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Hindu–Islamic relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Akbar greeting Hindu Rajput rulers and other nobles at court, he attempted to foster communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims.[1]

Interactions between Muslims and Hindus began in the 7th century, after the advent of the former in the Arabian Peninsula. These interactions were mainly by trade throughout the Indian Ocean. Historically, these interactions formed contrasting patterns in northern and southern India. While there is a history of conquest and domination in the north, Hindu-Muslim relations in Kerala and Tamil Nadu have been peaceful.[2] However, historical evidence has shown that violence had existed by the year 1700 A.D.[3]

In the 16th century, the Mughal Empire was established. Under the Mughals, India experienced a period of relative stability and prosperity.[4][5][6] The Mughals were known for their religious tolerance,[7][8][9][10] and they actively patronized the arts and literature. During the Mughal era, Indian art and culture thrived, with the construction of grand monuments such as the Taj Mahal and the Red Fort. While the Mughals fostered religious harmony and cultural advancements and nurtured Hindu scholars, poets, and artists, facilitating a dynamic cultural interchange that enriched both Islamic and Hindu traditions, there were instances of religious conflicts between the Mughals and the Rajput over control of territories. Aurangzeb was criticized for his policies of religious intolerance towards Hindus.[1][11]

During the 18th to 20th centuries, India was ruled by the British, who introduced a policy of divide and rule to maintain their control over the country.[12][13][14] The British also introduced a system of separate electorates, which further exacerbated the divide between the Hindu and Muslim communities.[15][16] The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the First War of Independence, was a major uprising against British rule in India. The rebellion was fueled by a range of grievances, including economic exploitation, social and religious discrimination, and political oppression.[17][18][19] While the rebellion was not solely based on religious tensions between Hindus and Muslims, these tensions did play a role in fueling the conflict. During the rebellion, there were instances of both Muslim and Hindu soldiers and civilians fighting together against the British, as well as instances of conflict between the two communities.[20][21][22]

Islam and Hinduism share some ritual practices, such as fasting and pilgrimage, but their views differ on various aspects. There are also hundreds of shared ritual spaces, called dargahs (literally, “doorway” or “threshold”), for Hindus and Muslims. These mark shrines for revered Muslim (frequently Sufi) leaders and are visited by both Muslims and Hindus. Their interaction has witnessed periods of cooperation and syncretism, and periods of religious discrimination, intolerance, and violence. As a religious minority in India, Muslims are part of the Indian culture and have lived with Hindus for over 13 centuries. Despite the longtime assertion that the origins of Muslim-Hindu tensions were greatly attributed to 19th Century British colonial rule in India, it has been argued that Britain had little influence on constructing the religious identities of Islam and Hinduism in the region and that divisions existed beforehand as well.[23] For example, 18th-century Mughal–Maratha Wars. Ajay Verghese argues that the Hindu-Muslim conflict in India can be better understood by analyzing the historical relationship between the two communities. He contends that precolonial India was marked by a fluidity of religious identity and that religious boundaries were not always clear-cut. This led to a degree of intermingling between Muslims and Hindus, but also created conditions for tension and conflict.[3]

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Islam is a monotheistic religion in which God is called Allah, and the final Islamic prophet is Muhammad, whom Muslims believe delivered the central Islamic scripture, the Qurān.[24] Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal faith of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as Adam (believed to be the first man), Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, among others; these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths.[25][26] The Quran and the Ḥadīth literature are the primary Islamic scriptures, while the sunnah consists of the Islamic traditional customs and practices which all Muslims are expected to follow. Throughout its rich history, Islamic civilization has made notable scientific achievements which encompassed a wide range of subject areas especially medicine, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics.[27][28][29] The consequence of Islam's rigorous monotheism led to a degree of panentheism, sharing similarities with the Hindu idea of the Absolute (Brahman).[30] The Islamic mystical tradition predates contact with Hinduism, and Hinduistic monotheistic interpretations seem to be influenced by Islamic Sufism.[30] The concept of Brahman was rarely subject of criticism from the perceptive of Islamic tawhid, rather the Hindu belief that prophecy wouldn't be necessary to guide mankind.[31]

Hinduism, also called sanatana dharma (eternal dharma), is an Indian religion and a way of life primarily practiced in the Indian subcontinent.[32] Hinduism is an umbrella-term for the fusion of several Indian religions and traditions. Hinduism does not have a founder or a site-of-origin. Hindus can be polytheistic, monotheistic or even atheistic. The popular themes of Hinduism include ahimsa, karma, reincarnation, kama, dharma, artha and moksha. Hinduism mostly shares common terms with the dhārmic religions that it has influenced, including Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism.[33] The central scriptures of Hinduism are the Shruti and Smruti texts. Shruti texts consist of the four Vedas (which comprise the original Vedic hymns, or Samhitas) and three tiers of commentaries upon the samhitas, namely the Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, and Upanishads.[34] These texts are considered to be authentic knowledge and wisdom of the past, collated, compiled, and codified into written form for future generations. The Smruti texts include Purānas and the epics of Rāmāyana, Mahābhārata and its crucial part, the Bhagvad Gita. These texts are less authentic but more popular than the Shrutis.


God and deities


Hinduism is a system of thought in which the concept of God varies according to its diverse traditions.[35][36][37][38] Hinduism spans a wide range of beliefs such as henotheism, monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, atheism and nontheism.[35][36][39][40] One popular theological interpretation is the Advaita Vedanta tradition, which relies mainly on the Upanishads and declares absolute monism, exemplified in the concept of Brahman (the ultimate reality).[41][42] When a person is devoid of ignorance (Avidyā), they find the truth by realizing that their true nature, pure soul, or inner Self (Ātman) is identical to Brahman.[43] Until then, they are usually ignorant of the ultimate reality and therefore believe that the material world around them is real and indulges in it, when the world is actually an illusion (Māyā).[43] The Brahman, which is absolute and pure, and the Ātman, which is also absolute and pure, are the same in this school of Hindu thought, which exemplifies the Hindu concept of God.[41][43]

Islam is a system of thought that believes in the concept of the unity and uniqueness of God (Tawḥīd), which declares monotheism, and is considered to be the defining doctrine of the Islamic religion.[44] God in Islam is conceived as the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence.[24][45][46] According to Islam, God is transcendent and is not part of the universe (i.e. there is no incarnation of God, no "Son of God", etc.) but a power behind all aspects of the universe.[47] Thus, Muslims do not attribute human forms to God. God is described and referred to by several names or attributes.[48] One of the five pillars of Islam is that Muslims affirm the Shahada in the five canonical daily prayers, which declares that "There is no other god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."[49][50]

Despite the obvious discrepancy between Islamic monotheism and Hindu polytheism, some Muslim authors showed approval of the Hindu religion, especially the to the concept of Brahman. Sometimes, Brahmans were even excepted from the Jizya (taxes for non-Muslims).[51][52] Gardizi identifies the God of the Brahmans with Allah.[53]

Ibn al-Jawzi (1116 – 1201) criticizes in his Talbīs Iblīs (the deception of Satan) that the Brahmans are led astray by means of denying the prophets and their performance of self-harming rituals to get closer to God, but not by their lack of "monotheism".[54]

Al-Biruni famously recorded the beliefs of Hindus in a descriptive manner. He notes that although the common people would worship idols, the educated people would be "entirely free from worshipping anything but God alone and would never dream of worshipping an image manufactured to represent him." He does not blame idolatry on Hinduism, but to a lack of proper education. The difference between monotheistic religions and Hinduism would not be that strong, since all uneducated people, even among Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, would need concrete objects to worship.[53]

Amir Khusrau (1253 – 1325) writes that Hindus have gone astray, but so have other religions and Hinduism would still consist of beliefs shared by Muslims: They would believe in the oneness and eternity of God as creator and sustainer. For that reason, he favors Hinduism before materialists (dahriyya), dualists (thanawiyya), Christianity who attribute to God spirit and progeny, and the star-worshippers (akhtariyyan) who acknowledge seven deities. The Hindu (precisely Brahmanist) would worship animals, stones, and the sun, but the Brahmanist accepts that they do not really bear likeness to God and are God's creation, they are only worshipped due to tradition.[53]

Although there are a number of diverse conceptions of God and deities within Hinduism, most fuqaha (Muslim jurists), such as Muslim heresiographer al-Shahrastani, consider all of them to be polytheistic and blasphemous. Opposition towards Brahmanism stems from the polytheistic teachings within Hindu-culture. The Brahmans would have taught to the people not that the idols are symbols of God, but deities themselves.[55] Nonetheless, most scholars agree that Hindus should be considered dhimmi.[53]


Divine spirits in Hindu-lore were integrated into the monotheistic Islamic worldview by Muslim authors writing about Hinduism. They acknowledged that these spirits would exude a mesmerizing fascination on people, even Muslims couldn't withstand. Arab Muslim geographer al-Maqdisī (c. 945/946–991 CE) wrote about Indian deities, that they have the power to enchant people, even Muslims, to worship them. A Muslim is said to have visited them and abandoned Islam. Besides their power to distract even Muslims from worshiping Allah, they may have real magical powers and even grant their worshippers wishes.[56]

In al-Tabasi's (d. 1089) compendium about magic and sorcery Mahakal, an epithet for the Hindu deity Shiva, is mentioned. Abu Sa'id al Gardizi (fl. 1049) further elaborates that this deva (dīv) would have the power to teach incantations ('aza'im) and how to perform wonders ('aja'ib).[57]

To harmonize the existence of such spirits with the monotheistic worldview of Islam, it was assumed that the Indian deities were created by Allah, however, prior to the beings revealed in the Quran. Abu Ali Bal'ami (d. 992–997) asserts that the deva (div) were created long before the angels and jinn.[58]: 40  Unlike jinn, the div would have refused to obey the Prophet Solomon.[59]

In the Nabivamsa, by Syed Sultan, identifies the suras and asura with jinn and jann respectively. The Hindu spirits are supposed to be created over 4 million years ago, while angels (phiristā) settle on earth afterwards. Since the different beings are constantly at war, Niranjan sents the Vedas to the Asuras and Devas, but eventually decides to command the angels to get rid of them. Afterwards, God creates the progenitor of humankind Adam. This story reflects early hadith material regarding the life of jinn before Adam was created. According to Islamic sources, God let the jinn live on earth and sent angels under the leadership of Azazil as authority over them. Later, God decides to replace them by humankind.[60]

Scriptures and messengers

The sacred scriptures of Islam are the Qurān and the Ḥadīths, which report what Muhammad said and did. Ḥadīths are varied and have many versions. According to Islamic doctrine, Jesus Christ was also one of the messengers from God.[61] Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last messenger and the Qurān was the last revelation from God, delivered to him through the angel Jibrīl.[62] The Ḥadīths contain the sunnah, the reports of Muhammad's life, sayings, actions, and examples he set. The Qurān and the reliable Ḥadīths are considered in Islam as the sources of Islamic law or Sharīʿah.[63]

Unlike Islam, Hinduism doesn't have centralized religious authorities, or governing bodies. It has some defining historical and religious texts, the sacred Hindu scriptures, traditional ecclesiastical order, incarnations, and the legal code Manusmṛti.[64][65] Spiritual knowledge of Hinduism is contained in texts called Śruti ("what is heard") and Smṛti ("what is remembered"). These sacred texts discuss diverse topics, including theology, cosmology, mythology, philosophy, rituals and rites of passage, and many others. Major scriptures in Hinduism include the Vedas and Upanishads (both Śruti), the Epics (Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata), Purāṇas, Dharmaśāstras, Āgamas, and the Bhagavad Gītā (all Smṛti).[66][67]

According to Muslim scholars, Brahmans reject that God would send messengers. The Brahmans argue, if God wanted humans to understand his will, he would have created mankind accordingly. Thus, they assert, that human reason is sufficient to understand God's will.[31] Muslim scholars on the other hand assert, that prophecy is necessary for mankind in religious matters. Asharites argue that justification of morality relies on revelation. In contrast, Maturidites assert morality can be detected by reason, but mankind requires prophecy for supernatural matters.[68]


According to Islam, after death, one either enters Paradise (Jannah) or Hell (Jahannam), depending on their deeds. Unlike Muslims, Hindus believe in a cycle of reincarnation.[69] However, the concept of higher and lower realms of existence can be found in Hinduism, though the realms are temporary places.[70]

Both Muslims and Hindus acknowledge demons (Shaitan/Asura), who are constantly inciting war between the desires of humans and the Divine.[clarification needed][71] Asuras are part of Hindu mythology along with Devas, Yakshas and Rakshasas, and are featured in one of many cosmological theories in Hinduism.[72][73] Asuras are sometimes considered nature spirits. They constantly battle with the devas.[74]

Both believe in the existence of an entirety Supreme Power, either called Brahman or Allah. Brahman is a metaphysical concept that is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe.[75][76] Allah is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. Assimilated in local lore, the Islamic concept of God became comparable to the notion of the ultimate reality expressing itself through different names as the creator, the maintainer, and the destroyer.[77] Some Islamic scholars believe that the worlds created by God will perish and be created anew, resembling the Hindu notion of an endless process of generation and decay.[78][79]

Pilgrimage is found in both religions: Hajj & Umrah to Mecca in Islam and Kumbh Mela and Tirtha Yatra in Hinduism.[80] Muslims walk seven times around the Kaaba during Hajj, which is called Tawaf.[81] Hindus walk one or more times around the center (Garbhagriya) of a temple (one to twenty-one),[82][83][84][85] called Parikrama (known in Sanskrit as pradakśiṇā). Both of them are commonly called circumambulation.[86][87]

Some Muslim scholars and a few Hindu scholars like Ved Prakash Upaddhay[88][89] also argue that mentions of Kalki refer to Muhammad in some Hindu scriptures.[89][90] Sri Sri Ravi Shankar claimed in his book "Hinduism and Islam: The Common Thread" that Muhammad is explicitly prophesied in Bhavishya Purana.[91][92]


The 10th-century Persian polymath Al-Biruni in his book Tahaqeeq Ma Lilhind Min Makulat Makulat Fi Aliaqbal Am Marzula (Critical Study of Indian Speech: Rationally Acceptable or Rejected) discusses the similarity of some Sufism concepts with aspects of Hinduism, such as: Atman with ruh, tanasukh with reincarnation, Moksha with Fanaa, Ittihad with Nirvana: union between Paramatman in Jivatma, Avatar or Incarnation with Hulul, Vedanta with Wahdat al-Wujud, Mujahadah with Sadhana.[citation needed]

Other scholars have likewise compared the Sufi concept of Waḥdat al-Wujūd with Advaita Vedanta,[93] Fanaa to Samadhi,[79] Muraqaba to Dhyana and tariqa to the Noble Eightfold Path.[94]

Sufi theologian Martin Lings says,

Prince Dara Shikoh (d.1619), the Sufi son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan, was able to affirm that Sufism and Advaita Vedantism [Hinduism] are essentially the same, with a surface difference of terminology.[95]

Al-Biruni observed in his history of India that the fundamental ideas behind metempsychosis or reincarnation in Hinduism are not very different from the concept of the immanence of God in all things and the idea of a universal soul in some Sufi doctrines, and that for Sufis who believe in such things, "the course of metempsychosis is of no consequence".[96]

The Sufi poet Jalaluddin Rumi wrote verse that played on such themes:

I died as mineral and became a plant,

I died as plant and rose to animal. I died as animal and I was man.

Why should I fear?

When was I less by dying? Yet once more I shall die as man

To soar with angels blest;

But even from angelhood I must pass on..

— Jaladuddin Rumi (Translation by Arberry, A.J. Classical Persian Literature. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958.)

The 9th-century Iranian mystic Bayazid Bostami is alleged to have imported certain concepts from Hindusim into his version of Sufism under the conceptual umbrella of baqaa, meaning perfection.[97] Ibn al-Arabi and Mansur al-Hallaj both referred to Muhammad as having attained perfection and titled him as Al-Insān al-Kāmil.[98][99][100][101][102][103] The Sufism concept of hulul has similarly been compared with the idea of Ishvaratva, that God dwells in some creatures in Hinduism and Buddhism, and godhood of Jesus in Christianity.[104]

Ziaur Rahman Azmi, a follower Salafi movement, says that the reason behind Hindus' negative perception of Islam is mostly the spread of Sufism in India, as he believes Sufism "distorts" the Islamic ideas of prophethood and Monotheism. He claims Sufism includes idolatry, pointing to Sufi mausoleums and the practices of Tawaf and Sajdah that occur at them.[105]



Islam has restrictions on food, such as how meat is prepared.[106] Halal meat is prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of an animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death via bleeding.[107] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or by accident is not allowed.

In Hinduism, food habits are left as a choice for Hindus, and both meat and alcohol consumption is accepted. However, some Hindu communities prefer vegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism due to their belief in ahimsa or reincarnation.[108] There are varied opinions regarding the permissibility of eating meat in Hinduism, depending upon the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. Some Hindu sects emphasize vegetarianism. Hindus avoid eating cow-based beef, but they may eat water buffalo-based beef or pork as an alternative.[109]

Slaughtering a cow is considered to be a religious taboo by Hindus, who consider the cow to be a sacred animal.


Khitan, the religious rite of circumcision, is considered obligatory or recommendable for male Muslims.[110] The Qur'an does not mention circumcision explicitly in any verse, but it is noted in the Hadiths of Islam. Circumcision is not compulsory in Islam, but is an important ritual aimed at improving cleanliness. It is strongly encouraged but not enforced.[111]

Circumcision is not a religious requirement in Hinduism. Hinduism discourages non-medical circumcision, as, according to them, the body is made by the almighty God, and nobody has the right to alter it.[112]

Caste and creed

Hindu cultural texts such as the Manusmriti classify people through stratification and class, i.e. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras and allows fluidity and movement of people from one caste to another depending on their profession and what they choose as their “dharma” which literally translates to duty or purpose.[113] The Hindu caste system has been described as four Varnas or as thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called jātis.[113][114][115][116][117]

Islam requires egalitarianism and is against discrimination based on caste, creed or race[118][119][120] Islamic texts do not segregate Muslims. Hadīth, however, mentions the prophecy of the Muslim Ummah being separated into 73 sects based on practices of Islam, not class. There are differences in practices within Muslim communities as traditions differ according to geography, but spiritually all Muslims are equal.[121][122][123]

Consanguineous marriage

Consanguineous marriages are those where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor.[124] Islam prohibits marriage due to consanguinity with ancestors, descendants, siblings, siblings of ancestors and descendants of siblings.[125] However, marriage with first-cousins (3rd degree consanguinity) and farther removed consanguineous relatives is allowed. [126]

Hinduism forbids consanguineous marriage of parallel cousins, and strongly recommends seven degrees of biological separation between bride and groom.[127] However, for many communities in South India, it is common for Hindu cross cousins to marry, with matrilateral cross cousin marriages being especially favored. These practices are particularly followed in landed communities such as the Vellalars, who wish to keep wealth within the family.


Islamic scriptures compel the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, who are not liable to pay Zaka'at, the non-Muslims who live in a Muslim state.[128][129] Historically, the jizya tax has been understood in Islam as a fee for protection provided by the Muslim ruler to non-Muslims, for the exemption from military service for non-Muslims, for the permission to practice a non-Muslim faith with communal autonomy in a Muslim state.[130][131][132] If anyone could not afford this tax, they would not have to pay anything.[133] There is no jizya tax upon women, children, elders as well as the poor and the ill.[134] Also those who joined the military service were also not liable to pay the tax.[135]

Islamic stipulation that Muslims must "do battle to guard" the dhimmis and "put no burden on them greater than they can bear" remained a cornerstone of Islamic policy.[136][137]

There is no such concept of "Jizya" in Hindu texts.[citation needed]


Muslim and Hindu societies have practiced slavery many times in history

The practice of slavery in early and late Vedic era of Hinduism is documented. However, some Hindu texts use the term dasa. Some scholars translate this as slave,[138] while other scholars have translated it as servant and religious devotee.[139][140] Arthashastra text of Hinduism dedicates a chapter to dasa where a financially bankrupt individual may become a servant of another. Arthashastra grants a dasa legal rights, and declares abusing, hurting and raping a dasa as a crime.[138][141]

Islam's approach to slavery added the idea that freedom was the natural state of affairs for human beings and in line with this it limited the opportunities to enslave people, commended the freeing of slaves and regulated the way slaves were treated:

  • Islam greatly limited those who could be enslaved and under what circumstances (although these restrictions were often evaded)
  • Islam treated slaves as human beings as well as property
  • Islam banned the mistreatment of slaves – indeed the tradition repeatedly stresses the importance of treating slaves with kindness and compassion
  • Islam allowed slaves to achieve their freedom and made freeing slaves a virtuous act
  • Islam barred Muslims from enslaving other Muslims

The Quran and the Hadiths strongly discourage the institution of slaves.[142][143] Islam, in many cases, encouraged freeing of slave act of benevolence, and expiation of sins. Islam only allows slavery through certain means and many Islamic scholars claim Islam blocked many ways through which people used to own slaves.[144][145] Most interpretations of the Quran agree that the Quran envisions an ideal society as one in which slavery no longer exists.[146][147][148][149]


Blasphemy against God and against Muhammad is a religious crime in Islam.[150] The Quran in verse and many Hadiths discuss blasphemy and its punishment.[150] A variety of actions, speeches, or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam.[151] Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah or the Prophets or drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, and creating or using music, painting, video, or novels to mock or criticize prophet Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. Punishment can range from imprisonment or flogging to execution.[151][152]

Although the concept of "divine blasphemy" or "heresy" does not exist in Hinduism, and ancient Hindu texts make no provisions for blasphemy.[153][154][155] According to 2018 annual report of U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, there has been Hindu nationalist groups through their campaign to "Saffronize" India through violence, intimidation, and harassment against non-Hindus and according to the data, approximately one-third of state governments enforced anti-conversion and/or anti-cow slaughter laws against non-Hindus.[156][157]


Apostasy, defined in Islam as the conscious act by a Muslim of leaving Islam or blaspheming against it, is a religious crime according to some Islamic schools of law.[158][159][160]

Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a creed" and is thus more tolerant to apostasy.[36][38] Some Hindu sects believe that ethical conversion, without force or reward, is completely acceptable.[161] However, the Vashistha Dharmasastra, the Apastamba Dharmasutra, and Yajnavalkya state that a son of an apostate is also considered an apostate.[162] Smr̥ticandrikā lists apostates as a group of people upon touching whom, one should take a bath.[163] Nāradasmṛti and Parasara-samhita state that a wife can remarry if her husband becomes an apostate.[164] The Saint Parashara commented that religious rites are disturbed if an apostate witnesses them.[165] He also comments that those who forgo the Rig Veda, Samaveda, and Yajurveda are "nagna" (naked) or an apostate.[166]

Both religions state that there should be no compulsion in religion.[167][168]

In popular culture


There have been instances of syncretic cooperation on music with Islamic and Hindu themes. For example, the national poet of Bangladesh, Kazi Nazrul Islam, wrote many Islamic devotional songs for mainstream Bengali folk music.[169] He also explored Hindu devotional music by composing Shyama Sangeet, Durga Vandana, Sarswati Vandana, bhajans and kirtans, often merging Islamic and Hindu values. Nazrul's poetry and songs explored the philosophy of Islam and Hinduism.[170]

See also


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  2. ^ Vasudha Narayanan. Hinduism and Islam.
  3. ^ a b Verghese, Ajay; Foa, Roberto Stefan (5 November 2018). "Precolonial Ethnic Violence:The Case of Hindu-Muslim Conflict in India" (PDF). Boston University. Retrieved 7 April 2023.
  4. ^ Smith, Stephanie Honchell (1 August 2023). "Aurangzeb: Mughal Emperor". The Ohio State University. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  5. ^ Kanwal, Fariha. "Mughal Rulers' (1526-1707) Religious Tolerance Policy and its Impacts on the Society of Sub-Continent". ANNALS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND PERSPECTIVE. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  6. ^ "The majestic Mughal Empire: The rise and fall of India's most powerful dynasty". History Skills. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  7. ^ Kinra, Rajeev (1 April 2020). "Revisiting the History and Historiography of Mughal Pluralism". Reorient. 5 (2). doi:10.13169/reorient.5.2.0137. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  8. ^ "MUGHALS AND THE RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS". Proquest. September 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  9. ^ Akhtar, Awais. "Religious Policy of Emperor Shahjahan (1627-1658AD)" (PDF). Journal of Indian Studies.
  10. ^ Giordan, Giuseppe (15 July 2019). "Annual Review of the Sociology of Religion. Volume 10 (2019)". Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. p. 278. Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  11. ^ Mehrotra, Abhishek (9 December 2017). "The Real History of Hindu-Muslim Relations Under Akbar". The Diplomat. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  12. ^ Rehman, Aziz (11 May 2018). "The British Art of Colonialism in India: Subjugation and Division". Peace And Conflict Studies Journal. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  13. ^ Smith, Randall (10 August 2017). "The Partition: The British game of 'divide and rule'". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  14. ^ Belkacem, Belmekki (2014). "Muslim Separatism in Post-Revolt India: A British Game of "Divide et Impera"?". Oriente Moderno. 94 (1): 113–124. doi:10.1163/22138617-12340041. JSTOR 44280740. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  15. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (2017). Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India. Hurst. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-84904-808-8.
  16. ^ Markandey Katju. "The truth about Pakistan". The Nation. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
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  134. ^ al-Qāḍī Abū Yaʿlā, al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyyah, p. 160. Quote: «وتسقط الجزية عن الفقير وعن الشيخ وعن الزَمِن [أي صاحب العاهة]» Translation: "There is no jizya upon the poor, the old, and the chronically ill."
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Islam in South Asia
  • Holt, Peter M. (1977), Peter Malcolm Holt; Ann K. S. Lambton; Bernard Lewis (eds.), The Cambridge History of Islam (New ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521291378
  • Khalidi, Omar (2009), Shiping Hua (ed.), Islam and democratization in Asia, Cambria Press, ISBN 978-1604976328
  • Metcalf, Barbara D. (2009), Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.), Islam in South Asia in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691044200
Communal violence
  • Wilkinson, Steven I. (2006), Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521536059
  • Reference, Blackwell (1999). Townson, Duncan (ed.). "Indian communal massacres (1946–7)". Blackwell Reference. doi:10.1111/b.9780631209379.1999.x. ISBN 9780631209379.
  • Markovits, Claude. "India from 1900 to 1947". Mass Violence.Org.
  • D'Costa, Bina (2010), Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415565660
  • Ghosh, Partha S. (2004), Ranabir Samaddar (ed.), Peace Studies: An Introduction To the Concept, Scope, and Themes, SAGE, ISBN 978-0761996606
  • Hussain, Monirul (2009), Sibaji Pratim Basu (ed.), The Fleeing People of South Asia: Selections from Refugee Watch, Anthem, p. 261, ISBN 978-8190583572
  • Berglund, Henrik (2011), Galina Lindquist; Don Handelman (eds.), Religion, Politics, and Globalization: Anthropological Approaches, Berghahn, p. 105, ISBN 978-1845457716
  • Smith, Glenn (2005), Asvi Warman Adam; Dewi Fortuna Anwar (eds.), Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies, and Policies, Yayasan Obor, ISBN 9789794615140
  • Pandey, Gyanendra (2005), Routine violence: nations, fragments, histories, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804752640
  • Ghassem-Fachandi, Parvis (2012), Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India, Princeton University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-0691151779
  • Metcalf, Barbara (2013), Deana Heath; Chandana Mathur (eds.), Communalism and Globalization in South Asia and its Diaspora, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415857857
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