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Climate of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The climate of Russia is formed under the European peninsula. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the best extreme southwest. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow of cold air masses from the Arctic Ocean and the plain of the south and north makes the country open to Pacific and Atlantic influences.[1][2]

Köppen climate types of Russia
Köppen climate types of Russia

Dynamics

Due to the moderating influence of the Atlantic or Pacific, most areas of the country in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East, including the cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, experience a humid continental climate. (Köppen's Dfb, Dfa, Dwb, Dwa types). Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia between the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd) in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −69 °C or −92.2 °F), and more moderate (Dwc, Dfc) elsewhere.

The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Arctic islands, have a polar climate (ice cap climate (EF) on some of the islands and tundra climate (ET) elsewhere). A small portion of the Black Sea coast, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate (Köppen's Cfa) with unusually wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East (Dwa, Dwb, Dwc, Dwd types), while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate (BSk). The city of Kaliningrad has an Oceanic climate (Cfb) due to its relatively mild (avg. above -3C) winters and cool summers.

About 65% of the Russian territory is underlain by permafrost.

Temperature records

Climate data for Russia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
27.0
(80.6)
31.0
(87.8)
36.8
(98.2)
38.7
(101.7)
43.7
(110.7)
45.4
(113.7)
45.0
(113.0)
45.4
(113.7)
36.3
(97.3)
29.1
(84.4)
27.2
(81.0)
45.4
(113.7)
Record low °C (°F) −71.2
(−96.2)
−67.8
(−90.0)
−60.6
(−77.1)
−57.2
(−71.0)
−35.8
(−32.4)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−17.1
(1.2)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−48.7
(−55.7)
−58.5
(−73.3)
−64.5
(−84.1)
−71.2
(−96.2)
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net - Climate Monitor[3] — Meteo.ru - Baseline Climatological Data Sets[4]
Source 2: NOAA NCDC - Climate Data Online[5]

Extreme highs

Month Temperature Date Location
January 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) 4 January 1971 Akhty, Dagestan Republic
February 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) 21 February 1990 Yeysk, Krasnodar Krai
March 31.0 °C (87.8 °F) 25 March 2008 Armavir, Krasnodar Krai
April 36.8 °C (98.2 °F) 12 April 1998 Armavir, Krasnodar Krai
May 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) 29 May 2007 Lake Elton, Volgograd Oblast
June 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) 22 June 2015 Alexandrova Gaya, Saratov Oblast
July 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) 12 July 2010 Utta, Kalmykia Republic
August 45 °C (113 °F) 7 August 1940 Lake Elton, Volgograd Oblast
September 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) 2 September 2010 Lake Elton, Volgograd Oblast
October 36.3 °C (97.3 °F) 2 October 1999 Armavir, Krasnodar Krai
November 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) 3 November 1938 Sochi, Krasnodar Krai
December 27.2 °C (81.0 °F) 5 December 2010 Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alenia Oblast

Extreme lows

Month Temperature Date Location
January −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) 26 January 1926 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
February −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) 5,7 February 1892;
6 February 1933
Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic;
Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
March −60.6 °C (−77.1 °F) 10 March 1954 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
April −57.2 °C (−71.0 °F) 2 April 1896 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic
May −35.8 °C (−32.4 °F) 2 May 1964 Ilirney, Chukotka AO
June −22.2 °C (−8.0 °F) 2 June 1964 Strait of Sterlegova, Krasnoyarsk Krai
July −9.3 °C (15.3 °F) 15 July 1966 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
August −17.1 °C (1.2 °F) 31 August 1969 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
September −27.6 °C (−17.7 °F) 29 September 1965 Ilirney, Chukotka AO
October −48.7 °C (−55.7 °F) 29 October 1915 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic
November −58.5 °C (−73.3 °F) 29 November 1960 Oymyakon, Sakha Republic
December −64.5 °C (−84.1 °F) 22 December 1902 Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic

Averages and records by city

Climate data for Arkhangelsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
5.2
(41.4)
12.1
(53.8)
25.3
(77.5)
30.2
(86.4)
33.0
(91.4)
34.4
(93.9)
33.4
(92.1)
27.7
(81.9)
18.3
(64.9)
9.7
(49.5)
5.8
(42.4)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) −9.2
(15.4)
−7.7
(18.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.4
(41.7)
12.5
(54.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.8
(71.2)
18.0
(64.4)
12.2
(54.0)
4.8
(40.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
5.5
(41.9)
Average low °C (°F) −16.5
(2.3)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.4
(15.1)
−3.9
(25.0)
2.2
(36.0)
7.7
(45.9)
11.3
(52.3)
8.9
(48.0)
5.1
(41.2)
0.1
(32.2)
−7.7
(18.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
Record low °C (°F) −45.2
(−49.4)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−37.1
(−34.8)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−21.1
(−6.0)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−43.2
(−45.8)
−45.2
(−49.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
29
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
49
(1.9)
61
(2.4)
73
(2.9)
70
(2.8)
61
(2.4)
66
(2.6)
53
(2.1)
46
(1.8)
606
(23.9)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[6]
Climate data for Chita
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
7.5
(45.5)
18.3
(64.9)
26.9
(80.4)
34.6
(94.3)
38.9
(102.0)
38.6
(101.5)
40.6
(105.1)
35.0
(95.0)
22.0
(71.6)
12.7
(54.9)
5
(41)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −17.6
(0.3)
−10.0
(14.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
9.1
(48.4)
17.8
(64.0)
24.3
(75.7)
25.9
(78.6)
23.0
(73.4)
16.4
(61.5)
6.8
(44.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−15.4
(4.3)
6.1
(43.0)
Average low °C (°F) −31.2
(−24.2)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−16.9
(1.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.6
(34.9)
8.7
(47.7)
12.3
(54.1)
10.1
(50.2)
2.3
(36.1)
−6.2
(20.8)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
Record low °C (°F) −49.6
(−57.3)
−48.0
(−54.4)
−45.3
(−49.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−13.3
(8.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−10.7
(12.7)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−41.1
(−42.0)
−47.8
(−54.0)
−49.6
(−57.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
12
(0.5)
26
(1.0)
63
(2.5)
90
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
41
(1.6)
9
(0.4)
6
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
349
(13.7)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[7]
Climate data for Irkutsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
10.2
(50.4)
20.0
(68.0)
29.2
(84.6)
34.5
(94.1)
35.0
(95.0)
37.2
(99.0)
34.1
(93.4)
29.0
(84.2)
24.5
(76.1)
14.1
(57.4)
4.6
(40.3)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) −12.8
(9.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
0.3
(32.5)
9.4
(48.9)
18.1
(64.6)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
22.2
(72.0)
15.7
(60.3)
7.7
(45.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
−10.6
(12.9)
7.3
(45.1)
Average low °C (°F) −21.8
(−7.2)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−12.2
(10.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
3.6
(38.5)
9.3
(48.7)
13.0
(55.4)
10.9
(51.6)
4.3
(39.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
−11.6
(11.1)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
Record low °C (°F) −49.7
(−57.5)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−37.3
(−35.1)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−14.3
(6.3)
−6.0
(21.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−11.9
(10.6)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−46.3
(−51.3)
−49.7
(−57.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
(0.5)
8
(0.3)
12
(0.5)
18
(0.7)
37
(1.5)
78
(3.1)
114
(4.5)
91
(3.6)
52
(2.0)
21
(0.8)
20
(0.8)
16
(0.6)
480
(18.9)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[8]
Climate data for Kaliningrad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
15.6
(60.1)
23.0
(73.4)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
33.5
(92.3)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
31.2
(88.2)
26.4
(79.5)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
0.1
(32.2)
4.5
(40.1)
11.1
(52.0)
17.2
(63.0)
20.6
(69.1)
22.1
(71.8)
21.7
(71.1)
17.4
(63.3)
11.9
(53.4)
5.5
(41.9)
1.9
(35.4)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.3
(36.1)
6.8
(44.2)
10.7
(51.3)
13.0
(55.4)
12.5
(54.5)
9.2
(48.6)
5.1
(41.2)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
3.8
(38.8)
Record low °C (°F) −32.5
(−26.5)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.5
(40.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−11.2
(11.8)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−33.3
(−27.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.2)
40
(1.6)
43
(1.7)
37
(1.5)
53
(2.1)
71
(2.8)
80
(3.1)
90
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
79
(3.1)
91
(3.6)
73
(2.9)
803
(31.6)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[9]
Climate data for Khabarovsk, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1953–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
6.3
(43.3)
17.0
(62.6)
28.6
(83.5)
31.5
(88.7)
36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
35.6
(96.1)
29.8
(85.6)
25.8
(78.4)
15.5
(59.9)
6.6
(43.9)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) −15.9
(3.4)
−10.8
(12.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
10.3
(50.5)
18.7
(65.7)
24.0
(75.2)
26.7
(80.1)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
9.9
(49.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
−13.7
(7.3)
7.4
(45.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.8
(−3.6)
−15.4
(4.3)
−6.4
(20.5)
4.8
(40.6)
12.4
(54.3)
18.1
(64.6)
21.3
(70.3)
19.9
(67.8)
13.7
(56.7)
5.1
(41.2)
−7.2
(19.0)
−17.3
(0.9)
2.4
(36.3)
Average low °C (°F) −24.0
(−11.2)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−11.3
(11.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.8
(44.2)
12.8
(55.0)
16.7
(62.1)
15.8
(60.4)
9.0
(48.2)
0.7
(33.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
(−40.0)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
4.9
(40.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−36.7
(−34.1)
−40.0
(−40.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.6)
11
(0.4)
22
(0.9)
43
(1.7)
63
(2.5)
74
(2.9)
133
(5.2)
155
(6.1)
79
(3.1)
50
(2.0)
25
(1.0)
17
(0.7)
687
(27.0)
Average rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Average snowy days 14 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 0.1 4 12 14 73
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147 181 231 213 242 262 248 217 212 189 159 145 2,446
Source 1: Погода и Климат[10]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[11]
Climate data for Krasnoyarsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
8.5
(47.3)
17.5
(63.5)
31.4
(88.5)
33.4
(92.1)
34.8
(94.6)
36.2
(97.2)
35.1
(95.2)
31.3
(88.3)
24.5
(76.1)
13.6
(56.5)
8.6
(47.5)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−10.3
(13.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
6.9
(44.4)
15.3
(59.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.3
(75.7)
21.0
(69.8)
14.4
(57.9)
6.1
(43.0)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
6.0
(42.8)
Average low °C (°F) −20.3
(−4.5)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−11.8
(10.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
3.7
(38.7)
10.1
(50.2)
13.1
(55.6)
10.6
(51.1)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
−12.0
(10.4)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
Record low °C (°F) −52.8
(−63.0)
−40.8
(−41.4)
−38.7
(−37.7)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−10.6
(12.9)
−3.6
(25.5)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
−9.6
(14.7)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−42.3
(−44.1)
−47.0
(−52.6)
−52.8
(−63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
13
(0.5)
15
(0.6)
26
(1.0)
47
(1.9)
58
(2.3)
80
(3.1)
68
(2.7)
41
(1.6)
41
(1.6)
37
(1.5)
26
(1.0)
467
(18.4)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[12]
Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1981–2010, records 1879 – the present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.3
(46.9)
19.7
(67.5)
28.9
(84.0)
33.2
(91.8)
34.9
(94.8)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
24.0
(75.2)
16.2
(61.2)
9.6
(49.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) −4
(25)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.6
(36.7)
11.3
(52.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.0
(71.6)
24.3
(75.7)
21.9
(71.4)
15.7
(60.3)
8.7
(47.7)
0.9
(33.6)
−3
(27)
9.6
(49.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1
(30)
6.7
(44.1)
13.2
(55.8)
17.0
(62.6)
19.2
(66.6)
17.0
(62.6)
11.3
(52.3)
5.6
(42.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F) −9.1
(15.6)
−9.8
(14.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.2
(36.0)
7.7
(45.9)
12.1
(53.8)
14.4
(57.9)
12.5
(54.5)
7.4
(45.3)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
−7.6
(18.3)
2.1
(35.8)
Record low °C (°F) −42.1
(−43.8)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−32.4
(−26.3)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−16.1
(3.0)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−42.1
(−43.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52
(2.0)
41
(1.6)
35
(1.4)
37
(1.5)
49
(1.9)
80
(3.1)
85
(3.3)
82
(3.2)
68
(2.7)
71
(2.8)
55
(2.2)
52
(2.0)
707
(27.7)
Average rainy days 0.8 0.7 3 9 13 14 15 15 15 12 6 2 105.5
Average snowy days 18 15 9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 2 10 17 72.2
Average relative humidity (%) 83 80 74 67 64 70 74 77 81 81 84 85 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1,731
Percent possible sunshine 14 27 35 40 53 53 52 51 38 24 13 8 34
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 1 1 0 3
Source: thermograph.ru[13], pogoda.ru.net[14] [15], meteoweb.ru[16] and Weather Atlas[17]
Climate data for Murmansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
16.9
(62.4)
29.4
(84.9)
30.8
(87.4)
32.9
(91.2)
30.2
(86.4)
24.2
(75.6)
15.0
(59.0)
9.6
(49.3)
7.2
(45.0)
32.9
(91.2)
Average high °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−6.7
(19.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.6
(36.7)
7.6
(45.7)
13.6
(56.5)
17.3
(63.1)
14.9
(58.8)
10.0
(50.0)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.8
(38.8)
Average low °C (°F) −13.0
(8.6)
−12.8
(9.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−3.8
(25.2)
1.1
(34.0)
5.7
(42.3)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.5
(40.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
Record low °C (°F) −39.4
(−38.9)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.0
(28.4)
−5.4
(22.3)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−39.4
(−38.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.2)
22
(0.9)
23
(0.9)
24
(0.9)
36
(1.4)
54
(2.1)
70
(2.8)
61
(2.4)
52
(2.0)
51
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
34
(1.3)
495
(19.5)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[18]
Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.0
(44.6)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
36.4
(97.5)
36.0
(96.8)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.5
(47.3)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
8.9
(48.0)
17.3
(63.1)
22.0
(71.6)
23.6
(74.5)
21.8
(71.2)
15.3
(59.5)
6.8
(44.2)
−0.7
(30.7)
−5.9
(21.4)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F) −14.5
(5.9)
−13.8
(7.2)
−8.2
(17.2)
0.7
(33.3)
7.5
(45.5)
12.0
(53.6)
14.3
(57.7)
12.5
(54.5)
7.3
(45.1)
1.1
(34.0)
−5.4
(22.3)
−11.6
(11.1)
0.2
(32.4)
Record low °C (°F) −41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16.0
(3.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.6)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
36
(1.4)
52
(2.0)
64
(2.5)
76
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
57
(2.2)
59
(2.3)
56
(2.2)
50
(2.0)
618
(24.3)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[19]
Climate data for Saint Petersburg, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1881–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
10.2
(50.4)
15.3
(59.5)
25.3
(77.5)
33.0
(91.4)
34.6
(94.3)
35.3
(95.5)
37.1
(98.8)
30.4
(86.7)
21.0
(69.8)
12.3
(54.1)
10.9
(51.6)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
2.0
(35.6)
9.3
(48.7)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68.0)
23.0
(73.4)
20.8
(69.4)
15.0
(59.0)
8.6
(47.5)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
9.1
(48.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
5.1
(41.2)
11.3
(52.3)
15.7
(60.3)
18.8
(65.8)
16.9
(62.4)
11.6
(52.9)
6.2
(43.2)
0.1
(32.2)
−3.7
(25.3)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F) −8.0
(17.6)
−8.5
(16.7)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.5
(34.7)
7.0
(44.6)
11.7
(53.1)
15.0
(59.0)
13.5
(56.3)
8.8
(47.8)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.8
(28.8)
−6.1
(21.0)
2.7
(36.9)
Record low °C (°F) −35.9
(−32.6)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−6.6
(20.1)
0.1
(32.2)
4.9
(40.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
−12.9
(8.8)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−35.9
(−32.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
(1.7)
33
(1.3)
36
(1.4)
31
(1.2)
46
(1.8)
71
(2.8)
79
(3.1)
83
(3.3)
64
(2.5)
68
(2.7)
56
(2.2)
51
(2.0)
662
(26.1)
Average rainy days 9 7 10 13 16 18 17 17 20 20 16 10 173
Average snowy days 25 23 16 8 1 0.1 0 0 0.1 5 16 23 117
Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 79 69 65 69 71 76 80 83 86 87 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 21.7 53.7 124.0 180.0 260.4 276.0 266.6 213.9 129.0 71.3 24.0 12.4 1,633
Source 1: Погода и Климат[20]
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory[21]
Climate data for Samara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
6.8
(44.2)
15.8
(60.4)
31.1
(88.0)
34.4
(93.9)
39.6
(103.3)
39.0
(102.2)
37.7
(99.9)
34.2
(93.6)
26.0
(78.8)
14.0
(57.2)
7.3
(45.1)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−8.1
(17.4)
−1.7
(28.9)
11.0
(51.8)
20.3
(68.5)
24.6
(76.3)
26.0
(78.8)
24.5
(76.1)
18.2
(64.8)
8.4
(47.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
−6.3
(20.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −15.9
(3.4)
−15.4
(4.3)
−8.8
(16.2)
1.9
(35.4)
9.2
(48.6)
13.8
(56.8)
15.7
(60.3)
14.0
(57.2)
8.6
(47.5)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.7
(21.7)
−12.1
(10.2)
0.6
(33.1)
Record low °C (°F) −43.0
(−45.4)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−31.4
(−24.5)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−4.9
(23.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.0
(35.6)
2.3
(36.1)
−3.4
(25.9)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−41.3
(−42.3)
−43.0
(−45.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
35
(1.4)
33
(1.3)
39
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
58
(2.3)
64
(2.5)
52
(2.0)
45
(1.8)
52
(2.0)
54
(2.1)
51
(2.0)
561
(22.1)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[22]
Climate data for Sochi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
23.5
(74.3)
30.0
(86.0)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
39.0
(102.2)
38.5
(101.3)
36.0
(96.8)
32.3
(90.1)
29.1
(84.4)
23.1
(73.6)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
9.9
(49.8)
12.1
(53.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.4
(68.7)
24.0
(75.2)
26.6
(79.9)
27.1
(80.8)
24.2
(75.6)
20.0
(68.0)
15.7
(60.3)
11.8
(53.2)
18.1
(64.6)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.2
(37.8)
5.0
(41.0)
8.5
(47.3)
12.7
(54.9)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
16.1
(61.0)
12.3
(54.1)
8.5
(47.3)
5.4
(41.7)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F) −13.4
(7.9)
−15.0
(5.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.7
(35.1)
7.1
(44.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.4
(50.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−15.0
(5.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 183
(7.2)
120
(4.7)
115
(4.5)
122
(4.8)
89
(3.5)
99
(3.9)
93
(3.7)
111
(4.4)
133
(5.2)
135
(5.3)
182
(7.2)
202
(8.0)
1,584
(62.4)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[23]
Climate data for Ulan-Ude, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1892–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
7.9
(46.2)
18.4
(65.1)
28.7
(83.7)
35.6
(96.1)
40.0
(104.0)
40.6
(105.1)
39.7
(103.5)
32.2
(90.0)
24.7
(76.5)
11.3
(52.3)
5.2
(41.4)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −17.9
(−0.2)
−10.9
(12.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.8
(49.6)
18.7
(65.7)
24.5
(76.1)
26.6
(79.9)
23.6
(74.5)
16.5
(61.7)
6.9
(44.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
−14.5
(5.9)
6.5
(43.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.3
(−9.9)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−7.4
(18.7)
2.4
(36.3)
10.6
(51.1)
16.9
(62.4)
19.8
(67.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.6
(49.3)
0.7
(33.3)
−10.1
(13.8)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
Average low °C (°F) −27.6
(−17.7)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−13.7
(7.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
3.6
(38.5)
10.5
(50.9)
14.2
(57.6)
11.8
(53.2)
4.3
(39.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−14.3
(6.3)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−5.5
(22.1)
Record low °C (°F) −54.4
(−65.9)
−44.9
(−48.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−11.4
(11.5)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−48.8
(−55.8)
−54.4
(−65.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
6
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
43
(1.7)
65
(2.6)
68
(2.7)
28
(1.1)
8
(0.3)
10
(0.4)
9
(0.4)
265
(10.4)
Average rainy days 0 0.04 1 6 10 14 16 15 13 7 1 0 83
Average snowy days 15 11 9 8 2 0.03 0 0 1 8 17 18 89
Average relative humidity (%) 77 75 66 53 49 57 64 69 68 68 76 78 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 115 155 225 248 287 288 270 247 211 167 113 92 2,418
Source 1: Погода и Климат[24]
Source 2: NOAA[25]
Climate data for Vladivostok, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1919–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
9.9
(49.8)
19.4
(66.9)
27.7
(81.9)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
33.6
(92.5)
32.6
(90.7)
30.0
(86.0)
23.4
(74.1)
17.5
(63.5)
9.4
(48.9)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
2.2
(36.0)
9.9
(49.8)
14.8
(58.6)
17.8
(64.0)
21.1
(70.0)
23.2
(73.8)
19.8
(67.6)
12.9
(55.2)
3.1
(37.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.3
(9.9)
−8.4
(16.9)
−1.9
(28.6)
5.1
(41.2)
9.8
(49.6)
13.6
(56.5)
17.6
(63.7)
19.8
(67.6)
16.0
(60.8)
8.9
(48.0)
−0.9
(30.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
4.9
(40.8)
Average low °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−11.7
(10.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.0
(35.6)
6.7
(44.1)
11.1
(52.0)
15.6
(60.1)
17.7
(63.9)
13.1
(55.6)
5.9
(42.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
−11.9
(10.6)
2.0
(35.6)
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
(−24.5)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.7
(38.7)
8.7
(47.7)
10.1
(50.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−9.7
(14.5)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14
(0.6)
15
(0.6)
27
(1.1)
48
(1.9)
81
(3.2)
110
(4.3)
164
(6.5)
156
(6.1)
117
(4.6)
57
(2.2)
28
(1.1)
18
(0.7)
833
(32.8)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2.0)
4
(1.6)
3
(1.2)
2
(0.8)
0.3
(0.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
1
(0.4)
3
(1.2)
18.8
(7.5)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 4 13 20 22 22 19 14 12 5 1 133
Average snowy days 7 8 11 4 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 7 9 47
Average relative humidity (%) 58 57 60 67 76 87 92 87 77 65 60 60 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 178 184 216 192 199 130 122 149 197 205 168 156 2,096
Source 1: Погода и Климат[26]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[27]
Sea temperature data for Vladivostok
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) -1.2
(29.8)
-1.6
(29.1)
-0.9
(30.4)
2.6
(36.7)
8.8
(47.8)
14.2
(57.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
6.2
(43.2)
0.7
(33.3)
8.64
(47.6)
Source: [28]
Climate data for Yakutsk, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1891–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.1
(95.2)
38.4
(101.1)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
18.6
(65.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) −35.7
(−32.3)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.7
(35.1)
13.2
(55.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
11.5
(52.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −38.6
(−37.5)
−33.8
(−28.8)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
7.5
(45.5)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
6.1
(43.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−37.6
(−35.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
Average low °C (°F) −41.5
(−42.7)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
8.9
(48.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−14.1
(6.6)
Record low °C (°F) −63.0
(−81.4)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41.0
(−41.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9
(0.4)
8
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
8
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
36
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
31
(1.2)
18
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
237
(9.3)
Average rainy days 0 0 0.1 3 14 16 15 15 16 4 0.1 0 83
Average snowy days 28 28 17 10 5 0.3 0.03 0 4 25 28 27 172
Average relative humidity (%) 76 76 70 60 54 57 62 67 72 78 78 76 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 19 97 234 274 303 333 347 273 174 106 59 12 2,231
Source 1: Погода и Климат[29] March record:[30]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[31]


See also

References

  1. ^ "Russia::Climate and vegetation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-07-03.
  2. ^ "Climate". Library Of Congress. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  3. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  4. ^ "Meteo.ru". Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  5. ^ "NOAA NCDC Climate Data Online". Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  6. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  7. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  8. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  9. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  10. ^ "Climate Khabarovsk". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  11. ^ "KHABAROVSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  13. ^ "Thermograph.ru averages". Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  14. ^ "Pogoda & Climate (Weather & Climate)" (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  15. ^ "Climate monitor 2005-2011" (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  16. ^ "Average monthly Sunshine hours" (in Russian). Meteoweb.ru. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  17. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Moscow, Russia - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
  18. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved July 7, 2013.
  19. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  20. ^ "Climate Saint Petersburg". pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  21. ^ "Saint Petersburg 1961–1990". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  22. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  23. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 7, 2007.
  24. ^ "Climate Ulan-Ude". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  25. ^ "ULAN-UDE/MUHINO 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  26. ^ "Climate Vladivostok". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  27. ^ "VLADIVOSTOK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ "Climate Jakutsk". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  30. ^ http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/monitor.php?id=24959&month=3
  31. ^ "JAKUTSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved 16 May 2019.

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