To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Islam and Sikhism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in the Arabian peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Islam means 'peace' or 'submission to god'.[1][2] The word Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple', or one who learns.[3]

Both religions are monotheistic. Sufi Muslims and Sikhs believe that the 'One' creator permeates the creation.[4][5][6] Salafi Muslims on the other hand disagree. Sufi Muslims differ from Sikhs in that they believe that God manifests his attributes, namely the 99 names or attributes through his creation.[4] According to Salafi Muslims, God's attributes are separate from his creation as he is only above his Throne which is incorrect as Suniyy Sufi Muslims believe that God is not like the creation in any way what so ever. Suniyy Sufi Muslims do not believe God is in need of a place.[7] Islam believes that Muhammad was the last prophet, to whom the Quran was revealed by God in the 7th century CE. Sikhism was founded in the 15th century CE by Guru Nanak and the Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as "The Living Guru".[5][8]

In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam and is mandatory for all Muslims.[9] Baptized Sikhs read the five banis (prayers) as part of their daily routine, Nitnem. Islam requires annual zakah (alms giving) by Muslims.[10] Kirat Karna (doing an honest livelihood - earning honestly without any sort of corruption), Naam Japna (to chant and meditate on Naam, read and follow "The One") and Vand Chhako (Selfless service (Sewa) and sharing with others) are fundamental to Sikhism given by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Pilgrimage (to Mecca) is a crucial part of Islam, while Sikhism denounces pilgrimages, circumcision and rituals.[11]

There has been a history of constructive influence and conflict between Islam and Sikhism. The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes teachings from Muslims, namely saints (Baba Farid), a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order and Kabir.[12][13][14]




Sikhism believes that God is formless (nirankar).[5][15] It has been called a form of pantheism,[6] as well as monotheism.[5] God in the nirgun aspect is without attributes, unmanifest, not seen, but all pervading and permeating, omnipresent. God in the sargun aspect is manifest has attributes, qualities, and seen in the whole creation. [Ik Onkar There is only one God, he is the eternal truth, he is without fear, he is without hate, immortal, without form, Beyond birth and death...]

Similarly, Islam believes in one God which means it's monotheistic (tawḥīd).[16][17] This Islamic doctrine is a part of its Shahada.[17]

[Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; (1) Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; (2) He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; (3) And there is none like unto Him. (4)] (Quran Al-Ikhlas)[18]

Guru and Messengers

Sikhism reveres Guru Nanak as the teacher that taught of the One Divine Creator, Lord on Earth, which is manifest in the ten forms of the ten Gurus of Sikhs. Sikhism accepts that there were divine messengers, including Moses, Jesus and Mohammed in other religions.[5]

Islam believes that before Muhammad there were many messengers of God, Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation to the last prophet.[19][20] This conflicts with Sikhism whose first messengers came around 800 years after Prophet Mohammed.

Duties/Articles of Faith

The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (testimony that "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of God"),[21] Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars.[22][23]

The three duties of Sikhs are Naam Japna (meditating on Waheguru's name), Kirat Karni (earn honest living) and Vand Chakna (sharing one's earning with others).[24] Baptized Sikhs, the Amritdharis are belonging to the Khalsa Panth. They wear the five articles of faith, known as 5 K´s, (1. Kes, uncut hair and beard, 2. Kangha, a wooden comb, 3. Kara, a bracelet worn around the wrist, 4. Kirpan, a small dagger and 5. Kachera, a special underwear). The Khalsa Panth was created on Vaisakhi 1699 by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. The baptized Sikhs have a set of seven sikh prayers, called Nitnem, which they practise on a daily basis, this is mandatory.[citation needed]

Social beliefs

Sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any form of discrimination within and against other religions.[25] Sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions.[8]

Sikhism rejects asceticism and celibacy.[26] The Sikhism founder Guru Nanak adopted the Indic ideas on rebirth, and taught the ideas of reincarnation.[26] Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from other religions.[8][27][page needed] Islam warns against wrongful innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[8]

Islam considers itself to be a perfect and final religion.[27] It warns against innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[8]

Islam believes in miracles and a final judgment day (kyamat).[28]


Apostasy, that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death.[21][29] According to the Hadiths, states John Esposito, leaving Islam is punishable by "beheading, crucifixion or banishment", and Sharia (Islamic legal code) traditionally has required death by the sword for an adult sane male who voluntarily leaves Islam.[21] However, adds Esposito, modern thinkers have argued against execution as penalty for apostasy from Islam by invoking Quranic verse 2:257.[21]

Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and choosing one's own path.[30]

View on other religions

Sikhism teaches that all religious traditions are valid, leading to the same Waheguru, and it rejects that any particular religion has a monopoly regarding absolute truth for all of humanity.[31]

Islam teaches that non-Islamic religious traditions have been distorted by man to suit their desires.[32][33]


Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs.[34][35] According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[36][full citation needed]

Sikhism also believes in predestination, and what one does, speaks and hears is already pre ordained, and one has to simply follow the laid down path per God's Hukum.[37]


Fasting is commended in Islam especially in the month of Ramadan.[38]

Sikhism does not regard fasting as meritorious. Fasting as an austerity, as a ritual, as a mortification of the body by means of wilful hunger is forbidden in Sikhism. Sikhism encourages temperance and moderation in food i.e. neither starve nor over-eat.[38]


Grooming and dress

The Khalsa panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair long (kesh) and men wear turbans (head hair cover) Women may also wear a turban by their choice. They carry a wooden comb, wear an iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan (steel sword).[39] Non baptized Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism.[40]

Muslim males are encouraged to grow their beards and trim the moustache.[41] Men in some Muslim communities wear turban (head cap).[42] Muslim men, as well as women, must dress modestly. For Muslim women, it is highly recommended to cover their hair. Muslim women are required to cover body in public,[43] with some Islamic scholars stating that the Islamic Hadiths require covering the face too.[44][45] Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not usually mix in public places such as mosques. These restrictions are part of 'Adab'.[41]


Sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice.[46]

In Islam, no verse in the Quran supports male or female circumcision (FGM/C).[47] Male circumcision is a widespread practice and considered mandatory for Muslim males according to Sunnah.[48] Muslim scholars disagree whether any authentic Sunnah in the hadiths supports the practice of female circumcision.[49][50][51] The Ijma, or consensus of Muslim scholars, varies by the Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) on whether circumcision is optional, honorable or obligatory for Muslim male and females.[note 1] Prominent Islamic scholars have both supported and opposed FGM/C for female Muslims.[52][53][note 1][note 2]


Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared.[57] Halal meat is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death, through bleeding, of the animal.[58] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessary.[57] Beef is a religiously acceptable food to Muslims, but pork and alcohol is not.[59] Muslims fast for the month of Ramadan.

Sikhs are prohibited from eating any type of meat like Islamic halal or Jewish kosher style meat because to them, this manner of obtaining meat involves a ritualistic component and a slow death of the animal. This is known as Kutha meat.[60][61] The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada only forbids the consumption of Kutha meat.[61] Charity meals distributed at a Sikh Gurudwara, called a langar, is only lacto-vegetarian.[60][62] Some groups[63] of Sikhism disagree with the consumption of meat altogether.[64] In practice, some Sikhs eat meat, while some Sikhs avoid meat. Baptized Sikhs are strict lacto-vegetarians .[61]


Muslim rulers in history, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, those who refuse to convert to Islam but live in a Muslim state. Dhimmis were excluded from having to pay Islamic religious tax such as zakat and excluded from observing other Islamic religious obligations.[65][66] Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims.[66] Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under some Muslim rulers, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.[66][67]

Sikhism has never required a special tax for non-Sikhs.

Worship place

The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple).
The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple).

The Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India is not only a central religious place of the Sikhs, but also a symbol of human brotherhood and equality. The four entrances of this holy shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The Golden Temple is a holy site for Sikhs and is welcome to people of any faith.[68]

Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious place in Islam.[69][70] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam,[71] and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is one of the pillars of Islam. Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.


Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages; Muslims, in contrast, consider Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) a crucial part of the faith. However, the first Sikh Guru, Baba Guru Nanak, is known to have attended the Hajj on one occasion.


During Guru Nanak Dev ji's period of guruship many Sufi Muslims converted to sikhism and formed around 30 percent of the converts while Hindus formed 60 percent and the people who solely followed Guru Nanak became sikhs. The other 5 percent were from different faiths like parsis, Buddhists, Christians, tribesmen etc.

During the Mughal Empire, Sikh gurus were persecuted. The fifth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Arjan was executed by Jahangir.[72] There were exceptions too. During Muslim Emperor Akbar's rule, for example, Sikhism and diverse religions were accepted and flourished. He established an ibadat khana which served as a platform for religious debates and dialogues among different communities, including Sikhs. He also visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amardas at Goindwal, ate at the Langar kitchen, and offered donations for Langar.[73][74]

Guru Hargobind, (sixth Guru of the Sikhs), after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan saw that it would no longer be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms.[75] He built Akal Takhat the Throne of the Immortal and it is the highest political institution of the Sikhs and he also wore two swords of Miri and Piri.[76]

When Kashmiri Pandits were being forcefully converted to Islam my Aurangzeb Guru Tegh Bahadur (ninth Guru) was tortured and beheaded for refusing to convert by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi,[77] fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were also tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch.[78][79]

Tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh formed Khalsa known as Army of Akal Purakh (Immortal) and Gave 5 Ks to Khalsa. Roughly 20 percent of the Khalsa is of Muslim descent Two of the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh ;Sahibzaade Fateh Singh aged 7 and Sahibzaade Zorawar Singh aged 9 were bricked up alive by the governor Wazir Khan in Sirhind (Punjab). When Guru Gobind Singh was in South India, he sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the repressive Mughal faiy`dar of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of the first Sikh empire.[80] the Nawab of Malerkotla Sher Mohammad Khan, protested against the execution of Sahibzadas, after which Guru Gobind Singh blessed the state. This is considered as a reason by many historians due to which Malerkotla was the only city not harmed by Banda Singh Bahadur during his military campaign.[81][82]

The Muslims under Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire were mostly treated favorably and comprised the majority of the population of the empire. Ranjit Singh declared during his coronation that Muslims would be governed under Islamic law and appointed many of them in important official positions. The Muslim religious leadership and mosques continuously received state support under Sikh rule.[83][84] This was in contrast with the Muslims of Kashmir valley where Sikh rule was generally oppressive,[85] although Punjab was governed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Kashmir was ruled by Hindu Gulab Singh who Protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore.[86] The region had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh in 1819.[87] As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers,[88] however this perception later changed.[85] The Sikh rulers of Kashmir enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws,[86] which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter,[88] closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, the public Muslim call to prayer.[86] Several European visitors who visited Kashmir during Sikh rule wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikh rulers. High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside.[88] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax.[86]

Afterwards during the British rule Sikhs and Punjabi Muslims shared brotherhood and both participated in and British Indian army and were loyal ,note not all muslims just punjabi ones, to them during the revolt of 1857.

During partition Muhammad Ali Jinnah promised Sikhs under Master Tara Singh an autonomous region. But Jawahar Lal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi both fearing that Sikhs would join Pakistan also promised an autonomous state.After Independence, the Congress leaders of India forgot their promises, given to the Sikhs to secure their support in backing the partition of Punjab. These very same Congress leaders were later to adopt every conceivable posture, shrinking from no stratagem to keep the Sikhs stateless and not allowing Punjabi to be recognized as an official language of India. At the time the former colonial kingdoms and Princely States were being divided along language differences. The Sikhs and Punjab were denied any special status in the Constitution Act of India.

In 1954, when Master Tara Singh reminded Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru of the solemn understanding given to Sikhs many times on behalf of the majority Hindu community, that after Independence the Sikhs would be given an autonomous state, he coolly replied, the circumstances have now changed.[89]

Recent relations

During the partition of India in 1947, there was much bloodshed between Sikhs and Muslims, there was mass migration of people from all walks of life to leave their homes and belongings and travel by foot across the new border, on trains and on land people were killed in what was felt to be revenge attacks.[90] Millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan.[90] Malerkotla was however not affected and was viewed as a safe haven for Muslims during the partition. The popular myth associated with it is that the town was not impacted because of Guru Gobind Singh blessing it after its Nawab protested against the execution of the Guru's sons.[82]

Since 9/11 Muslims and Sikhs in America have endured hate crimes, denial of employment, bullying in schools and profiling in airports.[91]

In the UK, there have some instances of tension between Sikhs and Muslims on allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam.[92][93]

In 2009, the Taliban in Pakistan demanded that Sikhs in the region pay them the jizya (poll tax levied by Muslims on non-Muslim minorities).[94]

In 2010 the Taliban, a terrorist group, attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings.[95]

In April 2016, two Muslim teens bombed a gurdwara in the German city of Essen. The two teen converted fire extinguishers into an explosive device. The devices detonated after a wedding party had left for the reception. A gurdwara priest was injured seriously, while two others were treated for minor injuries. The gurdwara building was damaged severely. One of the teens was in deradicalization program. The two denied it was religiously motivated saying “just for the kick of building fireworks!” However, before setting off the blast, the two 16-year-olds tried to break into the Sikh place of worship, North Rhine Westphalia (NRW).[96]

Sufi Muslims and Sikhs

In South Asia alone there are over 200 million Muslims who are followers of Sufi traditions, the most notable being the Barelvi movement.[97] The Sikh Gurus had cordial relations with many Muslim Sufi Saints, and in the Sikh Holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, many Sufi and other Muslim scholars’ quotes and wisdom are featured..[13]

In December 1588, a Sufi saint of Lahore, Mian Mir, visited Guru Arjan Dev at the initiation ceremony before the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple).[98]

Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam is a Muslim reform movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (regarded as the Masih and Mahdi) with goal of purifying, defendinging, and prosthelisizing Islam..[99] Since the 18th century, Sufis and ancestors of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad – the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement – had cordial relations with Sikhs.but soon the Sikh war band of the Rambharias attacked them and they fought the Ramgharias. [100] However, as Ranjit Singh established the Sikh Empire, they pledged their loyalty and joined his army. In return, Ranjit Singh returned to them some of the lost territoryof their Jagir for their service as commanders.[100]

See also


  1. ^ a b According to Islamic scholars Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi, "Examination of all the texts on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) shows that scholars have no consensus on FGM/C. For example the four schools of thought express the following views: The Hanafi view is that it is a sunnah (optional act) for both females and males; Maliki hold the view that it is wajib (obligatory) for males and sunnah (optional) for females; Shafi’i view it as wajib (obligatory) for both females and males; Hanbali have two opinions: it is wajib (obligatory) for both males and females, and it is wajib (obligatory) for males and makrumah (honourable) for females.[54]
  2. ^ According to 2016 estimates of UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women alive today worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting.[55] The 2013 report by the UNICEF states, "in many countries, FGM/C prevalence is highest among Muslim girls and women. The practice, however, is also found among Catholic and other Christian communities."[56]


  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  2. ^ Lewis, Barnard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2009). Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton. pp. 8. ISBN 9780132230858.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2015-05-25.
  4. ^ a b William Chittick, Sufism: A Short Introduction
  5. ^ a b c d e Johal, Jagbir (2011). Sikhism today. Continuum. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-4411-8140-4.
  6. ^ a b Sikhism in Its Relation to Muhammadanism, p. 12, at Google Books
  7. ^ Alexander Stewart (2016-07-01), Chinese Muslims and the Global Ummah: Islamic Revival and Ethnic Identity, p. 43, ISBN 9781317238478
  8. ^ a b c d e Singh, Gurapreet (2003). The soul of Sikhism. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6.
  9. ^ Fisher, Mary (1997). Living religions : an encyclopedia of the world's faiths. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-86064-148-0.
  10. ^ Rai, Priya (1989). Sikhism and the Sikhs. Greenwood Press. pp. 230–233. ISBN 978-0-313-26130-5.
  11. ^ D.S Chahal (Editors: John Peppin etc.) (2004). Religious perspectives in bioethics. London u.a: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-54413-9.
  12. ^ Shapiro, Michael (2002). Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. Journal of the American Oriental Society. pp. 924, 925.
  13. ^ a b Deol, Harnik (2000). Religion and Nationalism in India. London and New York: Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7.
  14. ^ Pashaura Singh (2000). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 174–180. ISBN 978-0-19-564894-2.
  15. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-106276-6.
  16. ^ "From the article on Tawhid in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  17. ^ a b Malise Ruthven (2004). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
  18. ^ "112. The Unity, Sincerity, Oneness Of Allah".
  19. ^ Gülen, Fethullah (2005). The Messenger of God Muhammad : an analysis of the Prophet's life. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-932099-83-6.
  20. ^ Scott Noegel; Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Historical dictionary of prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow. pp. 227–229. ISBN 978-0-8108-4305-9.
  21. ^ a b c d Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7.
  22. ^ See: * Mumen (1987), p.178, "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  23. ^ Knight, Ian; Scollins (23 March 1990). Richard (ed.). Queen Victoria's Enemies: India No.3. Men-at-arms (Paperback ed.). Osprey Publishing; illustrated edition. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-85045-943-2.
  24. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  25. ^ Baksh, Kaiyume (1 January 2007). Islam and Other Major World Religions. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 9781425113032 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ a b Carmody, Denise (2013). Ways to the center : an introduction to world religions. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-133-94225-2.
  27. ^ a b Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford handbook of global religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976764-9.
  28. ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Islamic world : past and present. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-19-516520-3.
  29. ^ Ali, Kecia (2008). Islam : the key concepts. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7.
  30. ^ Pal Kaur, Apostasy: A sociological perspective, Sikh Review, 45(1), 1997, pp. 37-40
  31. ^ Haar, Kristen (2005). Sikhism. San Val. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1417638536.
  32. ^ Rippin, Andrew (2010). The Islamic world. London: Routledge. pp. 252–258. ISBN 978-0-415-60191-7.
  33. ^ Sirry, Munim (2014). Scriptural polemics : the Qur'an and other religions. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 43–64. ISBN 978-0-19-935936-3.
  34. ^ See:
    • Quran 9:51
    • D. Cohen-Mor (2001), p.4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us…" ' "
    • Ahmet T. Karamustafa. "Fate". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online.: The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  35. ^ A Dictionary of Islam: By Thomas Patrick Hughes ISBN 81-206-0672-8 Page 591
  36. ^ Farah (2003), pp.119–122; Patton (1900), p.130; Momen (1987), pp.177,178
  37. ^ Singh, Gurapreet (2003). The soul of Sikhism. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6.
  38. ^ a b Singha, H.S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 9788170103011.
  39. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  40. ^ Basran, G. S. (2003). The Sikhs in Canada : migration, race, class, and gender. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-19-564886-7.
  41. ^ a b Martin, Richard (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. New York: Macmillan Reference USA Thomson/Gale. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.
  42. ^ Rubin, Alissa (2011-10-15). "Afghans Are Rattled by Rule on Searching Turbans". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  43. ^ Fulkerson, Mary (2012). The Oxford handbook of feminist theology. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 405–414. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1.
  44. ^ Hussain, Jamila (2011). Islam : its law and society. Australia: Federation Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1-86287-819-8.
  45. ^ Islam and the veil : theoretical and regional contexts. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 2012. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-1-4411-3519-3.
  46. ^ Devinder Chahal (2013). John Peppin; et al. (eds.). Religious Perspectives on Bioethics. Taylor & Francis. p. 213. ISBN 978-9026519673.
  47. ^ To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH, Medicine and Law, Volume 13, Number 7-8: July 1994, pp. 575-622, Chapter 2, Quote: "The Koran mentions neither male nor female circumcision."
  48. ^ Erich Kolig (2012). Conservative Islam: A Cultural Anthropology. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-7391-7424-1., Quote: "Islam makes male circumcision mandatory, which is usually done at a relatively early age. It is not commanded by the Quran, but contained in the Sunna."
  49. ^ Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi (2008), De-linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting from Islam, Population Council, Washington DC, pages 6, 12
  50. ^ E.J. Donzel (1994). Islamic desk reference. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 69–71. ISBN 978-90-04-09738-4.;
    Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab (1998). The individual and society in Islam. Paris: Unesco Pub. ISBN 978-92-3-102742-0.
  51. ^ Chaim, Vardit (1993). Islamic medical ethics in the twentieth century. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. Chapter 9. ISBN 978-90-04-09608-0.
  52. ^ CM Obermeyer, "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), March 1999, pp. 79–106
  53. ^ To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH, Medicine and Law, Volume 13, Number 7-8: July 1994, pp. 575-622
  54. ^ Ibrahim Lethome Asmani and Maryam Sheikh Abdi (2008), De-linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting from Islam, Population Council, Washington DC, page 13
  55. ^ At least 200 million girls and women alive today living in 30 countries have undergone FGM/C, UNICEF (2016)
  56. ^ Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change, UNICEF (2013), ISBN 978-92-806-4703-7, page 72
  57. ^ a b Quran 2:173
  58. ^ Riaz, Mian (2004). Halal food production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-58716-029-5.
  59. ^ Esposito, John (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3.
  60. ^ a b "In pictures: Sikhs in Britain". 27 July 2005 – via
  61. ^ a b c Nesbitt, Eleanor (2005). Sikhism, a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  62. ^ Michael Angelo (2013). The Sikh Diaspora: Tradition and Change in an Immigrant Community. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-136-52763-0.
  63. ^ Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2005). "2 Guru Nanak Nishkam Sewak Jatha". Sikh identity: an exploration of groups among Sikhs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-1. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  64. ^ Ann Goldman; Richard Hain; Stephen Liben (2006). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children. Oxford University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-19-852653-7.
  65. ^ John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 33-34
  66. ^ a b c Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199661633, pp. 99-109
  67. ^ Majid Khadduri (2010), War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pp. 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
  68. ^ "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People".
  69. ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  70. ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  71. ^ Nasr, Seyyed. Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Aperture. 2005
  72. ^ Singh, Prof. Kartar (2003-01-01). Life Story Of Guru Nanak. Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-81-7010-162-8. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  73. ^ Singh, Inderpal; Kaur, Madanjit; University, Guru Nanak Dev (1997). Guru Nanak, a global vision. Guru Nanak Dev University. ASIN B0000CP9NT. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  74. ^ Shah, Giriraj (1999). Saints, gurus and mystics of India. Cosmo Publications. p. 378. ISBN 978-81-7020-856-3. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  75. ^ V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
  76. ^ Lal, Muni (1 December 1988). Aurangzeb. Vikas Pub. House. ISBN 9780706940176 – via Google Books.
  77. ^ Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5.
  78. ^ Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  79. ^ Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur : testimony of conscience. pp. 33–61. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  80. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  81. ^ Randhawa, Karenjot Bhangoo (2012). Civil Society in Malerkotla, Punjab: Fostering Resilience Through Religion. Lexington Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-739-16737-3.
  82. ^ a b Forsythe, David P. (2009-08-27). Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-195-33402-9.
  83. ^ Duggal, Kartar Singh (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 55. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
  84. ^ Singh, Rishi (2015-04-23). State Formation and the Establishment of Non-Muslim Hegemony: Post-Mughal 19th-century Punjab. SAGE Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-9-351-50504-4.
  85. ^ a b Madan, T. N. (2008). "Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashmiriyat: An Introductory Essay". In Rao, Aparna (ed.). The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture?. Delhi: Manohar. Pp. xviii, 758. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-7304-751-0.
  86. ^ a b c d Zutshi, Chitralekha (2003). Language of belonging: Islam, regional identity, and the making of Kashmir. Oxford University Press/Permanent Black. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-19-521939-5.
  87. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India (Volume 15); Karachi to Kotayam. Great Britain Commonwealth Office. 1908. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-1-154-40971-0.
  88. ^ a b c Schofield, Victoria (2010). Kashmir in conflict: India, Pakistan and the unending war. I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-84885-105-4.
  89. ^ "Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". Retrieved 2020-09-30.
  90. ^ a b Pandey, Gyanendra (2001). Remembering partition violence, nationalism, and history in India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–19, 83–88, 153–158. ISBN 978-0-521-00250-9.
  91. ^
  92. ^ "Asian Network Reports Special - BBC Asian Network".
  93. ^ "Protest march over 'conversions'". 10 June 2007 – via
  94. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – World". Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  95. ^ "Pak Sikhs seeks security, Indian citizenship". 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  96. ^ "Sikh Temple bombing in Germany". The Independent.
  97. ^ Reference, Marshall Cavendish (2011), Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, ISBN 9780761479291
  98. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. Sanbun Publishers. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-93-80213-25-5.
  99. ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat : history, belief, practice. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 130–134. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.
  100. ^ a b Khan, Adil (2015). From Sufism to Ahmadiyya a Muslim minority movement in South Asia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0-253-01523-5.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:20
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.