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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: أهل البيت, lit.'people of the house') refers to the family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, though the term has also been extended in Sunni Islam to apply to all descendants of the Banu Hashim (Muhammad's clan) and even all Muslims.[1][2] In Shia Islam, the term is limited to Muhammad, his daughter Fatima, his cousin and son-in-law Ali, and their two sons, Hasan and Husayn. A common Sunni view adds Muhammad's wives to those five.[3]

While all Muslims revere the Ahl al-Bayt,[4][5] it is the Shia who hold the Ahl al-Bayt in the highest esteem, regarding them as infallible embodiments of divine wisdom and the perfect leaders for the Muslim community. The Twelver Shia also believe in the redemptive power of the pain and martyrdom endured by the Ahl al-Bayt, particularly by Husayn.[2][4]

Definition

When ahl (أهل) appears in construction with a person, it refers to his blood relatives but the word also acquires wider meanings with other nouns.[6] In particular, bayt (بَيْت) is translated as habitation and dwelling,[7] and thus the basic translation of ahl al-bayt is 'the inhabitants of a house' (or a tent).[6] That is, ahl al-bayt is literally translated to '(the) people of the house' and to 'household' in the absence of the definite article al-.[6]

Other prophets

The phrase ahl al-bayt (lit.'people of the house') appears three times in the Quran and in relation to Abraham (11:73), Moses (28:12), and Muhammad (33:33).[6] Abraham's ahl al-bayt and Moses' ahl al-bayt in the Quran are unanimously understood by commentators as referring to the families of Abraham and Moses, respectively.[6] Merit is also a criterion of membership to a prophet's ahl al-bayt in the Quran.[7] That is, pagan or disloyal members of the families of the past prophets are not excluded from God's punishment.[1][8] For instance, Noah's family is saved from the deluge, except his wife and one of his sons, about whom Noah's plea was rejected according to verse 11:46, "O Noah, he [your son] is not of your family (ahl)."[9]

Who are the Ahl al-Bayt?

Muhammad's ahl al-bayt, simply referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt, appear in verse 33:33 of the Quran,[10] also known as the Verse of Purification.[11] The last passage of this verse reads:

God only desires to remove defilement from you, O ahl al-bayt, and to purify you completely.[10]

— Quran (33:33)

However, there is disagreement as to who belongs to Muhammad's ahl al-bayt above and what political privileges or responsibilities they have.[1]

Inclusion of the Ahl al-Kisa

The majority of the traditions quoted by al-Tabari in his exegesis identify the Ahl al-Bayt with the Ahl al-Kisa, namely, Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn.[12][13][14] These traditions are also cited by some other early Sunni authorities, including Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Suyuti, and al-Hafiz al-Kabir.[15]

Muhammad's wife, Umm Salama, relates in one version of Hadith al-Kisa that Muhammad gathered Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn under his cloak and prayed, "O God, these are the people of my house and my closest family members; remove defilement from them and purify them completely."[6][1] Umm Salama reports that she then asked Muhammad, "Am I with thee, O Messenger of God?" but received the negative response, "Thou shalt obtain good. Thou shalt obtain good."[10] There also exists a version of this hadith in Sunni sources where Umm Salama is included in the Ahl al-Bayt.[3]

Muhammad is said to have recited this passage of the Verse of Purification every morning when he passed by Fatima's house to remind her household of the fajr prayer.[16] In the Event of Mubahala, Muhammad is believed to have gathered Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn under his cloak and referred to them as the Ahl al-Bayt, according to some Sunni sources.[17][14] This makeup of the Ahl al-Bayt, suggested also by Veccia Vaglieri,[16] is unanimously supported in Shia sources.[3] In their theology works, the Ahl al-Bayt often also includes the remaining Shia Imams.[12] The term is sometimes loosely applied in Shia writings to all descendants of Ali and Fatima.[12][18][19] The Verse of Purification is regarded by the Shia as evidence of the infallibility of the Ahl al-Bayt.[12]

Inclusion of Muhammad's wives

Possibly because the earlier injunctions in the Verse of Purification are addressed at Muhammad's wives,[1] some Sunni authors (such as Ibn Kathir and al-Wahidi) have exclusively interpreted ahl al-bayt in this verse as Muhammad's wives.[12][6] Others have noted that the last passage of this verse is grammatically inconsistent with the previous injunctions (masculine plural versus feminine plural pronouns), and thus ahl al-bayt is not or is not limited to Muhammad's wives.[10][1][16] Some Sunni hadiths, narrated for instance by Ibn Abbas and Ikrima, support the inclusion of Muhammad's wives in the Ahl al-Bayt.[20][20] In contrast, Leaman holds that marriage to a prophet does not guarantee inclusion in his ahl al-bayt. He argues that, in verse 11:73,[6] Sara is included in the ahl al-bayt of Abraham only after receiving the news of her imminent motherhood of two prophets, Isaac and Jacob. Likewise, Leaman suggests that Moses' mother is classed as a member of the ahl al-bayt, not for being married to Imran, but for being the mother of Moses.[7] In support of their bid for inclusion in the Ahl al-Bayt, the Abbasids argued that women, noble and holy as they may be, could not be considered a source of pedigree (nasab) and that Muhammad's paternal uncle Abbas was equal to the father after the death of Muhammad's father.[6][21]

Broader interpretations

As hinted above, various Sunni authors have broadened the application of the term to include in the Ahl al-Bayt the clan of Muhammad (Banu Hashim),[6][4] the Banu Muttalib,[3] the descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas (Abbasids),[10][6][12] and even the descendants of Hashim's nephew Umayya (Umayyads).[1][12] In particular, there exists an Abbasid version of Hadith al-Kisa in Sunni sources, possibly intended to strengthen Abbasid claims to inclusion among the Ahl al-Bayt.[12] This assertion was in turn the cornerstone of Abbasid claims to the caliphate.[6][1] Similarly, a Sunni version of Hadith al-Thaqalayn interprets the term as the descendants of Ali and his brothers, Aqil and Jafar, and Muhammad's uncle, Abbas.[3][12] Abu Bakr and Umar have also been included in the Ahl al-Bayt by their supporters as they were both father-in-laws of Muhammad. These and the accounts about the inclusion of the Umayyads in the Ahl al-Bayt might have been posterior reactions to Abbasid claims to inclusion in the Ahl al-Bayt and their bid for legitimacy, according to Brunner.[1] The term has also been interpreted as the tribe of Quraysh[6][1] or the whole Muslim community by some.[3][1] For instance, Paret identified bayt (lit.'house') in the Verse of Purification with Kaaba, though his theory has found few supporters, notably Sharon.[6][1][22]

Conclusion

According to Howard, a typical Sunni compromise is to interpret Ahl al-Bayt as the Ahl al-Kisa (Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husayn) together with Muhammad's wives.[3] This view is shared by Goldziher and his coauthors,[12] and mentioned by Sharon,[6] though Madelung also includes the Banu Hashim in the Ahl al-Bayt in view of their blood relation to Muhammad.[20] In contrast, the Shia limit the Ahl al-Bayt to Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn, pointing to authentic traditions that can be found in Sunni and Shia sources.[23][7] Their view is shared by Veccia Vaglieri and Jafri.[16]

Place in Islam

In the Quran

Muslims venerate Muhammad's household.[4][2][5] In the Quran, families and descendants of the past prophets hold a prominent position. In particular, the previous prophets pray for special favors for their kin and offspring in the Quran. After their deaths, their descendants become their spiritual and material heirs to keep their fathers' covenants intact.[24][25] Jafri suggests that the sanctity of a prophet's family was an accepted principle at the time of Muhammad,[26] while Madelung argues that Muhammad's kin are mentioned in the Quran in various contexts.[27]

Verse of Mawadda

Verse 42:23 of the Quran, also known as the Verse of Mawadda, is often cited about the elevated status of the Ahl al-Bayt, especially by the Shia.[28] This verse includes the passage

[O Mohammad!] Say, I do not ask for any reward for this [the communication of the revelation], only the affection due to kin (al-qurba).[5][28]

— Quran (42:23)

In this verse, the term al-qurba is interpreted by the Shia as Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn.[29] This view also appears in the work of Ibn Ishaq,[30] who writes that Muhammad specified these near relatives (al-qurba) as Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn.[5] Most Sunni authors, however, reject this view and offer various alternatives.[31] For instance, the view preferred by al-Tabari is that verse 42:23 necessitates that Muslims love Muhammad because of their blood relations to him. Madelung, on the other hand, holds that this verse demands love towards relatives in general.[28] Lalani enumerates the arguments, attributed to the fifth Shia Imam, al-Baqir, that challenge the prevailing Sunni views of his time.[32]

Verse of Mubahala

Another example is verse 3:61 of the Quran. After an inconclusive debate about Jesus with a Christian delegation from Najran, it was decided to engage in mubuhala, where both parties would pray to invoke God's curse upon whoever was the liar. This is when Muhammad is reported to have received verse 3:61 of the Quran, also known as the Verse of Mubahala, which reads[33][34][35]

If anyone dispute with you in this matter [concerning Jesus] after the knowledge which has come to you, say: Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us swear an oath and place the curse of God on those who lie.[36]

— Quran (3:61)

Madelung argues that 'our sons' in this verse must refer to Muhammad's grandchildren, Hasan and Husayn. In that case, he continues, it would be reasonable to also include their parents, Ali and Fatima, in the event.[36] Of those present on Muhammad's side, Shia traditions are unanimous that 'our women' refers to Fatima and 'ourselves' refers to Ali.[37] In contrast, most Sunni narrations quoted by al-Tabari do not name the participants of the event, while some other Sunni historians agree with the Shia view.[36][38][35] Some accounts about the Event of Mubahala add that Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn stood under Muhammad's cloak and this five are also known as the Ahl al-Kisa (lit.'family of the cloak').[39][14] Madelung writes that their inclusion by Muhammad in this ritual under circumstances of an intense religious significance and its sanction by the Quran could not have failed to raise the religious rank of his family.[36]

Khums

The Quran also reserves for Muhammad's kin a fifth (khums) of booty and a part of fay. The latter comprises lands and properties conquered peacefully by Muslims.[28] Because alms-giving is considered an act of purification in Islam, this Quranic directive is seen as a compensation for the exclusion of Muhammad and his family from alms (sadaqa, zakat), given their state of purity in the Quran.[40]

In the hadith literature

Muhammad is known to have repeatedly emphasized the significance of the Ahl al-Bayt. An instance is his famous Hadith al-Thaqalayn, which is widely reported by Sunni and Shia authorities.[17][41][42][43] In particular, the version of this hadith that appears in Musnad Ibn Hanbal, a canonical Sunni source, is as follows:

I left among you two treasures which, if you cling to them, you shall not be led into error after me. One of them is greater than the other: The book of God, which is a rope stretched from Heaven to Earth, and my progeny, my ahl al-bayt. These two shall not be parted until they return to the Pool [of Abundance in Paradise].[17]

— Hadith al-Thaqalayn

There are several slightly different versions of this hadith in Sunni sources, suggesting that Muhammad might have repeated this statement on multiple occasions. In particular, the version that appears in As-Sunan al-Kubra, another canonical Sunni source, also includes the warning, "Be careful how you treat the two [treasures] after me."[44] In some Sunni versions of this hadith, the word sunna appears instead of ahl al-bayt.[3][1]

Another instance is the Hadith of Noah's Arc, attributed to Muhammad and reported by Sunni sources in various forms, according to Momen.[45] One version of the Hadith of Noah reads, "The likeness of the people of my house is the ship of Noah: whoever boards it is safe and whoever abandons it is drowned."[45][46][6] Also ascribed to Muhammad is the hadith, "By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, faith will never enter a person's heart until he loves them [Muhammad's family] for the sake of God and for the fact that they are my kin."[46]

In Muslim communities

In many Muslim communities, high social status is given to people claiming descent from Ali and Fatima. They are called sayyids or sharifs.[19][4][18] Campo writes that Sunnis revere the Ahl al-Bayt,[4] though Brunner suggests that this was the case until modern times.[1] Most Sufi tariqs (brotherhoods) trace their spiritual chain to Muhammad through Ali and revere the Ahl al-Kisa as the Holy Five.[4]

It is, however, the Shia who hold the Ahl al-Bayt in the highest esteem, regarding them as infallible embodiments of divine wisdom and the perfect leaders for the Muslim community. The Twelver Shia believe in the redemptive power of the pain and martyrdom endured by the Ahl al-Bayt (particularly Husayn) for those who empathize with the suffering of the Ahl al-Bayt for their divine cause.[2][4] The Twelver Shia also await the messianic advent of Mahdi who would usher in an era of peace and justice by overcoming tyranny and oppression on earth.[47][4] Various Shia sources also ascribe cosmological importance to the Ahl al-Bayt, where it is argued that the Ahl al-Bayt are the reason for the creation.[3]

According to Campo, several Muslim heads of state and politicians have claimed blood descent from the family of Muhammad, including the Alawid dynasty of Morocco, the Hashimite dynasty of Iraq and of Jordan, and the leader of the Iranian revolution, Khomeini.[4]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Brunner 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Campo 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Goldziher, Arendonk & Tritton 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Campo 2004.
  5. ^ a b c d Mavani 2013, p. 41.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sharon 2004.
  7. ^ a b c d Leaman 2006.
  8. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 10.
  9. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 9, 10.
  10. ^ a b c d e Nasr et al. 2015, p. 2331.
  11. ^ Abbas 2021, p. 65.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Howard 2011.
  13. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 14, 15.
  14. ^ a b c Algar 2011.
  15. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 71.
  16. ^ a b c d Veccia Vaglieri 2022a.
  17. ^ a b c Momen 1985, p. 16.
  18. ^ a b Esposito 2004, p. 9.
  19. ^ a b Glassé 2003.
  20. ^ a b c Madelung 1997, p. 15.
  21. ^ Jafri 1979, p. 195.
  22. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 11.
  23. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 16, 17.
  24. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 8–12.
  25. ^ Jafri 1979, pp. 15–17.
  26. ^ Jafri 1979, p. 17.
  27. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 12.
  28. ^ a b c d Madelung 1997, p. 13.
  29. ^ Lalani 2004, p. 66.
  30. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 60.
  31. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 2691.
  32. ^ Lalani 2004, pp. 66, 67.
  33. ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 15, 16.
  34. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 13–4.
  35. ^ a b Bar-Asher & Kofsky 2002, p. 141.
  36. ^ a b c d Madelung 1997, p. 16.
  37. ^ Mavani 2013, pp. 71, 72.
  38. ^ Momen 1985, p. 14.
  39. ^ Momen 1985, pp. 14, 16, 17.
  40. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 14.
  41. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 80.
  42. ^ Amir-Moezzi 2022.
  43. ^ Veccia Vaglieri 2022b.
  44. ^ Abbas 2021, p. 81.
  45. ^ a b Momen 1985, p. 17.
  46. ^ a b Nasr et al. 2015, p. 2332.
  47. ^ Mavani 2013, p. 240.

Sources

  • Sharon, M. (2004). "People of the House". In McAuliffe, J.D. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Quran. Vol. 4. Brill. pp. 48–53. ISBN 9789004123557.
  • Abbas, H. (2021). The Prophet's Heir: The Life of Ali Ibn Abi Talib. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300252057.
  • Bar-Asher, Meir M.; Kofsky, Aryeh (2002). The Nusayri-Alawi Religion: An Enquiry into Its Theology and Liturgy. Brill. ISBN 978-9004125520.
  • Madelung, W (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521646963.
  • Nasr, S.H.; Dagli, C.K.; Dakake, M.M.; Lumbard, J.E.B.; Rustom, M., eds. (2015). The Study Quran: A New Translation and Commentary. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780062227621.
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  • Howard, I.K.A. (2011). "AHL-E BAYT". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. I.
  • Mavani, H. (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism: From Ali to Post-Khomeini. Routledge. ISBN 9781135044732.
  • Goldziher, I.; Arendonk, C. van; Tritton, A.S. (2022). "Ahl Al-Bayt". In Bearman, P. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.). Brill Reference Online.
  • Veccia Vaglieri, L. (2022a). "Fāṭima". In Bearman, P. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.). Brill Reference Online.
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  • Jafri, S.H.M (1979). Origins and Early Development of Shia Islam. London: Longman.
  • Glassé, C. (2003). "Ahl al-Bayt". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. p. 31. ISBN 9780759101906.
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Further reading

This page was last edited on 1 July 2022, at 12:36
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