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Darul Uloom Deoband
Darul Uloom Deoband

Deobandi (Pashto and Persian: دیوبندی‎; Urdu: دیوبندی‎; Arabic: الديوبندية‎; Bengali: দেওবন্দি; Hindi: देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni, (primarily Hanafi), Islam[1] that formed around the Darul Uloom Islamic seminary in the town of Deoband, India, where the name derives from, during the late nineteenth century.[2] The seminary was established by Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and several other figures in 1867, in the wake of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a decade earlier.[3][4][2] The movement is centered mainly in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh; has spread to the United Kingdom; and has a presence in South Africa.[5]


The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism which was seen by a group of Indian scholars—consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi—to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband,[6] where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop.[7] In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat, the Deobandi ideology began to spread. From the early 1980s to 2000s, it was influenced by Wahhabism, due to fundings by Saudi Arabia.[8][9]

Towards the time of the Indian independence movement, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British.[10]

In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the partition of India.[10] Deobandi scholar Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani helped to spread these ideas through his text Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam.[10] A minority group later dissented from this position and joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League, forming the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945.[11]

Graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband in India from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China and Malaysia opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world.[12]:33


In India

The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. Only 20% of Indian Muslims identify as Deobandi.[13] Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent.[14][15][16][17]

In Pakistan

An estimated 15-25 percent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims consider themselves Deobandi.[18][19] According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement.[20] Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith.[20] Many Deobandi schools in Pakistan teach Wahhabi principles.[21]

In the United Kingdom

In the 1970s, Deobandis opened the first British-based Muslim religious seminaries (Dar ul-Ulooms), educating Imams and religious scholars.[22] Deobandis "have been quietly meeting the religious and spiritual needs of a significant proportion of British Muslims, and are perhaps the most influential British Muslim group."[22] In 2015 Ofsted highlighted the Deobandi seminary in Holcombe as a good example of a school "promoting British values, preventing radicalisation and protecting children".[23] The journalist, Andrew Norfolk, did not agree with this assessment.[24]

According to a 2007 report by Andrew Norfolk, published in The Times, about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to "shed blood" for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which The Times said had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries.[25] An opinion column in The Guardian described this report as "a toxic mixture of fact, exaggeration and outright nonsense."[26]

In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain’s mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group.[27]

Most Muslim prison chaplaincies in Britain are Deobandi, and in 2016 Michael Spurr (chief executive of the National Offender Management Service) wrote to Britain's prison governors bringing to their attention that Ofsted had said that "the UK’s most influential Deobandi seminary promotes 'fundamental British values such as democracy, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance for those of different faiths'."[24] Andrew Norfolk did not agree with this assessement.[24]


The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762).

Fiqh (Islamic law)

Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid. In other words, they believe that a Deobandi must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism.[28] They themselves claims the followers of the Hanafi school along with Wahhabism.[29][30] Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani.[31]

With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i-Hadith, also known as the Ghair Muqallid, the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith.[32] They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling.[33] Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith.[34]

In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed.[35] In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence.


In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology.[29][36][37] Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi scholar Najm al-Din 'Umar al-Nasafi.[38]

Sufism and Wahhabism

Deobandis oppose traditional Sufi practices such as the celebration of birth of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, the celebration of Urs, pilgrimage to the shrines of Sufi saints, practice of Sema, loud dhikr, and seeking help from the Muslim prophet Muhammad.[39][40][41][42] Nonetheless, some Deobandi leaders incorporate elements of Sufism into their practices. Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic scriptures (Qur'an, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the legal practice of Islam, as understood by scholars of the movement.[6]

According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib — the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband who died in 1983 — "the Ulema of Deoband ... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti [a Sufi order] .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya, Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya Sufi orders.”[37][43][44][45]

Arshad Madani, an influential Deobandi scholar and leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, on the other hand rejected Sufism and said, "Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? This is a thing for those who don't know Quran and Hadith." Madani also said "Sufism is nothing."[46]

A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi studied under the Sufi shaykh, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, although he differed in his views in many ways.[47] Rashid Ahmad Gangohi's Fatawa-yi Rashidiyya opposed traditional Sufi practices such as loud dhikr, visiting the tombs of Sufi saints, celebrating Urs, visualizing a Sufi leader (tasawwuf-i shaykh), reciting the Fatihah on special occasions, and engaging in Sema.[41]

Darul Uloom Deoband's conservatism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with Wahhabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there.[12]:34


A founder of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi stated that God has the ability to lie.[48] This doctrine is called Imkan-i Kizb.[49][48] It is a central doctrine of the Deobandi movement. According to this doctrine God's omnipotence is linked with his ability to lie.[49]

Rashid Ahmad Gangohi supported the doctrine that God has the ability to make prophets equal to Muhammad (Imkan-i Nazir), but states that God chooses not to.[48][50][51]

Deobandi scholars like Rashid Ahmad Gangohi have opposed the Sufi doctrine that Muhammad has knowledge of the unseen (ilm e ghaib).[48][50][51] This belief of the Deobandis conflicts with traditional Sufi views of Muhammad having unparalled and unequal knowledge that encompasses the unseen realm.[48][50]

Subdivisions of Deoband

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Deobandi organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Mufti Kifayatullah who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years.[52] The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.[53]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement.[54] The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan.[55] The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.


Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu: مجلس احرارلأسلام‎), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founders of the party.[56] The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party.[57][page needed] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and against establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as criticism of the Ahmadiyya movement.[58] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[vague], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.

Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat, a non political Deobandi missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement.[59] Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Deobandi Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 200 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, a particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed by the movement of Tabligi jamaat.[60]

Associated political organizations

Associated militant organizations


Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (Army of Jhangvi) was a Deobandi militant organization. Formed in 1996, it operated in Pakistan as an offshoot of Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors.[61] The group, now practically defunct since the successful Operation Zarb-e-Azab, is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States.,[62] It was involved in attacks on civilians and protectors of them.[63][64] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi.[65] The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat.[66]


The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban,[67] is an Islamic fundamentalist political and militant movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law.[68] While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law,[69] the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan,[12]:34 and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism.[70] Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation.[71] The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women.[72][73]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.[74][75] Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan.[74][75][76]

The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun.[76][77]


Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.[78][79] The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997.[78][79] In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad."[80] A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization."[81]

Notable institutions

United Kingdom

South Africa

United States and Canada



Contemporary Deobandis

  • Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Pakistan - Vice-President of Dar al-Ulum Karachi, Former judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh Academy of the OIC, leading scholar of Islamic Finance,[104] and often considered to be a leading scholar and figurehead of the Deobandi movement.[105]
  • Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Pakistan - (Current Grand Mufti of Pakistan) and President and senior lecturer of Dar al-Ulum Karachi.[106]
  • Ebrahim Desai, South Africa - Mufti and senior lecturer at Madrasa Inaamiyyah in Camperdown, and head of the popular online fatwa website,[93]
  • Haji Abdulwahab - former (Amir of Tablighi Jamaat Pakistan Chapter)[107]
  • Yusuf Motala, UK - Founder and senior lecturer at Dar al-Ulum Bury, one of the oldest Deobandi Madrasas in the West; "He is a scholar's scholar - many of the United Kingdom's young Deobandi scholars have studied under his patronage."[108]
  • Allama Khalid Mahmood, UK - He is the founder and Director of The Islamic Academy of Manchester [109] which was established in 1974. He served formerly as a Professor at Murray College Sialkot and also at MAO College Lahore. He obtained a PhD in Comparative Religion from University of Birmingham in 1970. He has authored over 50 books, and has served as the Justice of Supreme court of Pakistan (Shariat Appellate Bench).[110]
  • Tariq Jameel, Pakistan - Prominent scholar and preacher from the Tablighi Jama'at.[111]

See also


  1. ^ Commins, David (2009), The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia, I.B.Tauris, pp. 138–139, ISBN 978-0-85773-135-7
  2. ^ a b Asthana, N.C.; Nirmal, Anjali (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Shashi Jain for Pointer Publishers. p. 66. ISBN 9788171325986. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  3. ^ Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi Critique of Sufism, p 478.
  4. ^ Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1991) [1st. pub. 1965]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume I (C-G). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 205. ISBN 9004070265.
  5. ^ Muslim Schools and Education in Europe and South Africa. Waxmann. 2011. pp. 85ff. ISBN 9783830975540. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  6. ^ a b Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p 626. ISBN 0521779332
  7. ^ The Six Great Ones at Darul Uloom Deoband
  8. ^ Lloyd RidgeonSufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age Bloomsbury Publishing, 23.04.2015 ISBN 9781472532237 p. 191
  9. ^ Youssef Aboul-Enein Militant Islamist Ideology: Understanding the Global Threat Naval Institute Press, 15.01.2011 ISBN 9781612510156 p. 223
  10. ^ a b c Ali, Asghar (9 April 2011). "Islamic identity in secular India". The Milli Gazette. The Ulama of Deoband opposed partition and stood by united nationalism. Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, then chief of Jami’at-ul-Ulama-i-Hind, wrote a tract Muttahida Qaumiyyat aur Islam i.e., the Composite Nationalism and Islam justifying composite nationalism in the light of Qur’an and hadith and opposing Muslim League’s separate nationalism. While the educated elite were aspiring for power and hence wanted their exclusive domain; the Ulama’s priority was an independent India where they could practice Islam without fear or hindrance.
  11. ^ A History of Pakistan and Its Origins By Christophe Jaffrelot page 224
  12. ^ a b c Abbas, Tahir (1 March 2011). Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1136959608. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  13. ^ US Mission in India (2 February 2010), Indian Islam: Deobandi-Barelvi tension changing mainstream Islam in India, Wikileaks
  14. ^ M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-579560-1.
  15. ^ Sharma, Sudhindra (2006). "Lived Islam in Nepal". In Ahmad, Imtiaz; Reifeld, Helmut (eds.). Lived Islam in South Asia: Adaptation, Accommodation, and Conflict. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 81-87358-15-7.
  16. ^ N. C. Asthana; Anjali Nirmal (2009). Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities. Jaipur: Aavishkar Publishers. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6.
  17. ^ Alam, Arshad (2015), "Islam and religious pluralism in India", in Sonia Sikka (ed.), Living with Religious Diversity, Routledge, pp. 51–52, ISBN 978-1-317-37099-4
  18. ^ John Pike. "Barelvi Islam". Retrieved 29 April 2013.
    "By one estimate, in Pakistan, the Shias are 18%, Ismailis 2%, Ahmediyas 2%, Barelvis 50%, Deobandis 20%, Ahle Hadith 4%, and other minorities 4%... By another estimate some 15 per cent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims would consider themselves Deobandi, and some 60 per cent, are in the Barelvi tradition based mostly in the province of Punjab."
  19. ^ Bedi, Rohan (April 2006), Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions? (PDF), Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, p. 3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013.
    This estimates that 15% of Pakistani Muslims are Deobandi and 20% Shia, which equates to about 19% of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims being Deobandi.
  20. ^ a b Sareen, Sushant (2005). The Jihad Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications. p. 282. ISBN 9788124110751.
  21. ^ Valentine, Simon (9 January 2015). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 248. ISBN 9781849046152. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  22. ^ a b Ahmed, Abdul-Azim (12 August 2016), "Who are Britain's Muslims?", On Religion magazine
  23. ^ The Annual Report of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills 2014/15 (PDF), House of Commons, 1 December 2015, pp. 95–96 Alternative URL.
  24. ^ a b c Norfolk, Andrew (19 April 2016), "Prisons chief praises extreme Islamic sect", The Times
  25. ^ Norfolk, Andrew (7 September 2007). "Hardline takeover of British Masjid". The Times.
  26. ^ Bunglawala, Inayat (7 September 2007), "A toxic mix of fact and nonsense", The Guardian
  27. ^ Bowen, Innes (14 June 2014). "Who runs our mosques?". The Spectator.
  28. ^ Martin Van Bruinessen, Julia Day Howell, Sufism and the 'Modern' in Islam, p 130, ISBN 1850438544
  29. ^ a b Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-4384-5370-5.
  30. ^ Metcalf, Barabara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs. "These orientations --"Deobandi," "Barelvi" or "Ahl-i Hadith" -- would come to define sectarian divisions among Sunni Muslims of South Asian background to the present."
  31. ^ Haque, Ziaul (1975). "Muslim Religious Education in Indo-Pakistan". Islamic Studies. Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad. 14 (4): 284. The following books and subjects are studied ... Fiqh: Hidayah, Quduri, Nur al-Idah, Sharh-i Waqayah, Kanz al-Daqa'iq
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  34. ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them
  35. ^ Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa
  36. ^ David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167.
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  43. ^ Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.58.
  44. ^ The Deobandis are followers of Sufism|
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  46. ^ DelhiMarch 21, Siddhartha Rai New; March 21, 2016UPDATED; Ist, 2016 08:14. "Modi govt trying to divide Muslims, says Maulana Syed Arshad Madani". India Today. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
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  82. ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa.
  83. ^ Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury Madrasa) in Dewsbury in 1981
  84. ^ "Home". Retrieved 12 March 2014.
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  86. ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.
  87. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al. (eds.). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943).
  88. ^ Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu.
  89. ^ a b Abdulkader Tayob; et al. (eds.). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide.
  90. ^ a b Abdulkader Tayob; et al. (eds.). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world.
  91. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al. (eds.). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. Especially for teaching the Deobandi curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful.
  92. ^ Abdulkader Tayob; et al. (eds.). Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN 978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia.
  93. ^ a b S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110.
  94. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.
  95. ^ Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with].
  96. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period.
  97. ^ Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-520-08093-9. The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.
  98. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.
  99. ^ Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. doi:10.1163/22138617-08401018. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  100. ^ Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics.
  101. ^ Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.
  102. ^ Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti Of Pakistan". Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi‘] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes.
  103. ^ al-Mahmud, A.H.; Hasan, Syed Mahmudul (2008). সুন্নাতে নববীর মূর্ত প্রতীক: মাওলানা আব্দুল মতিন চৌধুরী শায়খে ফুলবাড়ী রাহ. pp. 78–81.
  104. ^ "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  105. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement
  106. ^ Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad Shameem) (ed.). Introducing Darul-'Uloom Karachi (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  107. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan.
  108. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.
  109. ^ Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester
  110. ^ Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  111. ^ S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.

Further reading

External links

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