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Borders of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Typical border marker of Russia
Typical border marker of Russia

Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. With a land border running 20,241 kilometres (12,577 mi) in total, Russia has (after China), the second-longest land border of any country.

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Transcription

Having access to the sea in type of thing countries will start world wars over, and causes strange border situations like these exclaves, which are parts of countries only accessible by land through other countries. Like this piece of Russia detached from the rest. To understand why, we need to go back to World War one. Before the war, East Prussia, a border region of the German Empire, covered the land which became the exclave. After the war a Poland was re-created (As the Second Polish Republic), and given West Prussia, so it could have a corridor to the sea. The port of Danzig was technically independent, but under the economic control of Poland so it could have a port on the Baltic, which was crucial for its economic development. This made for some unhappy Nazis, something never good. (No soup for you) The Nazis have been sudetenly expanding their borders, claiming it was for the good of Germans in those countries. So in 1939, when the Nazis demand the Polish corridor and Danzig, the British and French assured Poland that they had their support if it came to war. Poland told the Nazis, NO, and (the Nazis) started world war 2. The Nazis and the Soviets had a secret agreement to divide eastern europe between them disguised as a non-aggression pact. The Soviets received the Baltics and eastern Poland and the rest was the Nazis. The Nazis broke the pact and invaded the Soviets but were eventually defeated. East Prussia was divided between the Soviet Union and Poland and the German inhabitants were expelled. The Soviet part was renamed kaliningrad and was resettled by Russians. Kaliningrad looked attached to the rest of the country but the Soviet Union was a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Kaliningrad inhabited by Russians was part of the russian soviet federative socialist republic but the surrounding area inhabited by Lithuanians was the Lithuanian soviet socialist republic. So kaliningrad was an exclave of the Russian SFSR within the USSR but there were no problems since all the SSRs had the same central government. That changed in 1991 when the soviet union dissolved. Lithuania split away but kaliningrad was a part of the Russian Federation and remained. Leaving Russia with the exclave it has today. Control of Kaliningrad is crucial to Russia and it is the home of their baltic fleet. While Russia does have a coast near St. Petersburg, the gulf of Finland has a tendency to freeze over. Kaliningrad isn't the only place like this for example there's a tiny piece of Angola cut off by the Democratic Republic of Congo along the Congo River If you think the borders of Africa don't make any sense. you're right the borders on the continent rarely follow any logical pattern and instead reflect the strategic goals of the European powers that carved up the continent at the end of 1800s. The Portuguese began colonizing the coast near the Congo in the 1400s But did not move inland until the Belgian King Leopold tried to make the Congo his own personal property, not even a colony of Belgium. The French wanted a piece so they established colonies on north bank of the Congo The Portuguese, with the support of the British, blocked access to the mouth of the river. To resolve this situation and others, the European powers met at Berlin conference of 1885 and agreed to split up the continent. The congo free state became the personal property of the Belgian king and was given a strip of land near the mouth of the river splitting the Portuguese territory into a small area around the city of Cabinda and the rest of Angola. They were separate colonies until 1956, when Portugal gave control of Cabinda to the colonial government of Angola. Angola gained independence in 1975 but it was plagued by civil wars. Cabinda often tried to achieve independence, but Angola does not want to lose its vast offshore oil reserves, which Angola relies on for two-thirds of its production Back in Europe Croatia looks like it is blocking Bosnia and Herzegovina from the sea But if you look closely you'll see a 20 kilometer strip (of coastline) which connects it to the Adriatic, detaching a piece of Croatia. To understand why, we need to go back to 1699. After a war the republic of ragusa and the Dalmatian possessions of Venice Were separated by a small strip of the Ottoman Empire Venice would remain in control of Dalmatia until its defeat by napoleon in 1797. By 1809, the French Empire controlled all of Dalmatia including the republic of ragusa, except for the parts controlled by the Ottoman Empire After Napoleon's defeating 1815 the Austrian Empire gained the French the French territories. The 1878 treaty of Berlin created the Kingdom of Serbia, and put bosnia and herzegovina under the control, but did not make officially a part of, the austro-hungarian Empire. Serbia opposed the Empire annexing bosnia in 1908 because of its high serb population. This dispute will be resolved peaceful- - OOPS!! World War One. Suddenly the kingdom of Serbia became the kingdom of yugoslavia and control all the lands. The internal divisions of Yugoslavia between the world wars were different than the modern states, but the partisan forces that liberated Yugoslavia from the axis favor the borders from 1878 so when yugoslavia split up in 1992, croatia was left with an exclave on the coast. The need for the sea should not be underestimated. Clean borders come second to a country strategic goals often to the detriment of the people who live there. If you like geopolitics, you'll like this video where I explain why i think Istanbul is the most strategically important city in the world also please consider clicking the glowing subscribe orb

Contents

Overview

Russia shares borders with more countries than any other state in the world. This includes two partially recognized countries, and two with aquatic boundaries (see below; in italics).

Table of countries with a land border with Russia
(listed anti-clockwise around Russia).[1]
Country Length in km
Land Sea
 Norway 195.7 23.2
 Finland 1,271.8
 Estonia 294
 Latvia 270.5
 Lithuania 266
 Poland 204.1
 Belarus 1,239
 Ukraine 1,925.8
 Georgia 875.5
 Azerbaijan 372.6
 Kazakhstan 7,512.8
 Mongolia 3,485
 China 4,209.3
 North Korea 17

Border details

Below is a list of subjects with both neighboring regions of Russia with them, and in the neighboring regions of foreign countries.

Central Federal District

Belgorod Oblast

Bryansk Oblast

Vladimir Oblast

Voronezh Oblast

Ivanovo Oblast

Kaluga Oblast

Kostroma Oblast

Kursk Oblast

Lipetsk Oblast

Moscow Oblast

Oryol Oblast

Ryazan Oblast

Smolensk Oblast

Tambov Oblast

Tver Oblast

Tula Oblast

Yaroslavl Oblast

Moscow

Northwestern Federal District

Republic of Karelia

Komi Republic

Arkhangelsk Oblast

Vologda Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast

Leningrad Oblast

Murmansk Oblast

Novgorod Oblast

Pskov Oblast

Saint Petersburg

Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Volga Federal District

Bashkortostan

Mari El

Mordovia

Tatarstan

Udmurtia

Chuvashia

Perm Krai

Kirov Oblast

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

Orenburg Oblast

Penza Oblast

Samara Oblast

Saratov Oblast

Ulyanovsk Oblast

Southern Federal District

North Caucasian Federal District

Ural Federal District

Siberian Federal District

Altai Republic

Buryatia

Tuva

Khakassia

Altai Krai

Zabaykalsky Krai

Krasnoyarsk Krai

Irkutsk Oblast

Kemerovo Oblast

Novosibirsk Oblast

Omsk Oblast

Tomsk Oblast

Far Eastern Federal District

Crimea

The status of the Crimea and of the city of Sevastopol is currently under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider the Crimea to be an autonomous republic of Ukraine and Sevastopol to be one of Ukraine's cities with special status, while Russia, on the other hand, considers the Crimea to be a federal subject of Russia and Sevastopol to be one of Russia's three federal cities since the March 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia.[2][3] Since 1991 Russia also leases Sevastopol Naval Base with current lease extending to 2040s with an option for another extension, but the State Duma approved the denunciation of this lease agreements unanimously by 433 members of parliament on 31 March 2014.[4]

Republic of Crimea

Sevastopol

See also

References

  1. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20170313051914/http://www.rosgranitsa.ru/node/2636
  2. ^ Gutterman, Steve. "Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions". Reuters.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Timeline". 13 November 2014 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  4. ^ State Duma approves denunciation of Russian-Ukrainian agreements on Black Sea Fleet, ITAR-TASS (31 March 2014)

External links

This page was last edited on 6 February 2019, at 18:06
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