To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

United States House Committee on Rules

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Committee on Rules
116th United States Congress
Seal of the U.S. House of Representatives
Logo of the United States House Committee on Rules
Committee Logo
History
FoundedApril 2, 1789 (1789-04-02)
New session started
January 3, 2019 (2019-01-03)
Leadership
Chairman
Jim McGovern (D)
since 2019
Ranking Member
Structure
Seats13 members
Political groups
Majority (9)
Minority (4)
Website
rules.house.gov

The Committee on Rules, or more commonly, the Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. It is responsible for the rules under which bills will be presented to the House of Representatives, unlike other committees, which often deal with a specific area of policy. The committee is often considered one of the most powerful committees as it influences the introduction and process of legislation through the House. Thus it has garnered the nickname the "traffic cop of Congress". A rule is a simple resolution of the House of Representatives, usually reported by the Committee on Rules, to permit the immediate consideration of a legislative measure, notwithstanding the usual order of business, and to prescribe conditions for its debate and amendment.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    763 231
    619 284
    2 870
  • ✪ Congressional Committees: Crash Course Government and Politics #7
  • ✪ Congressional Leadership: Crash Course Government and Politics #8
  • ✪ The House Rules Committee

Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics and today we're going to get down and dirty wallowing in the mud that is Congress. Okay, maybe that's a little unfair, but the workings of Congress are kind of arcane or byzantine or maybe let's just say extremely complex and confusing, like me, or Game of Thrones without the nudity. Some of the nudity, maybe. However, Congress is the most important branch, so it would probably behoove most Americans to know how it works. I'm going to try to explain. Be prepared to be behooved. Both the House of Representatives and the Senate are divided up into committees in order to make them more efficient. The committees you hear about most are the standing committees, which are relatively permanent and handle the day-to-day business of Congress. The House has 19 standing committees and the Senate 16. Congressmen and Senators serve on multiple committees. Each committee has a chairperson, or chair, who is the one who usually gets mentioned in the press, which is why you would know the name of the chair of the House Ways and Means Committee. Tell us in the comments if you do know, or tell us if you are on the committee, or just say hi. Congress creates special or select committees to deal with particular issues that are beyond the jurisdiction of standing committees. Some of them are temporary and some, like the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, are permanent. Some of them have only an advisory function which means they can't write laws. The Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming has only advisory authority which tells you pretty much all you need to know about Congress and climate change. There are joint committees made up of members of both houses. Most of them are standing committees and they don't do a lot although the joint Committee on the Library oversees the Library of Congress, without which we would not be able to use a lot of these pictures. Like that one, and that one, and ooh that one's my favorite. Other committees are conference committees, which are created to reconcile a bill when the House and Senate write different versions of it, but I'll talk about those later when we try to figure out how a bill becomes a law. So why does Congress have so many committees? The main reason is that it's more efficient to write legislation in a smaller group rather than a larger one. Congressional committees also allow Congressmen to develop expertise on certain topics. So a Congressperson from Iowa can get on an agriculture committee because that is an issue he presumably knows something about if he pays attention to his constituents. Or a Congressperson from Oklahoma could be on the Regulation of Wind Rolling Down the Plain Committee. Committees allow members of Congress to follows their own interests, so someone passionate about national defense can try to get on the armed services committee. Probably more important, serving on a committee is something that a Congressperson can claim credit for and use to build up his or her brand when it comes time for reelection. Congress also has committees for historical reasons. Congress is pretty tradish, which is what you say when you don't have time to say traditional. Anyway, it doesn't see much need to change a system that has worked, for the most part, since 1825. That doesn't mean that Congress hasn't tried to tweak the system. Let's talk about how committees actually work in the Thought Bubble. Any member of Congress can propose a bill, this is called proposal power, but it has to go to a committee first. Then to get to the rest of the House or Senate it has to be reported out of committee. The chair determines the agenda by choosing which issues get considered. In the House the Speaker refers bills to particular committees, but the committee chair has some discretion over whether or not to act on the bills. This power to control what ideas do or do not become bills is what political scientists call "Gatekeeping Authority", and it's a remarkably important power that we rarely ever think about, largely because when a bill doesn't make it on to the agenda, there's not much to write or talk about. The committee chairs also manage the actual process of writing a bill, which is called mark-up, and the vote on the bill in the committee itself. If a bill doesn't receive a majority of votes in the committee, it won't be reported out to the full House or Senate. In this case we say the bill "died in committee" and we have a small funeral on the National Mall. Nah we just put it in the shredder. Anyway, committee voting is kind of an efficient practice. If a bill can't command a majority in a small committee it doesn't have much chance in the floor of either house. Committees can kill bills by just not voting on them, but it is possible in the House to force them to vote by filing a discharge petition - this almost never happens. Gatekeeping Authority is Congress's most important power, but it also has oversight power, which is an after-the-fact authority to check up on how law is being implemented. Committees exercise oversight by assigning staff to scrutinize a particular law or policy and by holding hearings. Holding hearings is an excellent way to take a position on a particular issue. Thanks Thought Bubble. So those are the basics of how committees work, but I promised you we'd go beyond the basics, so here we go into the Realm of Congressional History. Since Congress started using committees they have made a number of changes, but the ones that have bent the Congress into its current shape occurred under the speakership of Newt Gingrich in 1994. Overall Gingrich increased the power of the Speaker, who was already pretty powerful. The number of subcommittees was reduced, and seniority rules in appointing chairs were changed. Before Gingrich or "BG" the chair of a committee was usually the longest serving member of the majority party, which for most of the 20th century was the Democrats. AG Congress, or Anno Gingrichy Congress, holds votes to choose the chairs. The Speaker has a lot of influence over who gets chosen on these votes, which happen more regularly because the Republicans also impose term limits on the committee chairs. Being able to offer chairmanships to loyal party members gives the Speaker a lot more influence over the committees themselves. The Speaker also increased his, or her - this is the first time we can say that, thanks Nancy Pelosi - power to refer bills to committee and act as gatekeeper. Gingrich also made changes to congressional staffing. But before we discuss the changes, let's spend a minute or two looking at Congressional staff in general. There are two types of congressional staff, the Staff Assistants that each Congressperson or Senator has to help her or him with the actual job of being a legislator, and the Staff Agencies that work for Congress as a whole. The staff of a Congressperson is incredibly important. Some staffers' job is to research and write legislation while others do case work, like responding to constituents' requests. Some staffers perform personal functions, like keeping track of a Congressperson's calendar, or most importantly making coffee - can we get a staffer in here? As Congresspeople spend more and more time raising money, more and more of the actual legislative work is done by staff. In addition to the individual staffers, Congress as a whole has specialized staff agencies that are supposed to be more independent. You may have heard of these agencies, or at least some of them. The Congressional Research Service is supposed to perform unbiased factual research for Congresspeople and their staff to help them in the process of writing the actual bills. The Government Accountability Office is a branch of Congress that can investigate the finances and administration of any government administrative office. The Congressional Budget Office assesses the likely costs and impact of legislation. When the CBO looks at the cost of a particular bill it's called "scoring the bill." The Congressional reforms after 1994 generally increased the number of individual staff and reduced the staff of the staff agencies. This means that more legislation comes out of the offices of individual Congresspeople. The last feature of Congress that I'm going to mention, briefly because their actual function and importance is nebulous, is the caucus system. These are caucuses in Congress, so don't confuse them with the caucuses that some states use to choose candidates for office, like the ones in Iowa. Caucuses are semi-formal groups of Congresspeople organized around particular identities or interests. Semi-formal in this case doesn't mean that they wear suits and ties, it means that they don't have official function in the legislative process. But you know what? Class it up a little - just try to look nice. The Congressional Black Caucus is made up of the African American members of the legislature. The Republican Study Group is the conservative caucus that meets to discuss conservative issues and develop legislative strategies. Since 2010 there is also a Tea Party caucus in Congress. There are also caucuses for very specific interests like the Bike Caucus that focuses on cycling. There should also be a Beard Caucus, shouldn't there? Is there a Beard Caucus Stan? No? What about an eagle punching caucus? The purpose of these caucuses is for like minded people to gather and discuss ideas. The caucuses can help members of Congress coordinate their efforts and also provide leadership opportunities for individual Congresspeople outside of the more formal structures of committees. There are a lot of terms and details to remember, but here's the big thing to take away: caucuses, congressional staff, and especially committees, all exist to make the process of lawmaking more efficient. In particular, committees and staff allow individual legislators to develop expertise; this is the theory anyway. Yes it's a theory. Committees also serve a political function of helping Congresspeople build an identity for voters that should help them get elected. In some ways this is just as important in the role in the process of making actual legislation. When Congress doesn't pass many laws, committee membership, or better yet, being a committee chair is one of the only ways that a Congressperson can distinguish him or herself. At least it gives you something more to learn about incumbents when you're making your voting choices. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week. Crash Course is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org Crash Course is made with all of these lovely people. Thanks for watching. Staffer! Coffee! Please. Thank you.

Contents

Jurisdiction

When a bill is reported out of one of the other committees, it does not go straight to the House floor (where a bill is talked about), because the House, unlike the United States Senate, does not have unlimited debate and discussion on a bill. Instead, what may be said and done to a bill is strictly limited. This limitation is performed by the Rules Committee.

When a bill is reported out of another committee with legislative jurisdiction, it is placed on the appropriate House Calendar for debate. Common practice, though, is for bills reported from committees to be considered in the Rules Committee, which will decide for how long and under what rules the full body will debate the proposition.

Consideration by the full body can occur in one of two forums: the Committee of the Whole, or on the floor of the full House of Representatives itself. Different traditions govern whether the Committee of the Whole or the House itself will debate a given resolution, and the Rules Committee generally sets the forum under which a proposition will be debated and the amendment/time limitations for every measure, too. For instance, there might be a limit on the number or types of amendments (proposed changes to the bill). Amendments might only be allowed to specific sections of the bill, or no amendments might be allowed at all. Besides control over amendments, the rule issued by the Rules Committee also determines the amount of speaking time assigned on each bill or resolution. If the leadership wants a bill pushed forward quietly, for instance, there might be no debate time scheduled; if they want attention, they might allow time for lengthy speeches in support of the bill.

Between control over amendments, debate, and when measures will be considered, the Rules Committee exerts vast power in the House. As such, the majority party will usually be very keen on controlling it tightly. While most House committees maintain membership in a rough proportion to the full chamber (If the majority party controls 55% of the House, it will tend to have 55% of committee seats), membership on the Rules Committee is disproportionately in favor of the majority party. Furthermore, the rules committee typically operates in a very partisan fashion, advancing rules to the floor on straight party line votes in nearly all cases.

History

The Rules Committee was formed on April 2, 1789, during the first Congress. However, it had nowhere near the powerful role it has today. Instead, it merely proposed general rules for the House to follow when debating bills (rather than passing a special rule for each bill), and was dissolved after proposing these general rules. These general rules still have a great impact on the tone of the House floor today.

The Rules Committee, for a long time, lay dormant. For the first fifty years of its existence, it accomplished little beyond simply reaffirming these rules, and its role was very noncontroversial. On June 16, 1841, it made a major policy change, reducing from ​23 to ​12 the fraction of votes needed in the House to close debate and vote on a bill.

In 1880, the modern Rules Committee began to emerge from the reorganization of the House Committees. When the Republican party took over the House in the election of 1880, they quickly realized the power that the Rules Committee possessed. One member, Thomas Brackett Reed (R-Maine), used a seat on the Rules Committee to vault himself to the Speakership, and gained so much power that he was referred to as "Czar Reed".

In the 1890s and 1900s, Reed and his successor, Joseph Gurney Cannon (R-Illinois) used the Rules Committee to centralize the power of the Speakership. Although their power to place members in committees and perform other functions was limited by a forced rule change in 1910, the Rules Committee retained its power. However, it ceased to function as the personal project of the Speaker, as it had originally; instead, as the seniority system took root, it was captured by a coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans. This state of affairs would continue until the 1960s.

In 1961, Speaker Sam Rayburn (D-Texas), acting on the wishes of the new President John F. Kennedy and the Democratic Study Group, introduced a bill to enlarge the committee from 12 members to 15, to decrease the power of the arch-conservative chairman, Howard W. Smith (D-Virginia). The bill passed, 217 votes to 212. However, it was only partially successful; the Rules Committee continued to block legislation including civil rights and education bills.

In the 1970s, however, the Rules Committee was firmly under the command of the Speaker once again. As before, its primary role is to come up with special rules, to help or obstruct the chances of legislation reported to it.

General types of rules

The Rules Committee issues the following types of rules:[2]

  • Open rule: Allows any member to offer any amendment in compliance with house rules under the five minute rule (a member argues for the amendment for 5 minutes, an opponent then argues against the amendment for 5 minutes, and the house then votes on the amendment). Debate continues until no one offers an amendment.
  • Modified open rule: Much like an open rule, but requires amendments to be preprinted in the congressional record beforehand, and may impose a total time limit for the consideration of all amendments.
  • Structured rule - Members submit amendments to the rules committee, and the rules committee selects which amendments may be considered on the floor.
  • Closed rule - Eliminates the opportunity to amend the bill on the floor, except under unanimous consent.

Most rules offer time for "general debate" before any amendment consideration begins (it is also possible for the rules committee to issue a rule for "general debate" only and later issue a second rule for amendment consideration) and allow for one motion to send the bill back to its committee of origination, with or without instructions for how to modify the bill. Rules may also include necessary authority for district work periods, and may waive or modify certain points of order or rules of the house if desired by the committee, and the committee is also allowed to self-execute amendments right in the rule rather than delegating this ability to the full house floor.[3]

Members, 116th Congress

Majority Party Minority Party
Democratic Republican

Sources: H.Res. 7 (Chair), H.Res. 8 (Ranking Member), H.Res. 24 (D), H.Res. 25 (R), H.Res. 26 (D), H.Res. 125 (D)

Subcommittees

The Rules Committee operates with three subcommittees, one focusing on legislative and budget matters, one focusing on the internal operations of the House, and one focusing on certain expedited procedures in the House.

Subcommittee Chair Ranking Member
Legislative and Budget Process Alcee Hastings Rob Woodall
Rules and the Organization of the House Norma Torres Debbie Lesko
Expedited Procedures Jamie Raskin Michael Burgess

Source: Full membership

Chairs, 1849–1853 and 1880–present

The Committee on Rules was created as a select committee but became a standing committee for the 31st and 32nd Congresses (1849–1853). In 1853, the panel reverted to being a select committee and remained one until 1880.[4]

Between 1880 and the revolt against Speaker Cannon, in March 1910, the Speaker of the House also served as Chairman of the Rules Committee.

Chair Party State Years Note
David S. Kaufman Democratic Texas 1849–1851 Died in office January 31, 1851[5]
George W. Jones Democratic Tennessee 1851–1853 [6]
Samuel J. Randall Democratic Pennsylvania 1880–1881 [7][8]
J. Warren Keifer Republican Ohio 1881–1883 [9]
John G. Carlisle Democratic Kentucky 1883–1889 [10]
Thomas B. Reed Republican Maine 1889–1891 1st term[11]
Charles F. Crisp Democratic Georgia 1891–1895 [12]
Thomas B. Reed Republican Maine 1895–1899 2nd term
David B. Henderson Republican Iowa 1899–1903 [13]
Joseph G. Cannon Republican Illinois 1903–1910 [14]
John Dalzell Republican Pennsylvania 1910–1911 [15]
Robert L. Henry Democratic Texas 1911–1917 [16]
Edward W. Pou Democratic North Carolina 1917–1919 1st term[17]
Philip P. Campbell Republican Kansas 1919–1923 [18]
Bertrand H. Snell Republican New York 1923–1931 [19]
Edward W. Pou Democratic North Carolina 1931–1934 2nd term. Died in

office April 1, 1934.

William B. Bankhead Democratic Alabama 1934–1935 [20]
John J. O'Connor Democratic New York 1935–1939 [21]
Adolph J. Sabath Democratic Illinois 1935–1947 1st term[22]
Leo E. Allen Republican Illinois 1947–1949 1st term[23]
Adolph J. Sabath Democratic Illinois 1949–1952 2nd term. Died in
office November 6, 1952.
Leo E. Allen Republican Illinois 1953–1955 2nd term
Howard W. Smith Democratic Virginia 1955–1967 [24]
William M. Colmer Democratic Mississippi 1967–1973 [25]
Ray J. Madden Democratic Indiana 1973–1977 [26]
James J. Delaney Democratic New York 1977–1979 [27]
Richard W. Bolling Democratic Missouri 1979–1983 [28]
Claude D. Pepper Democratic Florida 1983–1989 Died in office
May 30, 1989[29]
Joe Moakley Democratic Massachusetts 1989–1995 [30]
Gerald B. H. Solomon Republican New York 1995–1999 [31]
David T. Dreier Republican California 1999–2007 1st term[32]
Louise M. Slaughter Democratic New York 2007–2011 [33]
David T. Dreier Republican California 2011–2013 2nd term
Pete Sessions Republican Texas 2013–2019 [34]
Jim McGovern Democratic Massachusetts 2019-present

Historical members and subcommittees

Members, 114th Congress

Majority Party Minority Party
Republican Democratic

Sources: H.Res. 6 (Chairs), H.Res. 7 (D), H.Res. 17 (R) and H.Res. 22 (D).

Members, 115th Congress

Majority Party Minority Party
Republican Democratic

Sources: H.Res. 6 (R), H.Res. 7 (D), H.Res. 816 (D)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Committee on Rules". U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Rules. Retrieved November 3, 2006.
  2. ^ "About the Committee on Rules - History and Processes".
  3. ^ "Rule Information".
  4. ^ A Pre-Twentieth Century look at the House Committee on Rules, by Walter J. Olezek (House of Representatives, Rules Committee Democrats website; accessed January 16, 2011)
  5. ^ United States Congress. "Kaufman, David Spangler (id: K000021)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  6. ^ United States Congress. "Jones, George Washington (id: J000222)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  7. ^ United States Congress. "Randall, Samuel Jackson (id: R000039)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  8. ^ Committee on Rules – A History (House of Representatives, Rules Committee Democrats website; accessed January 16, 2011 (confirms Randall was Chairman)
  9. ^ United States Congress. "Keifer, Joseph Warren (id: K000048)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  10. ^ United States Congress. "Carlisle, John Griffin (id: C000152)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  11. ^ United States Congress. "Reed, Thomas Brackett (id: R000128)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  12. ^ United States Congress. "Crisp, Charles Frederick (id: C000908)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  13. ^ United States Congress. "Henderson, David Bremner (id: H000478)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  14. ^ United States Congress. "Cannon, Joseph Gurney (id: C000121)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  15. ^ United States Congress. "Dalzell, John (id: D000016)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  16. ^ United States Congress. "Henry, Robert Lee (id: H000516)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  17. ^ United States Congress. "Pou, Edward William (id: P000474)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
  18. ^ United States Congress. "Campbell, Philip Pitt (id: C000097)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  19. ^ United States Congress. "Snell, Bertrand Hollis (id: S000652)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  20. ^ United States Congress. "Bankhead, William Brockman (id: B000113)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  21. ^ United States Congress. "O'Connor, John Joseph (id: O000030)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  22. ^ United States Congress. "Sabath, Adolph Joachim (id: S000001)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  23. ^ United States Congress. "Allen, Leo Elwood (id: A000138)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  24. ^ United States Congress. "Smith, Howard Worth (id: S000554)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  25. ^ United States Congress. "Colmer, William Meyers (id: C000645)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  26. ^ United States Congress. "Madden, Ray John (id: M000039)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  27. ^ United States Congress. "Delaney, James Joseph (id: D000211)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  28. ^ United States Congress. "Bolling, Richard Walker (id: B000605)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  29. ^ United States Congress. "Pepper, Claude Denson (id: P000218)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  30. ^ United States Congress. "Moakley, John Joseph (id: M000834)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  31. ^ United States Congress. "Solomon, Gerald Brooks Hunt (id: S000675)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  32. ^ United States Congress. "Dreier, David Timothy (id: D000492)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  33. ^ United States Congress. "Slaughter, Louise McIntosh (id: S000480)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
  34. ^ United States Congress. "Sessions, Pete (id: S000250)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 26, 2013.

Further reading

  • Brauer, Carl M. "Women Activists, Southern Conservatives, and the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act", 49 Journal of Southern History, February 1983 online via JSTOR
  • Dierenfield, Bruce J. Keeper of the Rules: Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia (1987)
  • Dion, Douglas, and John D. Huber. "Procedural choice and the house committee on rules." Journal of Politics (1996) 58#1 pp: 25-53. online
  • Jenkins, Jeffery A., and Nathan W. Monroe. "Buying negative agenda control in the us house." American Journal of Political Science (2012) 56#4 pp: 897-912. online
  • Jones, Charles O. "Joseph G. Cannon and Howard W. Smith: an Essay on the Limits of Leadership in the House of Representatives" Journal of Politics 1968 30(3): 617-646.
  • Moffett, Kenneth W. "Parties and Procedural Choice in the House Rules Committee." Congress & the Presidency (2012) 39#1
  • Race, A. "House Rules and Procedure." in New Directions in Congressional Politics (2012): 111+
  • Robinson, James Arthur. The House rules committee(1963)
  • Schickler, Eric; Pearson, Kathryn. "Agenda Control, Majority Party Power, and the House Committee on Rules, 1937-52," Legislative Studies Quarterly (2009) 34#4 pp 455-491
  • Woods, Clinton Jacob, “Strange Bedfellows: Congressman Howard W. Smith and the Inclusion of Sex Discrimination in the 1964 Civil Rights Act,” Southern Studies, 16 (Spring–Summer 2009), 1–32.

External links

This page was last edited on 17 June 2019, at 15:37
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.