36. ^ "Monza moments". Motor Sport.
  37. ^ "Op bezoek bij Juan Manuel Fangio: de mythe". Autovisie. 1991 nr 1: 44–51. 5 January 1991.
  38. ^ "La Nación: Cuándo los mayores no deben manejar" (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  39. ^ "Biography of Juan Manuel Fangio (1985–1995 Part Six)" (in Spanish). Museo Fangio. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  40. ^ Donaldson, Gerald (2003). Fangio: The Life Behind the Legend. London: Virgin Books. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-7535-1827-4.
  41. ^ "Fangio gives Sandown crowd a treat". The Age. 13 September 1978. p. 54.
  42. ^ «Un hijo no reconocido de Fangio vive en Cañuelas Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine» InfoCañuelas, 17 de noviembre de 2009. Consultado el 19 de febrero de 2011.
  43. ^ Exhumarán el cadáver de Juan Manuel Fangio Archived 12 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine – La Prensa (in Spanish)
  44. ^ Confirman que "Cacho" Espinosa es hijo de Fangio – Clarín (in Spanish).
  45. ^ Confirmaron que Rubén Vázquez es hijo de Fangio – Cuatro Cuatro Dos (in Spanish).
  46. ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Juan Manuel Fangio". Formula One. Retrieved 28 May 2018. Many consider him to be the greatest driver of all time.
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Further reading

  • Gerald Donaldson. Fangio: The Life Behind the Legend. Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0753518274
  • Karl Ludvigsen. Juan Manuel Fangio: Motor Racing's Grand Master. Haynes Manuals Inc. ISBN 978-1859606254
  • Pierre Menard & Jacques Vassal. Juan-Manuel Fangio: The Race in the Blood. Chronosports. ISBN 978-2847070453

External links

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