To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Political cartoon from October 1884, showing wealthy plutocrats feasting at a table while a poor family begs beneath

In political and sociological theory, the elite (French: élite, from Latin: eligere, to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a group. Defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, the "elite" are "the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society."[1]

American sociologist C. Wright Mills states that members of the elite accept their fellows' position of importance in society.[2] "As a rule, 'they accept one another, understand one another, marry one another, tend to work, and to think, if not together at least alike'."[3][4] It is a well-regulated existence where education plays a critical role.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
    61 666
  • Is Ryan Garcia Really Exposing The Elite


United States universities

Youthful upper-class members attend prominent preparatory schools, which open doors to elite universities, known as the Ivy League, which includes Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University and Princeton University (among others), and the universities' respective highly exclusive clubs, such as the Harvard Club of Boston. These memberships in turn pave the way to the prominent social clubs located in major cities and serve as sites for important business contacts.[3][5]

Elitist privilege

According to Mills, men receive the education necessary for elitist privilege to obtain their background and contacts, allowing them to enter three branches of the power elite, which are:

  • Political leadership: Mills contended that since the end of World War II, corporate leaders had become more prominent in the political process, with a decline in central decision-making for professional politicians.
  • Military Circle: In Mills' time a heightened concern about warfare existed, making top military leaders and such issues as defense funding and personnel recruitment very important. Most prominent corporate leaders and politicians[who?] were strong proponents of military spending.[when?]
  • Corporate elite: According to Mills, in the 1950s when the military emphasis was pronounced, it was corporate leaders working with prominent military officers who dominated the development of policies. These two groups tended to be mutually supportive.[6][7]

According to Mills, the governing elite in the United States primarily draws its members from political leaders, including the president, and a handful of key cabinet members, as well as close advisers, major corporate owners and directors, and high-ranking military officers.[8] These groups overlap and elites tend to circulate from one sector to another, consolidating power in the process.[9]

Unlike the ruling class, a social formation based on heritage and social ties, the power elite is characterized by the organizational structures through which its wealth is acquired. According to Mills, the power elite rose from "the managerial reorganization of the propertied classes into the more or less unified stratum of the corporate rich".[10] In G. William Domhoff’s sociology textbooks, Who Rules America? editions, he further clarified the differences in the two terms: "The upper class as a whole does not do the ruling. Instead, class rule is manifested through the activities of a wide variety of organizations and institutions...Leaders within the upper class join with high-level employees in the organizations they control to make up what will be called the power elite".[11]

The Marxist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin anticipated the elite theory in his 1929 work, Imperialism and World Economy: "present-day state power is nothing but an entrepreneurs' company of tremendous power, headed even by the same persons that occupy the leading positions in the banking and syndicate offices".[12]

Power elite

The power elite is a term used by Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely connected group of individuals who dominate American policymaking. This group includes bureaucratic, corporate, intellectual, military, media, and government elites who control the principal institutions in the United States and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers.[13] The basis for membership of a power elite is institutional power, namely an influential position within a prominent private or public organization.[3] A study of the French corporate elite has shown that social class continues to hold sway in determining who joins this elite group, with those from the upper-middle class tending to dominate.[14] Another study (published in 2002) of power elites in the United States during the administration of President George W. Bush (in office 2001-2009) identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals.[15] A later study of U.S. society noted demographic characteristics of this elite group as follows: [citation needed]

Corporate leaders aged about 60; heads of foundations, law, education, and civic organizations aged around 62; government employees aged about 56.
Men contribute roughly 80% in the political realm, whereas women contribute roughly only 20% in the political realm. In the economic denomination, as of October 2017, only 32 (6.4%) of the Fortune 500 CEOs are women.[16]
In the US, White Anglo-Saxons dominate in the power elite.[citation needed] While Protestants represent about 80% of the top business leaders,[citation needed] about 54% of the members of Congress of any ethnicity are also Protestant.[17] As of October 2017, only 4 (0.8%) of the Fortune 500 CEOs are African American.[16] In similarly low proportions, as of October 2017, 10 (2%) of the Fortune 500 CEOs are Latino, and 10 (2%) are Asian.[16]
Nearly all the leaders have a college education, with almost half graduating with advanced degrees. About 54% of the big-business leaders, and 42% of the government elite graduated from just 12 prestigious universities with large endowments.
Social clubs
Most holders of top positions in the power elite possess exclusive membership to one or more social clubs. About a third belong to a small number of especially prestigious clubs in major cities like London, New York City, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.[18]

Impacts on economy

In the 1970s an organized set of policies promoted reduced taxes, especially for the wealthy, and a steady erosion of the welfare safety net.[19] Starting with legislation in the 1980s, the wealthy banking community successfully lobbied for reduced regulation.[20] The wide range of financial and social capital accessible to the power elite gives their members heavy influence in economic and political decision making, allowing them to move toward attaining desired outcomes. Sociologist Christopher Doob gives a hypothetical alternative, stating that these elite individuals would consider themselves the overseers of the national economy. Also appreciating that it is not only a moral, but a practical necessity to focus beyond their group interests. Doing so would hopefully alleviate various destructive conditions affecting large numbers of less affluent citizens.[3]

Global politics and hegemony

Mills determined that there is an "inner core" of the power elite involving individuals that are able to move from one seat of institutional power to another. They, therefore, have a wide range of knowledge and interests in many influential organizations, and are, as Mills describes, "professional go-betweens of economic, political, and military affairs".[21] Relentless expansion of capitalism and the globalizing of economic and military power bind leaders of the power elite into complex relationships with nation states that generate global-scale class divisions. Sociologist Manuel Castells writes in The Rise of the Network Society that contemporary globalization does not mean that "everything in the global economy is global".[22] So, a global economy becomes characterized by fundamental social inequalities with respect to the "level of integration, competitive potential and share of the benefits from economic growth".[23] Castells cites a kind of "double movement" where on one hand, "valuable segments of territories and people" become "linked in the global networks of value making and wealth appropriation", while, on the other, "everything and everyone" that is not valued by established networks gets "switched off...and ultimately discarded".[23] These evolutions have also led many social scientists to explore empirically the possible emergence of a new transnational and cohesive social class at the top of the social ladder: a global elite[24] But, the wide-ranging effects of global capitalism ultimately affect everyone on the planet, as economies around the world come to depend on the functioning of global financial markets, technologies, trade and labor.

See also


  1. ^ "ELITE | definition of the cambridge dictionary". Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 3 January 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  2. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Pearson Education Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  3. ^ a b c d Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  4. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite. pp. 4–5.
  5. ^ Mills, Charles W. (1956). The Power Elite. New York, Oxford University Press. pp. 63–67.
  6. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-205-79241-2.
  7. ^ Mills, Charles W. (1956). The Power Elite. New York, Oxford University Press. pp. 274–276.
  8. ^ Powell, Jason L.; Chamberlain, John M. (2007). "Power elite". In Ritzer, George; Ryan, J. Michael (eds.). The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 466. ISBN 978-1-4051-8353-6.
  9. ^ Powell, Jason L. (2007) "power elite" in George Ritzer (ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 2007, pp. 3602-3603
  10. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite, p 147.
  11. ^ Domhoff, William G, Who Rules America Now? (1997), p. 2.
  12. ^ Bukharin, Nikolai. Imperialism and World Economy (1929)
  13. ^ power elite. (n.d.). The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Retrieved January 18, 2015, from website:
  14. ^ Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Kling, Gerhard (2014-06-01). "Pathways to Power: Class, Hyper-Agency and the French Corporate Elite" (PDF). Organization Studies. 35 (6): 825–855. doi:10.1177/0170840613509919. ISSN 0170-8406. S2CID 145716192.
  15. ^ Dye, Thomas (2002). Who's Running America? The Bush Restoration, 7th edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780130974624.
  16. ^ a b c "Fortune 500 list". Fortune. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Faith on the Hill". 4 January 2021.
  18. ^ Doob, Christopher (2012). Social Inequality and Social Stratification in U.S. Society. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. p. 42.
  19. ^ Jenkins & Eckert 2000
  20. ^ Francis 2007
  21. ^ Mills, Charles W. The Power Elite, p 288.
  22. ^ Castells, Manuel (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 101. ISBN 978-1557866172.
  23. ^ a b Castells, Manuel (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 108. ISBN 978-1557866172.
  24. ^ Cousin, Bruno; Chauvin, Sébastien (2021). "Is there a global super-bourgeoisie?". Sociology Compass. 15 (6): e12883. doi:10.1111/soc4.12883. ISSN 1751-9020. S2CID 234861167.

Further reading

This page was last edited on 5 June 2024, at 02:58
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.