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Hill committee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Hill committees are the common name for the political party committees that work to elect members of their own party to United States Congress ("Hill" refers to Capitol Hill, where the seat of Congress, the Capitol, is located). The four major committees are part of the Democratic and Republican parties and each work to help members of their party get elected to each chamber (the House of Representatives and the Senate).

The committees

The four major committees are the:

Two third parties have Hill committees as well: The Libertarian National Congressional Committee (LNCC) for the Libertarian Party[1] and the Green Senatorial Campaign Committee (GSCC) for the Green Party of the United States.[2]


The goal of these committees is to maximize the number of seats under their party's control in a given chamber and to support incumbent members of their caucuses. To advance those goals, the committees spend the bulk of their resources on the closest, most competitive campaigns that are most likely to flip in party control.[3] Researcher Paul Herrnson called these competitive districts "opportunity races." In addition to opportunity, committees factor campaign and candidate quality, incumbency, and regional goals when weighing spending decisions.[4]

Each committee works to recruit, assist, and support candidates of their own party, for their own chamber, in targeted races around the country. The committees contribute directly to candidates' campaigns, while also providing campaign-related services that require specialized skills or expertise, like research or targeting.[3] Committees additionally make independent expenditures in support of candidates.[5]

Party committees act as hubs of information, sharing information, strategies, and tactics between connected organizations and allies. For example, party committees may share information about candidates in targeted elections in order to encourage members of the existing caucuses and allied organizations to endorse or donate to their campaign.[3]

Hill committee chairs of the major parties are historically incumbents of each body. As of 2023, the chairs of the DCCC and DSCC are appointed by the party leader, while the chairs of the NRCC and NRSC are voted on by their conference.[6][7][8][9] Typically, they are proven fundraisers with national political ambitions.[6][10] The committees are run on a day-to-day basis by a professional staff with campaign experience.


Party committees raise funds at the national level from donors whose focus is on Congress as a whole, rather than individual campaigns. The majority of funds for party committees is raised from individual donors.[11] Raising large contributions from national donors for their respective party committees is a major responsibility of House and Senate leadership.[12][13][14][15] Party committees additionally raise money from small donors, usually defined as individuals contributing of less than $200, the point at which the FEC requires a donors full name to be listed on fundraising reports.[16] PACs, representing interest groups, industries, or businesses, also provide a major source of funds for party committees.[11]

Additionally, party committees rely on "dues" paid by existing members of each party's caucuses.[17] Candidates can make unlimited transfers from personal campaign committees to party organizations, as well as a maximum contribution from any leadership PAC account. In the 2006 election cycle, contributions from members of Congress campaign committees and leadership PACs accounted for 8% of receipts collected by Republican party committees and 11% of receipts by Democratic party committees.[3]


  1. ^ "Libertarian National Committee Policy Manual" (PDF). Libertarian Party. June 6, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2023.
  2. ^ "Advisory Opinion 2006-36: Green Senatorial Committee attains national party status". Retrieved 2023-12-31.
  3. ^ a b c d Herrnson, Paul S. (October 2009). "The Roles of Party Organizations, Party-Connected Committees, and Party Allies in Elections". The Journal of Politics. 71 (4): 1207–1224. doi:10.1017/S0022381609990065. ISSN 0022-3816 – via JSTOR.
  4. ^ Herrnson, Paul S. (1989). "National Party Decision Making, Strategies, and Resource Distribution in Congressional Elections". The Western Political Quarterly. 42 (3): 301–323. doi:10.2307/448430. ISSN 0043-4078. JSTOR 448430.
  5. ^ Gonzales, Nathan (2015-05-07). "Parties Divide and Conquer Independent Spending". Roll Call. Retrieved 2023-12-31.
  6. ^ a b "Hakeem Jeffries' big decision: Picking a campaign chief with a majority in reach". NBC News. 2022-12-08. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  7. ^ Bowman, Bridget (2021-01-28). "Michigan's Gary Peters to lead Senate Democrats' campaign arm". Roll Call. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  8. ^ Jackson, Herb (2022-11-15). "Hudson to lead House GOP campaign arm for 2024 cycle". Roll Call. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  9. ^ Staff, NBC Montana (2022-11-16). "Daines elected chairman of National Republican Senatorial Committee". KECI. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  10. ^ Mucha, Sarah (2022-01-25). "Scoop: Race to lead NRCC kicks off". Axios.
  11. ^ a b Dwyre, Diana (April 21, 2017). "Political Parties and Campaign Finance What Role Do the National Parties Play?" (PDF). Prepared for the Campaign Finance Task Force Conference, Bipartisan Policy Center.
  12. ^ "Questions over fundraising dog new US House Speaker". Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  13. ^ Sotomayor, Marianna (2022-01-03). "House Democrats begin preparing for the post-Pelosi era". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  14. ^ "John Cornyn's fundraising prowess could be edge in eventual contest to succeed McConnell". Dallas News. 2023-09-11. Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  15. ^ Everett, Burgess (2022-09-13). "Schumer plows $15 million into battle for Senate". POLITICO. Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  16. ^ Cioffi, Chris (May 15, 2019). "Grasswho? Members raised hundreds of thousands, almost none from small donors". Roll Call. Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  17. ^ Schnaars, Deirdre Shesgreen and Christopher. "Lawmakers' dues to party: 'Extortion' or team effort?". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2024-01-02.

External links

This page was last edited on 19 May 2024, at 22:17
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