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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Russian mafia
Founding locationRussia, former Soviet Union
Years activeLate 1980s[1]–present
TerritoryActive in many parts of Europe and the former Soviet Union throughout Russia (mostly Moscow and Saint Petersburg), The United States (Mostly Miami, Florida[citation needed] and New York City in particular, Brighton Beach), Canada, Spain, Portugal, France, Australia (Gold Coast, Queensland & Sydney), Hungary and more.
EthnicityAll former Soviet ethnicities: Russians, Russian Jews, Ukrainian Jews, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Azerbaijanis, Georgians, Armenians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, etc.
Membership (est.)300,000 in 50+ countries
Criminal activitiesHuman trafficking, racketeering, drug trafficking, extortion, murder, robbery, smuggling, arms trafficking, gambling, fencing, prostitution, pornography, money laundering, fraud and financial crimes.
AlliesUkrainian mafia
American Mafia
Armenian mafia
Triads
Camorra
Serbian mafia
Pakistani mafia
Turkish mafia
Drug cartels
Israeli mafia
RivalsChechen mafia

Russian organized crime or Russian mafia (Russian: росси́йская ма́фия, tr. rossíyskaya máfiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə ˈmafʲɪjə],[2] Russian: ру́сская ма́фия, tr. rússkaya máfiya, IPA: [ˈruskəjə ˈmafʲɪjə]), otherwise known as Bratva (Russian: братва́, tr. bratvá, IPA: [brɐtˈva], lit. 'brotherhood'), is a collective of various organized crime elements originating in the former Soviet Union. The acronym OPG is Organized Criminal (Prestupnaya in Russian) Group, used to refer to any of the Russian mafia groups, sometimes modified with a specific name, e.g. Orekhovskaya OPG. Sometimes the initialism is translated and OCG is used.

Organized crime in Russia began in the imperial period of the tsars, but it was not until the Soviet era that vory v zakone ("thieves-in-law") emerged as leaders of prison groups in forced labor camps, and their honor code became more defined. With the end of World War II, the death of Joseph Stalin, and the fall of the Soviet Union, more gangs emerged in a flourishing black market, exploiting the unstable governments of the former Republics, and at its highest point, even controlling as much as two-thirds of the Russian economy.[citation needed] Louis Freeh, former director of the FBI, said that the Russian mafia posed the greatest threat to U.S. national security in the mid-1990s.[3]

In 2012, there were as many as 6,000 different groups,[4] with more than 200 of them having a global reach. Criminals of these various groups are either former prison members, corrupt officials and business leaders, people with ethnic ties, or people from the same region with shared criminal experiences and leaders.[clarification needed][5] In December 2009, Timur Lakhonin, the head of the Russian National Central Bureau of Interpol, stated "Certainly, there is crime involving our former compatriots abroad, but there is no data suggesting that an organized structure of criminal groups comprising former Russians exists abroad",[6] while in August 2010, Alain Bauer, a French criminologist, said that it "is one of the best structured criminal organizations in Europe, with a quasi-military operation."[7]

History

Origins

The Russian criminality can be traced back to Russia's imperial period, which began in the 1720s, in the form of banditry and thievery. Most of the population were peasants, in poverty at the time, and criminals who stole from government entities and divided profits among the people earned Robin Hood-like status, being viewed as protectors of the poor and becoming folk heroes. In time, the Vorovskoy Mir (Thieves' World) emerged as these criminals grouped and started their own code of conduct that was based on strict loyalty with one another and opposition against the government. When the Bolshevik Revolution came around in 1917, the Thieves' World was alive and active. Vladimir Lenin attempted to wipe them out, but failed, and the criminals survived into Joseph Stalin's reign.[8]

1917–1991: Soviet era

During Stalin's reign as ruler, millions of people were sent to gulags (Soviet labor camps), where powerful criminals worked their way up to become vorami v zakone ("thieves-in-law"). These criminal elite often conveyed their status through complicated tattoos, symbols still used by Russian mobsters.[8]

After Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, Stalin was recruiting more men to fight for the nation, offering prisoners freedom if they joined the army. Many flocked to help out in the war, but this act betrayed codes of the Thieves' World that one must not ally with the government. Those who chose not to fight in the war referred to the traitors as suka ("bitch"), and the traitors landed at the bottom of the "hierarchy". Outcast, the suki separated from the others and formed their own groups and power bases by collaborating with prison officials, eventually gaining the luxury of comfortable positions. Bitterness between the groups erupted into a series of Bitch Wars from 1945 to 1953 with many killed every day. The prison officials encouraged the violence, seeing it as a way to rid the prisons of criminals.[5][8]

Then, in the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev loosened restrictions on private businesses, allowing them to grow legally, but by then, the Soviet Union was already beginning to collapse.[5][8]

Also during the 1970s and 1980s, the United States expanded its immigration policies, allowing Soviet Jews, with most settling in a southern Brooklyn area known as Brighton Beach (sometimes nicknamed as "Little Odessa"). Here is where Russian organized crime began in the US.[5][9] The earliest known case of Russian crime in the area was in the mid-1970s by the "Potato Bag Gang," a group of con artists disguised as merchants that told customers that they were selling antique gold rubles for cheap, but in fact, gave them bags of potatoes when bought in thousands. By 1983, the head of Russian organized crime in Brighton Beach was Evsei Agron.[10]

Pauol Mirzoyan was a prime target among other mobsters including rival Boris Goldberg and his organization,[11] and in May 1985 Agron was assassinated. Boris "Biba" Nayfeld, his bodyguard, moved on to employ under Marat Balagula, who was believed to have succeeded Agron's authority. In the following year, Balagula fled the country after he was convicted in a fraud scheme of Merrill Lynch customers, and was found in Frankfurt, West Germany in 1989, where he was extradited back to the US and sentenced to eight years in prison.[10]

Balagula would later be convicted on a separate $360,000 credit card fraud in 1992.[12] Nayfield took Balagula's place, partnering with the "Polish Al Capone", Ricardo Fanchiniin, in an import-export business and setting up a heroin business.[13] In 1990, his former friend, Monya Elson, back from a six-year prison sentence in Israel, returned to America and set up a rival heroin business, culminating in a mafia turf war.[14]

1992–2000: Growth and internationalization

When the USSR collapsed and a free market economy emerged, organized criminal groups began to take over Russia's economy, with many ex-KGB agents and veterans of the Afghan war offering their skills to the crime bosses.[3] Gangster summit meetings had taken place in hotels and restaurants shortly before the Soviet's dissolution, so that top vory v zakone could agree on who would rule what, and set plans on how to take over the post-Communist states. It was agreed that Vyacheslav "Yaponchik" Ivankov would be sent to Brighton Beach in 1992, allegedly because he was killing too many people in Russia and also to take control of Russian organized crime in North America.[9] Within a year, he built an international operation that included, but was not limited to, narcotics, money laundering, and prostitution and made ties with the American Mafia and Colombian drug cartels, eventually extending to Miami, Los Angeles, and Boston.[8] Those who went against him were usually killed.

Prior to Ivankov's arrival, Balagula's downfall left a void for America's next vory v zakone. Monya Elson, leader of Monya's Brigada (a gang that similarly operated from Russia to Los Angeles to New York), was in a feud with Boris Nayfeld, with bodies dropping on both sides.[14] Ivankov's arrival virtually ended the feud, although Elson would later challenge his power as well, and a number of attempts were made to end the former's life.[15] Nayfield and Elson would eventually be arrested in January 1994 (released in 1998)[16] and in Italy in 1995, respectively.[17]

Ivankov's reign also ended in June 1995 when a $3.5 million extortion attempt on two Russian businessmen, Alexander Volkov and Vladimir Voloshin, ended in an FBI arrest that resulted in a ten-year maximum security prison sentence.[5][8] Before his arrest and besides his operations in America, Ivankov regularly flew around Europe and Asia to maintain ties with his fellow mobsters (like members of the Solntsevskaya Bratva), as well as reinforce ties with others. This did not stop other people from denying him growing power. In one instance, Ivankov attempted to buy out Georgian boss Valeri "Globus" Glugech's drug importation business. When the latter refused the offer, he and his top associates were shot dead. A summit held in May 1994 in Vienna rewarded him with what was left of Glugech's business. Two months later, Ivankov got into another altercation with drug kingpin and head of the Orekhovskaya gang, Segei "Sylvester" Timofeyev, ending with the latter murdered a month later.[18]

In 1995, the Camorra cooperated with the Russian Mafia in a scheme in which the Camorra would bleach out US$1 bills and reprint them as $100s. These bills would then be transported to the Russian Mafia for distribution in 29 post-Eastern Bloc countries and former Soviet republics. In return, the Russian Mafia paid the Camorra with property (including a Russian bank) and firearms, smuggled into Eastern Europe and Italy.[19]

Back in Eastern Europe in May 1995, crime boss Semion Mogilevich held a different summit meeting of Russian mafia bosses in his U Holubu restaurant in Anděl, a neighborhood of Prague. The excuse to bring them together was that it was a birthday party for Victor Averin, the second-in-command of the Solntsevskaya Bratva. However, Major Tomas Machacek of the Czech police got wind of an anonymous tip-off that claimed that the Solntsevskaya were planning to assassinate Mogilevich at the location (it was rumored that Mogilevich and Solntsevskaya leader Sergei Mikhailov had a dispute over $5 million), and the police successfully raided the meeting. 200 guests were arrested, but no charges were put against them; only key Russian mafia members were banned from the country, most of whom moved to Hungary.[20]

One person who was not there was Mogilevich himself. He claimed that "[b]y the time I arrived at U Holubu, everything was already in full swing, so I went into a neighboring hotel and sat in the bar there until about five or six in the morning."[21][22] Mikhailov would later be arrested in Switzerland in October 1996 on numerous charges,[15] including that he was the head of a powerful Russian mafia group, but was exonerated and released two years later after evidence was not enough to prove much.[23][24]

The global extent of Russian organized crime wasn't realized until Ludwig "Tarzan" Fainberg was arrested in January 1997, primarily because of arms dealing. In 1990, Fainberg moved from Brighton Beach to Miami and opened up a strip club called Porky's, which soon became a popular hangout for underworld criminals. Fainberg himself gained a reputation as an ambassador among international crime groups, becoming especially close to Juan Almeida, a Colombian cocaine dealer. Planning to expand his cocaine business, Fainberg acted as an intermediary between Almeida and the corrupt Russian military. He helped him get six Russian military helicopters in 1993, and in the following year, helped arrange to buy a submarine for cocaine smuggling. Unfortunately for the two of them, federal agents had been keeping a close eye on Fainberg for months. Alexander Yasevich, an associate of the Russian military contact and an undercover DEA agent, was sent to verify the illegal dealing, and in 1997, Fainberg was finally arrested in Miami. Facing the possibility of life imprisonment, the latter agreed for his testimony against Almeida in exchange for a shorter sentence, which ended up being 33 months.[8][9]

2001–present

As the 21st century dawned, the Russian mafia remained after the death of Aslan Usoyan. New Mafia bosses sprang up, while imprisoned ones were released. Among the released were Marat Balagula and Vyacheslav Ivankov, both in 2004.[25][26] The latter was extradited to Russia, but was jailed once more for his alleged murders of two Turks in a Moscow restaurant in 1992; he was cleared of all charges and released in 2005. Four years later, he was assassinated by a shot in the stomach from a sniper.[26] Meanwhile, Monya Elson and Leonid Roytman were arrested in March 2006 for an unsuccessful murder plot against two Kyiv-based businessmen.[27]

In 2009, FBI agents in Moscow targeted[clarification needed] two suspected Mafia leaders and two other corrupt businessmen. One of the leaders is Yevgeny Dvoskin, a criminal who had been in prison with Ivankov in 1995 and was deported in 2001 for breaking immigration regulations; the other is Konstantin "Gizya" Ginzburg, who was reportedly the current "big boss" of Russian organized crime in America before his reported assassination in 2009,[28] it being suspected that Ivankov handed over control to him.[29][30] Some sources state that Sheaib was present in Eastern Europe right before the death of Vyacheslav Ivankov as well as Aslan Usoyan.

In the same year, Semion Mogilevich was placed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list for his involvement in a complex multimillion-dollar scheme that defrauded investors in the stock of his company YBM Magnex International, swindling them out of $150 million.[31] He was indicted in 2003 and arrested in 2008 in Russia on tax fraud charges, but because the US does not have an extradition treaty with Russia, he was released on bail.[32] Monya Elson said, in 1998, that Mogilevich is the most powerful mobster in the world.[33]

Around the world, Russian mafia groups have popped up as dominating particular areas. Russian organized crime has a rather large stronghold in the city of Atlanta where members are distinguished by their tattoos. Russian organized crime was reported to have a stronger grip in the French Riviera region and Spain in 2010;[7] and Russia was branded as a virtual "mafia state" according to the WikiLeaks cables.[34]

In 2009, Russian mafia groups had been said to reach over 50 countries and, in 2010, had up to 300,000 members.[35] According to recordings released in 2015, Alexander Litvinenko, shortly before he was assassinated, claimed that Semion Mogilevich has had a "good relationship" with Vladimir Putin since the 1990s.[36]

On 7 June 2017, 33 Russian mafia affiliates and members were arrested and charged by the FBI, U.S. Customs and Border Protection and NYPD for extortion, racketeering, illegal gambling, firearm offenses, narcotics trafficking, wire fraud, credit card fraud, identity theft, fraud on casino slot machines using electronic hacking devices; based in Atlantic City and Philadelphia, murder-for-hire conspiracy and cigarette trafficking.[37] They were also accused of operating secret and underground gambling dens based in Brighton Beach, Brooklyn, and using violence to those who owed gambling debts, establishing nightclubs to sell drugs, plotting to force women associates to rob male strangers by seducing and drugging them with chloroform, and trafficking over 10,000 pounds of stolen chocolate confectionery; the chocolate was stolen from shipment containers.[38][39] It is believed that 27 of the arrested are connected to the Russian mafia Shulaya clan which are largely based in New York.[40] According to the prosecution, the Shulaya also has operations in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Florida and Nevada. According to law enforcement and the prosecution, this is one of the first federal arrests against a Russian mafia boss and his underboss or co-leader.

On 26 September 2017, as part of a 4-year investigation, 100 Spanish Civil Guard officers carried out 18 searches in different areas of Malaga, Spain related to Russian mafia large scale money laundering.[41] The raids resulted in the arrests of 11 members and associates of the Solntsevskaya and Izmailovskaya clans. Money, firearms and 23 high-end vehicles were also seized. The owner of Marbella FC, Alexander Grinberg, and manager of AFK Sistema, a local Malaga Spanish football club, were among those arrested.[42]

On 19 February 2018, 18 defendants were accused of laundering over $62 million through real estate, including with the help of Vladislav Reznik, former chairman of Rosgosstrakh; one of Russia's largest insurance companies. The accused stood trial in Spain.[43] The Tambov and Malyshev Russian mafia organisations were involved.[44]

Aleksandr Torshin is allegedly a high ranked boss in Russian mafia.[45][46]

Structure and composition

"They're not carefully structured Cosa Nostra–type families... They're loose structures of networks, but they draw on people from a number of different areas."
 — James Finckenauer, author of Russian Mafia In America[8]

Bratva structure

Note that these positions are not always official titles, but rather are understood names for roles that an individual performs.

  • Pakhan – also called Boss, Krestniy Otets ("Capo di tutti capi | Godfather"), Vor ("Thief"), Papa, or Avtoritet ("Authority"), controls everything. The Pakhan controls four criminal cells in the working unit through an intermediary called a "Brigadier."[47]
  • Two Spies – watch over the action of the brigadiers to ensure loyalty and that none becomes too powerful. They are the Sovietnik ("Support Group") and Obshchak ("Security Group").
  • Derzhatel obschaka, the bookkeeper, collects money from Brigadiers and bribes the government with Obshchak (money mafia intended for use in the interests of the group). This could be Brigadier, Pakhan, Authoritet.
  • Brigadier – also called Avtoritet ("Authority"), is like a captain in charge of a small group of men, similar to Caporegime in Italian-American Mafia crime families and Sicilian Mafia clans. He gives out jobs to Boyeviks ("warriors") and pays tribute to Pakhan. He runs a crew which is called a Brigade. A Brigade is made up of 5–6 Patsanov or Brodyag.
  • Bratok – also called Patsan, or Brodyaga works for a Brigadier having a special criminal activity to run, similar to soldiers in Italian-American Mafia crime families and Sicilian Mafia clans. A Boyevik is in charge of finding new guys and paying tribute up to his Brigadier. Boyeviks also make up the main strike force of a brigade.
  • Shestyorka – is an "associate" to the organization also called the "six", similar to associates in Italian-American Mafia crime families and Sicilian Mafia clans. Is an errand boy for the organization and is the lowest rank in the Russian Mafia. The sixes are assigned to some Avtorityets for support. They also provide an intelligence for the upcoming "delo" or on a certain target. They usually stay out of the main actions, although there might be exceptions, depending on circumstances. During a "delo" Shestyorkas perform security functions standing on the look out (Shukher – literally: danger). It is a temporary position and an individual either makes it into the Vor-world or is cast aside. As they are earning their respect and trust in Bratva they may be performing roles of the regular Boyeviks or Byki depending on the necessities and patronage of their Brigadier or Avtorityet. Etymology of 'shestyorka' word comes from the lowest rank of 36 playing card deck – sixes.

In the Russian Mafia, "Vor" (plural: Vory) (literally, "Thief") is an honorary title denoting a made man. The honor of becoming a Vor is given only when the recruit shows considerable leadership skills, personal ability, intellect and charisma. A Pakhan or another high-ranking member of an organization can decide if the recruit will receive such title. When you become a member of the Vor-world you have to accept the code of the Vor v Zakone ("Thief in law").[48][49]

Although Russian criminal groups vary in their structure, there have been attempts to devise a model of how they work. One such model (possibly outdated by now, as it is based on the old style of Soviet criminal enterprises) works out like this:

  1. Elite group – led by a Pakhan who is involved in management, organization and ideology. This is the highest group that controls both support group and security group.
  2. Security group – is led by one of his spies. His job is to make sure the organization keeps running and also keeps the peace between the organizations and other criminal groups and also paying off the right people. This group works with the Elite group and is equal in power with the Support groups. Is in charge of security and in intelligence.
  3. Support group – is led by one of his spies. His job is to watch over the working unit collecting the money while supervising their criminal activities. This group works with the elite group and is equal in power with the Security group. They plan a specific crime for a specialized group or choose who carries out the operation.
  4. Working Unit – There are four Brigadiers running a criminal activity in the working unit. Each Brigade is controlled by a Brigadier. This is the lowest group working with only the Support group. The group is involved in burglars, thieves, prostitution, extortion, street gangs and other crimes.

Notable individual groups

Groups based in and around the City of Moscow:

  • Solntsevskaya Bratva: Led by Sergei "Mikhas" Mikhailov, it is Russia's largest criminal group with about 5,000 members, and is named after the Solntsevo District.[50][51]
  • Lyuberetskaya Bratva (Russian: Люберецкая Братва) or Lyubery (Russian: Люберы): One of the largest criminal groups in late 1980s – early-mid-1990s in the USSR. Based in (and originating from) Lyubertsy district of Moscow.
  • The Izmaylovskaya gang: One of Russia's oldest modern gangs, it was started in the mid- to late-1980s by Oleg Ivanov; it has around 200–500 members in Moscow alone, and is named after the Izmaylovo District.[52]
  • The Orekhovskaya gang: Founded by Sergei "Sylvester" Timofeyev, this group reached its height in Moscow in the 1990s. When Timofeyev died, Sergei Butorin took his place. However, he was sentenced to jail for life in 2011.[53][54]

Groups based in other parts of Russia and the former Soviet Union:

  • The Dolgoprudnenskaya gang: Russia's second largest criminal group.[51] Originally from the City of Dolgoprudny.
  • The Grekov Gang: Named after Grecoff Bradlik, this group has been known to dominate Saint Petersburg and has branches in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; the man most associated with them is Vladimir Kumarin.[52]
  • The Tambov Gang of Saint Petersburg is very closely alligned with the political rise of Vladimir Putin. Putin's long time personal body guard, Viktor Zlotov is very close to this group as well.
  • The Slonovskaya gang was one of the strongest criminal groups in CIS in the 1990s. It was based in Ryazan. It had a long-term war with other criminal groups of the city (Ayrapetovskaya, Kochetkovskie, etc.)
  • The Uralmash gang of Yekaterinburg.
  • The Chechen mafia is one of the largest ethnic organized crime groups operating in the former Soviet Union next to established Russian mafia groups.
  • The Georgian mafia is regarded as one of the biggest, powerful and influential criminal networks in Europe, which has produced the biggest number of "thieves in law" in all former USSR countries.
  • The Mkhedrioni was a paramilitary group involved in organised crime[55] led by a Thief in law Jaba Ioseliani in Georgia in the 1990s.
  • The city of Kazan was known for its gang culture, which later progressed into more organised, mafia-esque groups. This was known as the Kazan phenomenon.

Groups based in and around The United States of America:

Groups based in other areas:

  • The Brothers' Circle: Headed by Temuri Mirzoyev, this multi-ethnic transnational group is "composed of leaders and senior members of several Eurasian criminal groups largely based in countries of the former Soviet Union but operating in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America."[56] In 2011, US President Barack Obama and his administration named it one of four transnational organized crime groups that posed the greatest threat to US national security, and sanctioned certain key members and froze their assets.[57][58] A year later, he extended the national emergency against them for another year.[59]
  • The Semion Mogilevich organization: Based in Budapest, Hungary and headed by the crime boss of the same name, this group numbered approximately 250 members as of 1996. Its business is often connected with that of the Solntsevskaya Bratva and the Vyacheslav Ivankov Organization. Aleksey Anatolyevich Lugovkov is the second-in-command, and Vitaly Borisovich Savalovsky is the "underboss" to Mogilevich.[60]
  • Order of Ronova: An organization with ties to Russian and Italian organized crime, based throughout Salt Lake City, Utah, Carson City, Nevada, Tacoma, Washington, and Phoenix, Arizona. It has an estimate of 100 made members, and 400 associates.
  • Gradinaru Bratva: A family started in Cleveland, Ohio, it is also known as Оргаруже, which stands for Organized Russian Gentlemen. Founded by the Michalov family and are usually hard to spot, these gentlemen are fierce and have their own hierarchy consisting of three leaders, one of which—Alexander Michalov—was killed in a motorcycle accident in 2006.

See also

References

  1. ^ The 'Russian Mafia' as an organized crime group started in the late 1980s, as we can see in the creation of the most powerful gangs from the country such as the Solntsevskaya Bratva, Tambovskaya Bratva, Orekhovskaya gang and Uralmash gang
  2. ^ "В Испании ликвидирована "российская мафия"" (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
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  5. ^ a b c d e f Mallory, Stephen L. Understanding Organized Crime. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007, p. 73-87.
  6. ^ "Russian mafia abroad is a myth – head of Russian Interpol bureau". Interfax.com.ua. 23 December 2009. Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Russian mafia taking over French Riviera". The Telegraph. 31 August 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Molly Thompson (Writer/Producer) (2001). Russian Mafia: Organized Crime (TV). United States: The History Channel. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
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  11. ^ Gordon, Mark. "Ideas Shoot Bullets: How the RICO Act Became a Potent Weapon in the War Against Organized Crime". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
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  13. ^ Summers, Chris (19 February 2009). "Time catches up with global gangster". Archived from the original on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  14. ^ a b Jerry Capeci, Gene Mustain (22 April 1997). "2 Dance Bullet Ballet". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  15. ^ a b "IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT COURT OF DELAWARE" (PDF). 31 May 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  16. ^ Smillie, Ian, Lansana Gberie, Ralph Hazleton The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone, Diamonds and Human Security. Diane Pub, 2000, p. 44-45.
  17. ^ Claffey, Mike (24 August 1996). "RUSSIAN IN MOB RAP". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  18. ^ Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. Warner Books, 2000.
  19. ^ Richards, James R. (1998). Transnational Criminal Organizations, Cybercrime, and Money Laundering. CRC Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781420048728.
  20. ^ "Czech police arrest internationally wanted mafia boss". Prague Daily Monitor. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  21. ^ Glenny, Misha McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld. House of Anansi Press, 2008.
  22. ^ "Transcript – Panorama "The Billion Dollar Don"". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  23. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (10 January 1999). "The World; To Sicilians, Russia Has No Mafia. It's Too Wild". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  24. ^ Paddock, Richard C. (13 December 1998). "Russian Calls Swiss Verdict a Win for Fellow Businessmen". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Russian mobster to be released". 24 September 2004. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  26. ^ a b "Top Russian mobster Ivankov dies". The Sidney Morning Herald. 10 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
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Sources

Further reading

External links

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