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Prophets and messengers in Islam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prophets in Islam (Arabic: ٱلْأَنۢبِيَاء فِي ٱلْإِسْلَام‎) include "messengers" (rasul, rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel Arabic: مَلَائِكَة‎, malāʾikah);[1][2] and "prophets" (nabī, pl. anbiyāʼ), lawbringers that Muslims believe were sent by God to every person, bringing God's message in a language they can understand.[1][3] Knowledge of the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith,[4] and specifically mentioned in the Quran.[5]

Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam (آدَم), created by Allah. Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran but usually in slightly different forms. For example, the Jewish Elisha is called Eliyas, Job is Ayyub, Jesus is Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel given to Jesus is Injil.[1]

Important to Islam is Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh), who Muslims believe is the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin, i.e. the last prophet); and the Qur'an, revealed to Muhammad but not written down by him,[6] which Muslims believe is unique among divine revelations as the only correct one protected by God from distortion or corruption,[7] destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day.[8] Muslims believe Muhammad to be the last prophet, although after the prophets there are still saints[9].

In Muslim belief, every prophet in Islam preached the same main Islamic beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Each came to preach Islam at different times in history, although there may have been more than one at once, but in different places, and sometimes prophethood is common in the lineage of someone - eg. Ibrahim had many prophets in his lineage - Isa, Zakariyyah, Muhammad, Dawud, etc. - through his sons Ismael and Isaac, who are also prophets in Islam.

This narrative is found in "Chapter of the Ranks", Qur'an, 61:6 as Allah asked Jesus to remind the Children of Israel but they accused him of sorcery:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَـٰبَنِى إِسْرَٰعِيلَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَىَّ مِنَ ٱلتَّوْرىٰةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِى مِن بَعْدِى ٱسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ قَالُواْ هَـٰذَا سِحْرٌ مُّبينٌ

wa-idh qāla ‘Īsā ’b·nu Maryama: "yā Banī Israā‘īla innī Rasūlu ’llāhi ilay-kum muṣaddiqal li-mā bayna yadayya mina ’t-Tawraāti wa-mubash-shiram bi-Rasūlin ya’tī mim ba‘dī ’s·mu-huū Aḥmadu, fa-lammā jaā’a-hum bi’l-bayyināti, qālū "hādhā siḥrum mubīn!"

And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law [=Torah] (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, "this is evident sorcery!"

— Quran, sura 61 (As-Saf), ayah 6


In Arabic and Hebrew,[10] the term nabī (Arabic plural form: أَنْبِيَاء anbiyāʼ) means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term nubuwwah (Arabic: نُبُوَّة meaning "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms rasūl (Arabic plural: رُسُل rusul) and mursal (ِArabic singular: مُرْسَل mursal; plural: مُرْسَلُون mursalūn) denote "messenger with law given/ received by God" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic "message" (ِArabic singular: رِسَالَة risālah; plural: رِسَالَات risālāt), appears in the Quran in ten instances.[11]

The Syriac form of rasūl Allāh (literally: "messenger of God"), s̲h̲eliḥeh d-allāhā, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s̲h̲eliḥehs̲h̲alaḥ, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible.[12][13][14][15]

The words "prophet" (Arabic: نبي nabī) and "messenger" (Arabic: رسول rasūl) appear several times in the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The following table shows these words in different languages:[16]

Prophet and Messenger in the Bible
Arabic Arabic Pronunciation English Greek Greek pronunciation Strong Number Hebrew Hebrew pronunciation Strong Number
نبي Nabī Prophet προφήτης prophētēs G4396 נביא navi' /nabiʔ/ H5030
رسول, مرسل Rasūl, Mursal Messenger, Prophet, Apostle ἄγγελος,
שלח (verb)
mal'ach /malʔak/,
shalah /ʃalaħ/ (verb)

In the Hebrew Bible, the word nabi ("spokesperson, prophet") occurs commonly. The biblical word for "messenger", mal'akh, refers today to Angels in Judaism, but originally was used for human messenger both of God and of men, thus it is only somewhat equivalent of rasūl. According to Judaism, Haggai, Zaqariah, and Malachi were the last prophets, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. With them, the authentic period of Nevuah ("prophecy") died,[17] and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists (Sanhedrin 11a).

In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet.[18] "Messenger" may refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist. But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist (Yahya).[19]


In Muslim belief, every Islamic prophet preached Islam. The beliefs of charity, prayer, pilgrimage, worship of God and fasting are believed to have been taught by every prophet who has ever lived.[20] The Quran itself calls Islam the "religion of Abraham" (Ibrahim)[21] and refers to Jacob (Yaqub) and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslim.[22]

The Quran says

The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah—the which We have sent by inspiration to thee—and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein:...

— Quran, sura 42 (Ash-Shura), ayah 13[23]


Islam teaches that prophets were "protected from sin" by God, so unlike lesser human beings they cannot commit a sin.[24][25] The Quran speaks of the Islamic prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time.[20] A prophet, in the Muslim sense of the term, is a person whom God specially chose to teach the faith of Islam.[20] Some were called to prophesy late in life, in Muhammad's case at the age of 40.[26] Others, such as John the Baptist, were called to prophesy while still at a young age and Jesus prophesied while still in his cradle.[27]

The Quran verse 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads:[11]

All who obey Allah and the messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah—of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship!

— Quran, sura 4 (An-Nisa), ayah 69[28]

Biblical stories retold in the Quran in the Arabic language (e.g., Job, Moses, Joseph (Yusuf) etc.) certainly differ from the Jewish Hebrew Bible, the Greek Old Testament and the Greek New Testament, in that the Quran always demonstrates that it is "God's practice" (sunnat Allah) to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "We have made the evil ones friends to those without faith."[29] "Assuredly God will defend those who believe."[30][31] Thus the Islamic Isa did not die on the cross like the Christian thought about Jesus, but deceived his enemies and ascended to heaven.

The prophets and messengers "share no divine attributes", and possess "no knowledge or power" other than that granted to them by God.[32]


Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran states: "There is a Messenger for every community"[33][34] The hadith[35] reports that the Prophet Muhammad said that there were approximately 124,000 prophets[34][36][37][38][39] and 313 messengers ("a good number").[38] According to scholars such as Ibn Kathir[40] and Shu'ayb al-Arna'oot[41] the narration is weak, if not fabricated.

Female prophets

Most mainstream Sunni scholars agree that prophets were males only.[42][unreliable source?] Still, some like Ibn Hazm, Qartubi, Ibn Hajir, and al Ash‘ari thought that the verses that mention angels speaking to Mary are proofs of her prophethood.[43][44][unreliable source?] Also, Ibn Hajir interprets the Hadith "Many among men attained perfection but among women none attained the perfection except Mary, the daughter of `Imran; and Asiya, the wife of Pharaoh." He said perfection is prophethood, hence his claim that Mary and Asiya were prophets.[45]

Scriptures and other gifts

Holy books

The revealed books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind, all these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and Muslims must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost.[46] Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms.[47]

The Quran mentions some Islamic scriptures by name, which came before the Quran:

  • Tawrat (Torah): According to the Quran, the Tawrat (Torah) was revealed to Moses,[48] but Muslims believe that the current Pentateuch, although it retains the main message,[49] has suffered corruption over the years. Moses and his brother Haroon (Aaron) used the Torah to preach the message to the Children of Israel. The Quran implies that the Torah is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture.[50] Jesus, in Muslim belief, was the last prophet to be taught the Mosaic Law in its true form.
  • Zabur (Psalms): The Quran mentions the Psalms as being the holy scripture revealed to David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[51] The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars,[52] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed.
  • Book of Enlightenment (Arabic: الكِتَابُ ٱلْمُنِير Kitābu ’l-Munīr): The Quran mentions a Book of Enlightenment,[53] which has alternatively been translated as Scripture of Enlightenment or the Illuminating Book. It mentions that some prophets, in the past, came with clear signs from God as well as this particular scripture.
  • Books of Divine Wisdom (Arabic: possibly identified as الْزُبُر az-Zubur): The Quran mentions certain Books of Divine Wisdom,[54] translated by some scholars as Books of Dark Prophecies, which are a reference to particular books vouchsafed to some prophets, wherein there was wisdom for man. Some scholars have suggested that these may be one and the same as the Psalms as their root Arabic word, Zubur (Quran 35:25) - the plural for the word "Scriptures", comes from the same source as the Arabic Zabur for the Psalms.
  • İnjil (Gospel): The İnjil (Gospel) was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have clearly pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, which was sent by God, and was given to Jesus.[55] Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels contain portions of Jesus's teachings but do not represent the original Gospel, which was a single book written not by a human but was sent by God.[56]
  • Scrolls of Abraham: (Arabic: الْصُّحُفُ ٱلْأُولَى aṣ-Ṣuḥufu ’l-Ūlā - "Books of the Earliest Revelation" and/or Arabic: صُّحُفِ إِبْرَهِيم Ṣuḥufu ’Ibrahīm). The Scrolls of Abraham are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were vouchsafed to Abraham,[57] and later used by Ishmael and Isaac. Although usually referred to as 'scrolls/ manuscript', many translators have translated the Arabic Suhuf as 'the Scriptures'.[58] The Scrolls of Abraham are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars[who?] have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic at the time of Muhammad[citation needed]. The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".
  • Scrolls of Moses: (Arabic: الصُّحُفُ ٱلْأُولَى aṣ-Ṣuḥufu ’l-Ūlā - "Books of the Earliest Revelation" and/or Arabic: صُّحُفُ مُوسَى Ṣuḥufu Mūsā). These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord,[59] a lost text spoken of in the Hebrew Bible.[60] The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".

Holy gifts

The Quran mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of "wisdom" or "knowledge" for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him. The Quran mentions that Abraham prayed for wisdom and later received it.[61] It also mentions that Joseph[62] and Moses[63] both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath;[64] Lot (Lut received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah;[65] John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth;[66] and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.[67]

Prophets and messengers

All messengers mentioned in the Quran are also prophets, but not all prophets are messengers.[68]

Prophets and messengers in the Qur'an
Chronological Order Name Arabic


Judeo-Christian Equivalent Prophet Messenger Ulul'Azm (Archprophet) Book Sent to Law (Sharia)
1 Adam


Adam [69]
2 Idris 3 Nuh نُوح


Noah [70] [71] [72][73] The people of Noah [74] [75]
3 Hud هود


Eber [76] [76] ʿĀd [77]
4 Saleh صَالِح


Salah [78] [78] Thamud [79]
5 Idris إِدْرِيس


Enoch [80]
6 Ibrahim إِبْرَاهِيم


Abraham [81] [82] [83] Scrolls of Abraham [57] The people of Iraq [84] [75]
7 Lut لُوط


Lot [85] [86] The people of Lot [87]
8 Ismail إِسْمَاعِيل


Ishmael [88] [88]
9 Ishaq إِسْحَاق


Isaac [89]
10 Yaqub يَعقُوب


Jacob [89]
11 Yusuf يُوسُف


Joseph [90] [91]
12 Ayyub أَيُّوب


Job [90]
13 Shuʿayb شُعَيب


Jethro [92] [92] Midian [93]
14 Musa مُوسى


Moses [94] [94] [72][73] Tawrah (Torah) Suhoof Musa (scrolls of Moses)[48] Pharaoh and his establishment [95] [75]
15 Harun هَارُون


Aaron [96] Pharaoh and his establishment
16 Dhul-Kifl ذُو ٱلْكِفْل

(Dhu ’l-Kifl)

Ezekiel [97]
17 Dawud دَاوُد \ دَاوُود


David [70] Zabur (Psalms) [98]
18 Sulayman سُلَيْمَان


Solomon [70]
19 Ilyas إِلْيَاس


Elijah [70] [99] The people of ilyas [100]
20 Al-Yasa ٱلْيَسَع


Elisha [70]
21 Yunus يُونُس


Jonah [70] [101] The people of Younis [102]
22 Zakariyya زَكَرِيَّا


Zechariah [70]
23 Yahya يَحْيَى


John the Baptist [103]
24 Isa عِيسَى


Jesus [104] [105] [72][73] Injil (Gospel) [106] The Children of Israel [107] [75]
25 Muhammad مُحَمَّد


Paraclete [108][109] [110] [83] Quran [111] Mankind, Jinn and all that exists [112] [75]

To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.

Prophethood in Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadiyya Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic words warner (nadhir), prophet, and messenger as referring to different roles that the same divinely appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non-law-bearing ones. They believe that although law-bearing prophethood ended with Muhammad, non-law-bearing prophethood subordinate to Muhammad continues.[113][114] The Ahmadiyya Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad also known as Mirza Qadiani (1835–1908) as such a “prophet” of gods and the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days.[115] The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement rejects his status as a prophet, instead considering him to be a renewer of the faith.[114] However, all other Muslims and their scholars argue and firmly establish that the Ahmadiyya community are not even Muslim due to the fact their beliefs violate the Muslim belief in Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin).[116][117][114]

Other persons

The Quran mentions 25 prophets by name but also tells that God (Allah) sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Qur'an discuss this:

  • "We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee...."[118]
  • "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger, ..."[119]

Other special persons in the Qur'an

  • Caleb (Kaleb): In the Quran, Caleb is mentioned in the 5th surah of the Quran (5:20-26).
  • Dhul-Qarnayn: Dhul-Qarnayn.
  • Joachim (Imran): The Family of Imran (Arabic: آل عمران) is the 3rd chapter of the Quran. Imran is Arabic for the biblical figure Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron, who is regarded by Muslims as being the ancestor of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus through his son Aaron. In Muslim belief, however, the Christian Joachim has been attributed the name Imran as well.
  • Khidr: The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Moses accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint or an angel,[120] some see him as a prophet as well.[121]
  • Luqman: The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief[122] views Luqman as a saint, but not as a prophet. The Arabic term wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliyā' أولياء) is commonly translated into English as "Saint". However, the wali should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood. A key difference is that the wali continues what a prophet taught without any change. However, other Muslims regard Luqman as a prophet as well.[123]
  • Mary (Maryam): A few scholars (such as Ibn Hazm)[124][125] see Maryam (Mary) as a nabi and a prophetess, since God sent her a message via an angel. The Quran, however, does not explicitly identify her as a prophet. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but not as a prophet.[126]
  • Three persons of the town: These three unnamed person, who were sent to the same town, are referenced in chapter 36 of the Quran.[127][original research?]
  • Saul (Talut): Saul is not considered a prophet, but a divinely appointed king.[128]
  • Sons of Jacob: These men are sometimes not considered to be prophets, although most exegesis scholars consider them to be prophets, citing the hadith of Muhammad and their status as prophets in Judaism. The reason that some do not consider them as prophets is because of their behaviour with Yusuf (Joseph) and that they lied to their father.
  • Joshua: Joshua is the assistant of Moses when he visits al Khidr, and according to the Torah and the Bible, he was one of the two tribe messengers, along with Caleb that brought news that Jerusalem was habitable for the Jews. Joshua is also Moses' successor as the leader of the Jews, who led them to settle in Israel after Moses' death.

Other people mentioned in Islamic literature

Numerous other people have been mentioned by scholars in the Hadith, exegesis, commentary. These people include:

See also


  1. ^ a b c Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 559–560. ISBN 9780816054541. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  2. ^ Shaatri, A. I. (2007). Nayl al Rajaa' bisharh' Safinat an'najaa'. Dar Al Minhaj.
  3. ^ Quran 30:47
  4. ^ "BBC - Religions - Islam: Basic articles of faith". Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  5. ^ Quran 2:285
  6. ^ Denffer, Ahmad von (1985). Ulum al-Qur'an : an introduction to the sciences of the Qur an (Repr. ed.). Islamic Foundation. p. 37. ISBN 978-0860371328.
  7. ^ Understanding the Qurán - Page xii, Ahmad Hussein Sakr - 2000
  8. ^ Quran 15:9
  9. ^ Neal Robinson Christ in Islam and Christianity SUNY Press 1990 ISBN 978-0-791-40558-1 page 58
  10. ^ The Hebrew root nun-vet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-vet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7
  11. ^ a b Uri Rubin, "Prophets and Prophethood", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  12. ^ Exodus 3:13-14, 4:13
  13. ^ Isaiah 6:8
  14. ^ Jeremiah 1:7
  15. ^ A. J. Wensinck, "Rasul", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  16. ^ Strong's Concordance
  17. ^ According to the Vilna Gaon, based on the opinion that Nechemyah died in Babylon before 9th Tevet 3448 (313 BCE). Nechemya was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia in the 5th century BCE. The Book of Nehemiah describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. Gaon, Vilna. "Babylonian Talmud". San.11a, Yom.9a/Yuch.1.14/Kuz.3.39,65,67/Yuch.1/Mag.Av.O.C.580.6.
  18. ^ Hebrews 3:1; John 17:3; Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Ephesians 3:5, 4:11; First Epistle to the Corinthians 28:12
  19. ^ Albert Barnes under Malachi 2:7 and 3:1
  20. ^ a b c Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, "Prophets"
  21. ^ Quran 3:67
  22. ^ Quran 2:123–133
  23. ^ Quran 42:13
  24. ^ Auda, Jasser (Nov 17, 2016). "Were Prophets and Companions Infallible?". About Islam. Retrieved 8 July 2018. Regarding the issue of the prophets being sinless or infallible, there is an agreement among scholars that prophets are protected from sins. The protection of all prophets from sins is an Islamic belief, which is a precondition to trusting the prophets’ message and following their example. However, there is a debate among scholars on whether prophets (peace be upon them all) are subject to error in judgments in “human” matters. The word `issmah (literally: protection) is mentioned in the Quran in the context of the Prophet being protected from people’s whims and Satan’s delusions while he conveys the message of God. However, the Quran did correct Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on a few occasions in matters of human judgment (Quran 8:67; 9:43; and 80:1-3). Nevertheless, some scholars rejected the possibility of erring in any prophetic decision whatsoever (for example, Al-Amedi, Al-Ihkaam fi Usul Al-Ahkam, vol.4, p. 99, Dar Al-Kitab Al-Arabi, Beirut, AH 1404
  25. ^ Saalih al-Munajjid, Muhammad (4 January 2017). "248875: Infallibility of the Prophets". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 8 July 2018. The Prophets were infallible in conveying the message from Allah, may He be exalted, so their words could not be but true and they did not make any mistake, whether deliberate or otherwise, in conveying the message. They were also infallible and protected from committing major sins such as zina (adultery) and theft. They were also infallible and protected from committing minor sins that are indicative of baseness, such as stealing a morsel of food or giving short measure.
  26. ^ Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, "Noah"
  27. ^ Quran 19:30–33
  28. ^ Quran 4:69
  29. ^ Quran 7:27
  30. ^ Quran 22:49–133
  31. ^ Rosskeen Gibb, Hamilton Alexander; Pellat, Charles; Schacht, Joseph; Lewis, Bernard (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 84.
  32. ^ Al-Amriki, Yusuf Talal Ali; Ullah, Qazi Thanaa (1985). Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh. Lahore, Pakistan: Kazi Publications. pp. 23–25.
  33. ^ Quran 10:47 (Translated by Muhammad A. S. Abdel Haleem)
  34. ^ a b "Qur'an: The Word of God | Religious Literacy Project". Harvard Divinity School. Archived from the original on 2018-10-06. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  35. ^ Sahih Ibn Hibban, hadith #361
  36. ^ "Radio Show: Jesus in Islam". Inside Islam. University of Wisconsin–Madison. 2011-12-21. Archived from the original on 2018-10-05. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
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  41. ^ Tahqeeq Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan, 2/79, "Shu‘ayb al-Arna’oot said: Its isnaad is da‘eef jiddan (very weak) – and he quoted the comments of the scholars about Ibraaheem ibn Hishaam."
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  44. ^ regard to Prophethood, some of the scholars – such as Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, al-Qurtubi and Ibn Hazm – were of the view that there were some female Prophets! including Maryam bint ‘Imraan. Their evidence is the verses in which it says that Allah, may He be exalted, sent revelation to the mother of Moosa, for example, and what it says about the angels speaking to Maryam (peace be upon her), and also what it says about Allah, may He be exalted, having chosen her above the women of the world.
  45. ^ scholars differed as to the meaning of the perfection of women. Some said, it refers to Prophethood. Ibn Hajar said in "al-Fath": "… it is as if he said: No women attained Prophethood except for So and so and So and so." (al-Fath, 6/447).
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  64. ^ Quran 2:251
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  66. ^ Quran 19:14
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  72. ^ a b c Quran 46:35
  73. ^ a b c Quran 33:7
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  75. ^ a b c d e Quran 42:13
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  86. ^ Quran 37:133
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  94. ^ a b Quran 19:51
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  96. ^ Quran 19:53
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  98. ^ Quran 17:55
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  105. ^ Quran 4:171
  106. ^ Quran 57:27
  107. ^ Quran 61:6
  108. ^ Page 50 "As early as Ibn Ishaq (85-151 AH) the biographer of Muhammad, the Muslims identified the Paraclete - referred to in John's ... "to give his followers another Paraclete that may be with them forever" is none other than Muhammad."
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  110. ^ Quran 33:40
  111. ^ Quran 42:7
  112. ^ Quran 7:158
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  118. ^ Quran 40:78
  119. ^ Quran 16:36
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  126. ^ Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories In Islamic Societies, p. 402. Ed. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. Syracuse University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780815630555
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  129. ^ a b The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Note 364: "Examples of the Prophets slain were: "the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar" (Matt. 23:35)
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  132. ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali refers to Hosea 8:14 for his notes on Q. 5:60
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