To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Russian oligarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Russian oligarchs (Russian: олигархи, romanized: oligarkhi) are business oligarchs of the former Soviet republics who rapidly accumulated wealth in the 1990s via the Russian privatisation that followed the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The failing Soviet state left the ownership of state assets contested, which allowed for informal deals with former USSR officials (mostly in Russia and Ukraine) as a means to acquire state property. Historian Edward L. Keenan has compared these oligarchs to the system of powerful boyars that emerged in late-medieval Muscovy.[1]

The Russian oligarchs emerged as business entrepreneurs under Mikhail Gorbachev (General Secretary 1985–1991) during his period of market liberalization.[2]Boris Berezovsky (businessman) was the first well-known Russian business oligarch, who was previously a government official, engineer and mathematician and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.[3]

During Yeltsin's presidency (1991–1999) oligarchs became increasingly influential in Russian politics; they helped finance his re-election in 1996. Well-connected oligarchs like Abramovich, Khodorkovsky, Berezovsky and Potanin acquired key assets at a fraction of the value at the loans for shares scheme auctions conducted in the run-up to the election.[4] Defenders of the out-of-favor oligarchs argue that the companies they acquired were not highly valued at the time because they still ran on Soviet principles, with non-existent stock control, huge payrolls, no financial reporting and scant regard for profit.[5]

Since 2014, hundreds of Russian oligarchs and their companies have been hit by US sanctions under the table of Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) for their support of "the Russian government's malign activity around the globe".[6][7] In 2022, many Russian oligarchs were targeted and sanctioned by countries around the world as a rebuke of Russia's war against Ukraine.

Yeltsin era

During Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika (c.  1985-1991), many businessmen in Russia imported goods such as personal computers and jeans into the country and sold them for a hefty profit.

During the 1990s, once Boris Yeltsin became President of Russia in July 1991, the oligarchs emerged as well-connected entrepreneurs who started from nearly nothing and became rich through participation in the market via connections to the corrupt, but elected, government of Russia during the state's transition to a market-based economy. The so-called voucher privatization program of 1992–1994 enabled a handful of young men to become billionaires, specifically by arbitraging the vast difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities (such as natural gas and oil) and the prices prevailing on the world market. Because they stashed billions of dollars in private Swiss bank accounts rather than investing in the Russian economy, they were dubbed "kleptocrats".[8] These oligarchs became extremely unpopular with the Russian public, and are commonly thought of as the cause of much of the turmoil that plagued the Russian Federation following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.[9][failed verification] The Guardian described the oligarchs as "about as popular with your average Russian as a man idly burning bundles of £50s outside an orphanage".[10][11]


Economists Sergei Guriev and Andrei Rachinsky contrast older oligarchs with nomenklatura ties and younger-generation entrepreneurs such as Kakha Bendukidze who built their wealth from scratch because Gorbachev's reforms affected a period "when co-existence of regulated and quasi-market prices created huge opportunities for arbitrage."[12]

The majority of oligarchs were promoted (at least initially) by the communist apparatchiks, with strong connections to Soviet power-structures and access to the funds of the Communist Party.[13][14][15]Boris Berezovsky (businessman) himself was Head of the Department of System Design at the another Academy of Sciences research centre, Institute of Control Sciences [ru]. His enterprise LogoVAZ [ru] was established by the Institute as a joint venture.[16]Mikhail Khodorkovsky started his business importing computers under auspices of the Komsomol-authorised Center for Scientific and Technical Creativity of the Youth in 1986, briefly serving as a deputy secretary of the Komsomol for a district in Moscow in 1987. His move into banking two years later was funded with support from Komsomol alumni working in Moscow city government. Later, he served in Russian government as an adviser to the prime minister and a deputy minister of fuel and power while still running his business.[17]

A friend and a business partner of Boris Berezovsky,[18] Yuli Dubov [ru] was a researcher at VNIISI as well.[19]Vladimir Vinogradov was the chief economist of Promstroibank, one of the six banks existing in the Soviet Union,[20] previously serving as the secretary of Atommash plant Komsomol organisation.[17]Economist Yegor Gaidar worked in the All-Union Research Institute for Systems Studies [ru] (VNIISI), a Soviet Academy of Sciences think tank modelled after RAND.[21] Gaidar later became the economics editor of the Kommunist journal, the official theoretical organ of the CC of the CPSU. He also held various positions up to the interim prime minister in the Russian government during 1991–1992.[22]

Russia's first generation of oligarchs include close associates of government officials, even government officials themselves, as well as criminal bosses often connected to the Russian government.[23][additional citation(s) needed] Some members of these groups achieved vast wealth by acquiring state assets very cheaply (or for free) during the privatization process controlled by the Yeltsin government of 1991–1999.[24][need quotation to verify] Specific accusations of corruption are often leveled at Anatoly Chubais and Yegor Gaidar, two of the "Young Reformers" chiefly responsible for Russian privatization in the early 1990s.[25][26][27] According to David Satter, author of Darkness at Dawn, "what drove the process was not the determination to create a system based on universal values but rather the will to introduce a system of private ownership, which, in the absence of law, opened the way for the criminal pursuit of money and power".[28]

At the end of the century

The 1998 Russian financial crisis hit some of the oligarchs hard, however, and those whose holdings were still based mainly in banking lost much of their fortunes.

The most influential oligarchs from the Yeltsin era include:[29]

They formed what became known as the Semibankirschina (or "seven-banker outfit", compare Seven Boyars), a small group of businessmen with a great influence on Boris Yeltsin and his political environment. Together they controlled from 50% to 70% of all Russian finances between 1996 and 2000.

Fridman and Potanin retained their wealth in the Putin era, which began in 1999. The Guardian reported in 2008 that "'oligarchs' from the era of former president Boris Yeltsin have been purged by the Kremlin".[30]

Putin era, 1999-2022 (prior to the invasion of Ukraine)

Putin (left), with Sergei Pugachev (behind center), Mikhail Fridman (center) and Mikhail Khodorkovsky (right) in 2001
Putin (left), with Sergei Pugachev (behind center), Mikhail Fridman (center) and Mikhail Khodorkovsky (right) in 2001

During Putin's first presidency term, a number of oligarchs came under fire for various illegal activities, particularly tax evasion in the businesses they acquired. However, it is widely speculated and believed that the charges were also politically motivated per these tycoons falling out of favor with the Kremlin.[31][32] Vladimir Gusinsky of MediaMost and Boris Berezovsky both avoided legal proceedings by leaving Russia, and the most prominent, Mikhail Khodorkovsky of Yukos oil, was arrested in October 2003 and sentenced to 9 years. This was subsequently extended to 14 years, and after Putin pardoned him, he was released on 20 December 2013.[33]

An economic study distinguished 21 oligarchic groups as of 2003.[12] Between 2000 and 2004, Putin apparently engaged in a power struggle with some oligarchs, reaching a "grand bargain" with them. This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain their powers, in exchange for their explicit support of – and alignment with – Putin's government.[34][35] However, other analysts argue that the oligarchic structure has remained intact under Putin, with Putin devoting much of his time to mediating power-disputes between rival oligarchs.[36] Some had been imprisoned, such as Mikhael Mirilashvili.

Many more have become oligarchs during Putin's time in power, and often due to personal relations with Putin, such as the director of the institute where Putin obtained a degree in 1996, Vladimir Litvinenko,[37] and Putin's childhood friend and judo-teacher Arkady Rotenberg.[38] Daniel Treisman proposed using a term "silovarch" (silovik and oligarch) for new Russian oligarchs with backgrounds in Russian military and intelligence.[39]

The 15 most-prominent oligarchs of the Putin era include Roman Abramovich, Alexander Abramov, Oleg Deripaska, Mikhail Prokhorov, Alisher Usmanov, German Khan, Viktor Vekselberg, Leonid Mikhelson, Vagit Alekperov, Mikhail Fridman, Dmitry Rybolovlev, Vladimir Potanin, Gennady Timchenko, Andrey Guryev and Vitaly Malkin.[40]

In 2004, Forbes listed 36 billionaires of Russian citizenship, with a note: "this list includes businessmen of Russian citizenship who acquired the major share of their wealth privately, while not holding a governmental position". In 2005, the number of billionaires dropped to 30, mostly because of the Yukos case, with Khodorkovsky dropping from No. 1 (US$15.2 billion) to No. 21 (US$2.0 billion).

A 2013 report by Credit Suisse found that 35% of the wealth of Russia was owned by the wealthiest 110 individuals.[41]

Billionaire, philanthropist, art patron and former KGB agent Alexander Lebedev has criticized the oligarchs, saying "I think material wealth for them is a highly emotional and spiritual thing. They spend a lot of money on their own personal consumption." Lebedev has also described them as "a bunch of uncultured ignoramuses", saying "They don't read books. They don't have time. They don't go to [art] exhibitions. They think the only way to impress anyone is to buy a yacht." He also notes that the oligarchs have no interest in social injustice.[42]

The "Putin list"

On 30 January 2018, the U.S. Treasury published a "list of oligarchs" as part of a document known as the "Putin list" which was compiled under the requirement of the CAATSA Act.[43][44] According to the document itself, its criterion for inclusion was simply being a Russian national with a net worth of over $1 billion.[45] The list was criticised for being indiscriminate, and including critics of Putin.[46]

Oligarchs in London

A significant number of Russian oligarchs have bought homes in upmarket sections of London[47] in the United Kingdom, which has been dubbed "Moscow on Thames" or "Londongrad".[48] Some, such as Eugene Shvidler, Alexander Knaster, Konstantin Kagalovsky, David Wilkowske and Abram Reznikov, are expatriates, having taken permanent residency in London. Most own homes in both countries as well as property and have acquired controlling interests in major European companies. They commute on a regular basis between London and Russia; in many cases their families reside in London, with their children attending school there. In 2007 Abram Reznikov bought one of Spain's mega recycling companies, Alamak Espana Trade SL, while Roman Abramovich bought the English football club Chelsea F.C. in 2003, spending record amounts on players' salaries.[49]

The billionaire Moscow oligarch Mikhail Fridman, Russia's second richest man at a time, was restoring Athlone House in London as a primary residence in 2016,[50] to be worth an estimated £130 million when restored.[51]

2008 global recession and credit crisis

According to the financial news-agency Bloomberg L.P., Russia's wealthiest 25 individuals have collectively lost US$230 billion (£146 billion) since July 2008.[52][53][54] The fall in the oligarchs' wealth relates closely to the meltdown in Russia's stock market, as by 2008 the RTS Index had lost 71% of its value due to the capital flight after the Russo-Georgian War of August 2008.[55]

Billionaires in Russia and Ukraine have been particularly hard-hit by lenders seeking repayment on balloon loans to shore up their own balance sheets. Many oligarchs took out generous loans from Russian banks, bought shares, and then took out more loans from western banks against the value of these shares.[42][56] One of the first to get hit by the global downturn was Oleg Deripaska, Russia's richest man at the time, who had a net worth of US$28 billion in March 2008. As Deripaska borrowed money from western banks using shares in his companies as collateral, the collapse in share price forced him to sell holdings to satisfy the margin calls.[42][56]

Putin Era, 2022 Invasion of Ukraine and Western sanctions

After the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Canada, US, and European leaders with the addition of Japan, took unprecedented steps to sanction Putin and the oligarchs directly.[57] In response to the sanctions, the targeted oligarchs started to hide wealth in an attempt to prevent the Western nations from freezing their assets.[58] These sanctions intend to directly impact the Russian ruling class as a response for their perceived contribution and acquiescence to the war with Ukraine. Although the sanctions miss some of the richest oligarchs, the impact on the war is unknown due to Putin's power over those that were sanctioned.[59] Since the invasion began, nine of the Russian oligarchs' yachts have turned their navigation transponders off as they sail to ports where they are less likely to be searched and seized.[60]

On March 2, 2022, the United States announced a special task force dubbed "Task Force KleptoCapture". This team was put together to specifically target oligarchs. It is made up of officials from the FBI, Marshals Service, IRS, Postal Inspection Service, Homeland Security Investigations and Secret Service. The main goal of the task force is to impose the sanctions set against these individuals to freeze and seize the assets that the US government claimed were proceeds of their illegal involvement with the Russian government and the invasion of Ukraine.[61]On March 21, 2022, the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project launched Russian Asset Tracker to showcase the profiles and assets of several Russian oligarchs.[62]

In the aftermath of the war in Ukraine several dozen business people with family connections to top politicians have joined the oligarchy. These include President Putin’s younger daughter Katerina Tikhonova, who through her investment fund has been the recipient of numerous large contracts from state-owned energy companies.[63] Her former husband Kirill Shamalov runs the largest Russian petrochemicals company Sibur as well as his own investment fund.[64]The closest friend of President Putin’s daughter Kirill Dmitriev has become a billionaire by investing in Russian technology and agri-processing companies, while receiving state subsidies for their R&D activities.[65]

Other oligarchs have sprung up within the families of President Putin’s lieutenants. The son-in-law of Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov runs an investment fund with assets exceeding $6 billion (Varvitsioti et al 2022). [66]The son-in-law of Viktor Medvedchuk, President Putin’s former closest ally in Ukraine, runs another investment fund with large agricultural holdings which have become recipients of state subsidies for import substitution (Rouhandeh 2022). [67]Petr Fradkov, the son of a former Prime Minister and head of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Sergei Sergeevich Ivanov, the son of the former head of the presidential administration Sergei Ivanov, and Andrey Patrushev, the son of the current head of the Russian Security Council Nikolai Patrushev have all joined the ranks of the oligarchs. [68]

The list of oligarchs who have been sanctioned includes:

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ Treisman, Daniel; Shleifer, Andrei (21 March 2004). "A Normal Country". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  2. ^ Scheidel, Walter (9 January 2017). The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century. Princeton University Press, pages 27-86. ISBN 978-1-4008-8460-5.
  3. ^ "Boris Abramovich Berezovsky" Profile on
  4. ^ Whitmore, Brian (29 September 2005). "Russia: The End Of Loans-For-Shares". RadioFreeEurope.
  5. ^ Aslund, Anders (1995). Russia's Crony Capitalism: The Path from Market Economy to Kleptocracy. Yale University Press, pages 45-112.
  6. ^ "Treasury Designates Russian Oligarchs, Officials, and Entities in Response to Worldwide Malign Activity | U.S. Department of the Treasury". Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  7. ^ Kolesnikov, Andrei. "Russian Oligarchs in the Era of Sanctions". Carnegie Moscow Center. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  8. ^ Granville, Johanna (Summer 2003). "The Russian Kleptocracy and Rise of Organized Crime". Demokratizatsiya: 448–457. The Russian state has metamorphosed into a full-fledged 'kleptocracy' – dedicated to enriching those in power and their associates, usually organized criminal groups.
  9. ^ Holmstrom, Nancy; Smith, Richard (February 2000). "The Necessity of Gangster Capitalism: Primitive Accumulation in Russia and China". Monthly Review. Monthly Review Foundation. 51 (9): 1. doi:10.14452/MR-051-09-2000-02_1.
  10. ^ "Profile: Boris Berezovsky". BBC News. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  11. ^ "What a carve-up!". The Guardian. 3 December 2005. Retrieved 14 June 2020. Putin, able to see matters rather straighter than Yeltsin, realised two crucial things about the oligarchs: that they were potentially more powerful than him, and that they were about as popular with your average Russian as a man idly burning bundles of £50s outside an orphanage (according to one 2004 poll, only 18% of Russians opposed wholesale renationalisation of the country's resources).
  12. ^ a b Guriev, Sergei; Rachinsky, Andrei (2005). "The role of oligarchs in Russian capitalism". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (1): 131–150. doi:10.1257/0895330053147994.
  13. ^ Aslund, Anders (1995). Russia's Crony Capitalism: The Path from Market Economy to Kleptocracy. Yale University Press, pages 45-112.
  14. ^ Wilson, Andrew (2005). Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. Yale University Press.
  15. ^ Braguinsky, Serguey; Myerson, Roger (2007). "A macroeconomic model of Russian transition". Economics of Transition. 15 (1): 77–107. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0351.2007.00280.x. S2CID 154973586.
  16. ^ Berezovsky v Abramovich [2012] EWHC 2463 (Comm)
  17. ^ a b Gustafson, Thane (1999). Capitalism Russian-style. Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–122. ISBN 0521645956.
  18. ^ Ball, Tom (4 August 2020). "Security service 'ignored warnings about Putin threat'". The Times.
  19. ^ Yanik, Andrey (2012). The history of contemporary Russia: The origins and lessons of the latest Russian modernisation (1985–1999). Moscow: Contemporary History Fund; Moscow University Press. p. 182.
  20. ^ "Vladimir Vinogradov: Pioneer of private banking in Russia". The Times. 6 July 2008.
  21. ^ Aven, Petr (2021). Vremia Berezovskogo. Moscow: Corpus (AST). ISBN 978-5-17-104791-7.
  22. ^ "Egor Gaidar: biography". Retrieved 17 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ "Organized Crime in Russia". Stratfor.
  24. ^ Freeland, Chrystia (2000). Sale of the Century: Russia's Wild Ride from Communism to Capitalism. New York: Crown Business.
  25. ^ "Grigory Yavlinsky". Central Connecticut State University. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  26. ^ "Privatization in Russia: its past, present, and future". SAM Advanced Management Journal. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  27. ^ Ostalski, Andrei (16 December 2009). "Yegor Gaidar: The price to pay". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  28. ^ Satter, David (2003). "The History of Reform". Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State (reprint ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press (published 2004). p. 46. ISBN 9780300105919. Retrieved 14 June 2020. ... what drove the process was not the determination to create a system based on universal values but rather the will to introduce a system of private ownership, which, in the absence of law, opened the way for the criminal pursuit of money and power.
  29. ^ "The Russian Oligarchs of the 1990s: Boris Berezovsky, Mikhail Friedman, Vladimir Gusinsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vladimir Potanin, Alexander Smolensky, Vladimir Vinogradov". San Jose State University. Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  30. ^ Parfitt, Tom (19 February 2008). "Billionaires boom as Putin puts oligarchs at No 2 in global rich list". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  31. ^ "European Court: Khodorkovsky's Rights Violated". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  32. ^ "Khodorkovsky speaks out on plight of Russia's political prisoners". Euronews. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  33. ^ "Hague court awards $50 bn compensation to Yukos shareholders". Russia Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  34. ^ Putin: Russia's Choice. Richard Sakwa, (Routledge, 2008) pp. 143–150[ISBN missing]
  35. ^ Playing Russian Roulette: Putin in search of good governance, by Andre Mommen, in Good Governance in the Era of Global is Neoliberalism: Conflict and Depolitisation in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, by Jolle Demmers, Alex E. Fernández Jilberto, Barbara Hogenboom (Routledge, 2004)[ISBN missing]
  36. ^ Weiss, Andrew S. (30 December 2013). "Opinion | Russia's Oligarchy, Alive and Well". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  37. ^ "The fabulous riches of Putin's inner circle". The Bureau Investigates. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  38. ^ Yablon, Alex. "Know Your Russian Moguls". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  39. ^ Treisman, Daniel (1 December 2007). "Putin's Silovarchs". Orbis. 51 (1): 141–153. doi:10.1016/j.orbis.2006.10.013. ISSN 0030-4387.
  40. ^ Borak, Donna (30 January 2018). "The full 'Putin list' of Russian oligarchs and political figures released by the US Treasury". CNN. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  41. ^ Chalabi, Mona (9 October 2013). "The world's wealthy: where on earth are the richest 1%?". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  42. ^ a b c Harding, Luke (25 October 2008). "Twilight of the oligarchs". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  43. ^ "Russian Individuals Named on US 'Oligarch List'". VOA. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  44. ^ McKenzie, Sheena; Gaouette, Nicole; Borak, Donna (30 January 2018). "The full 'Putin list' of Russian oligarchs and political figures released by the US Treasury | CNN Politics". CNN. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  45. ^ "Report to Congress Pursuant to Section 241 of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act of 2017 Regarding Senior Foreign Political Figures and Oligarchs in the Russian Federation and Russian Parastatal Entities". Financial Times. 29 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  46. ^ Stubbs, Jack; Devitt, Polina (30 January 2018). "U.S. names Kremlin outliers in 'telephone directory' sanctions report". Reuters U.K. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  47. ^ Michael Weiss, "In Plain Sight: The Kremlin's London Lobby", World Affairs, Vol. 175, No. 6 (March/April 2013), pp. 84–91.
  48. ^ According to British journalist Nick Watt, reporting for ABC's Nightline (broadcast of 1 June 2007).
  49. ^ "Over there: American and other foreign owners are revolutionizing British football", The Boston Globe, 25 May 2007
  50. ^ Behrmann, Anna (30 June 2016). "New Athlone House owner: 'I want to restore it to its former glory'". Hampstead Highgate Express. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  51. ^ Woollacott, Emma (15 September 2016). "Billionaire's plans for £65 million derelict mansion approved". AOL. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  52. ^ Chorafas, D. Capitalism without capital. Springer, 2009.
  53. ^ "Russia's Richest Have Lost $62 Billion This Year". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  54. ^ "Russian Rich Lose $10 Billion in Two Days as Ruble Drops". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  55. ^ Thomas, Landon Jr. (5 September 2008). "Russia's Oligarchs May Face a Georgian Chill". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  56. ^ a b "Margin Calls Ignite Billionaire Fire Sale". Archived from the original on 26 October 2008.
  57. ^ Lozano, Alicia (26 February 2022). "Here are the Russian oligarchs targeted in Biden's sanctions". CNBC. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  58. ^ Cormack, Rachel (March 2022). "Russian Billionaires Are Moving Their Luxury Superyachts to Avoid Having Them Seized". Robb Report. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  59. ^ The Associated Press (26 February 2022). "The U.S. sanctions on Russian oligarchs miss the richest of the rich". NPR. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  60. ^ Lozano, Alicia (26 February 2022). "Here are the Russian oligarchs targeted in Biden's sanctions". CNBC. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  61. ^ Macias, Amanda (2 March 2022). "Biden administration launches new 'KleptoCapture' task force to go after Russian oligarchs". CNBC. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  62. ^ Valinsky, Jordan (21 March 2022). "New Russian asset tracker details oligarchs' mansions and yachts". CNN Business. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  63. ^ Andrey Rudakov. (July 14. 2022). “Putin’s daughter has a big new job at Russia’s most powerful business lobby,”. Fortune Magazine website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  64. ^ Guardian staff. (10 March, 2022). “Russia: the oligarchs and business figures on western sanction lists,”. The Guardian website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  65. ^ John Hyatt. (8 March, 2022). “How Putin Used Russia’s Sovereign Wealth Fund to Create A ‘State-Sponsored Oligarchy’”. Forbes website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  66. ^ Varvitsioti, E., H. Foy, V. Pop. (9 March, 2022). “EU set to add 14 more Russian business chiefs to its sanctions list”. Financial Times website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  67. ^ Rouhandeh, A. (15 April, 2022). “If Putin Picks Puppet Ukraine Leader, Viktor Medvedchuk is Odds-on Favorite”. Newsweek website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  68. ^ Taylor, A. and T. Bove. (23 February, 2022). “Meet the Russian billionaires and elites getting hit with sanctions in escalating Ukraine conflict”. Fortune website Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  69. ^ "Sanctions on Russian Fund Show Dashed Hope of Moscow's Cooperation with Democracies". Forbes.
  70. ^ "Notice of OFAC Sanctions Actions." Published 3 March 2022. 87 FR 12216
  71. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Elites and Companies in Economic Sectors that Generate Substantial Revenue for the Russian Regime". US Treasury. 2 August 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  72. ^ "EU sanctions Russian businessman Gutseriyev over ties with Belarus". Reuters. 21 June 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  73. ^ "Putin's daughter has a big new job at Russia's most powerful business lobby". Fortune. 14 July 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  74. ^ "Treasury Designates Russian Oligarchs, Officials, and Entities in Response to Worldwide Malign Activity". US Treasury. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  75. ^ "U.S. Treasury Announces Unprecedented & Expansive Sanctions Against Russia, Imposing Swift and Severe Economic Costs". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  76. ^ Lukowski, Andrzej (13 July 2022). "'Patriots' review". TimeOut.
  77. ^ Tavernise, Sabrina (22 September 2002). "Film About Tycoon Reveals Lifestyles of the Rich and Russian". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 August 2022.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 27 January 2023, at 19:28
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.