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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

North Asia
North Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area13,100,000 km2 (5,100,000 sq mi)
Population33,765,005 (2017)
Population density2.6 per km2
GDP (nominal)$300 billion (2017)[1]
GDP per capita$9,000 (2017)
Ethnic groupsSlavic, Aleut, Eskimo, Mongols, Turkic, Tungusic and Uralic peoples
ReligionsOrthodox Christianity, Islam, Shamanism, Tengrism, Buddhism, Animism
DemonymNorth Asian
Severoaziatskiy (ru)
Countries Russia
Languages
Time zones
Internet TLD.ru
Calling codeZone 7
Largest cities
UN M.49 code151Eastern Europe
150Europe
001World
North Asia
Russian name
RussianСеверная Азия
RomanizationSevernaya Aziya

North Asia or Northern Asia (Russian: Северная Азия, lit. 'Severnaya Aziya'), sometimes also referred to as Siberia or Eurasia, is partly a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East. The region is sometimes also known as Asian Russia (as opposed to the smaller but more densely populated European Russia to the west). North Asia is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by Eastern Europe, to the south by Central and East Asia and to the east by the Pacific Ocean and North America. North Asia covers an area of approximately 13,100,000 square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi) or 8.8% of the earth's land area, or 1.5 times the size of Brazil. It is the largest subregion of Asia by area, but is also the least populated, with an approximate total population of only 33 million people or 0.74% of Asia’s population. North Asia is solely administrated by Russia, and makes up more than 75% of the territory of the country, but only 22% of its population, at a density of 2.5 people per km2 (6.5 per sq mi).[2] The region of Western Siberia and occasionally Kazakhstan is usually called Northwestern Asia or Northwest Asia; (Russian: Северо-Западная Азия, lit. 'Severo-zapadnaya Aziya'), although the name sometimes refers to Caucasus or nearby provinces.

Topographically, the region is dominated by the Eurasian Plate, except for its eastern part, which lies on the North American, Amurian and Okhotsk Plates. It is divided by three major plains: the West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau and Verhoyansk-Chukotka collision zone. The Uralian orogeny in the west raised Ural Mountains, the informal boundary between Europe and Asia. Tectonic and volcanic activities are frequently occurred in the eastern part of the region as part of the Ring of Fire, evidenced by the formation of island arc such as Kuril Islands and ultra-prominent peaks such as Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kronotsky and Koryaksky. The central part of North Asia is a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps, formed by a massive eruption occurred 250 million years ago.

European influences, especially Russian, are strong in the southwestern and central part of the region, due to its high Russian population from Eastern Europe which began to settle the area in the 18th-century CE.[3] The southeastern part is historically under the influence of East Asian cultural sphere, especially the Chinese.[4] Indigenous cultures are mostly strong in the eastern and southern part of the region due to concentrated population of indigenous ethnicities.[5][6] In recent years there are growing number of movements by the indigenous peoples of the region to preserve its culture from extinction.[7][8] The region is the home of different peoples such as Turkic, Tungusic and Uralic peoples.

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Transcription

This video is in collaboration with Second Thought. Make sure to check out his video after this. Don’t forget to subscribe, and click the bell button so you can be part of our notification squad. So far on this channel, we’ve only ever talked about current or past events. Well not anymore, because this video is about the future. We’ll be covering the major events that will happen in Asia leading up to the year 2050. Of course, predicting such events is extremely difficult but we can always give our best estimates based the information we currently have. Just before we start, if you’re unsure of which countries are considered Asian (according to the international community) feel free to check out our video series on Asian borders. We will start from early 2018. The PyeongChang Winter Olympics in South Korea has just ended a noteworthy event as we saw South Korea and North Korea march together under a united flag. Now later on in the year, Indonesia will host the 2018 Asian Games and JAXA, Japan’s Space Agency, jointly with the European Space Agency, will launch BepiColombo, a mission to the planet Mercury intended to be the most comprehensive on-location study of the planet ever performed. The next year in 2019, Japanese Emperor Akihito will abdicate the throne in favor of his eldest son Crown Prince Naruhito. Abdication has not occured in Japan in over 200 years Jordan, a country with a high dependency on foreign energy sources will hope to resolve this very issue by opening its first nuclear power plant. But with the desert nation lying in a seismically active region there have been fears of a possible meltdown similar to the Japanese Fukushima nuclear disaster. In 2020, Saudi Arabia will have completed construction on the Jeddah Tower at an unprecedented height of 1 km which would make it the tallest building in the world. In comparison, the current tallest building is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai at a height of 828 meters. A transcontinental bridge known as the Bridge of Horns is also scheduled for completion around this time which would connect the Middle East to Africa, crossing the Red Sea, from Yemen to Djibouti. But, given the ongoing Yemeni civil war, completion is looking more and more unlikely. Perhaps a more realistic Red Sea alternative is the proposed bridge connecting Saudi Arabia to Egypt which would provide the first direct road link between the Arab states of West Asia and North Africa. Now, the first truly holographic TV displays may go mainstream in 2020 appearing first in Japan and South Korea before making its way to the rest of the world and actually, as of 2016, Samsung had already filed a patent for it! Mainstream or not, it does seem likely that at the very least, holographic displays will be a big part of the Tokyo Summer Olympics to be held in this same year. Having previously hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics Tokyo will become the first Asian city to host the Olympics, twice. The following year in 2021, the UAE’s Hope probe will reach Mars. But that’s apparently only the start, because the UAE has also announced plans to set up the first city on Mars by 2117. Now, as far as launching humans into space, India will accomplish this feat becoming only the fourth nation to do so, after Russia, US and China. 2022 will see Qatar host the FIFA world cup, the first for a Middle Eastern country. Beijing will host The Winter Olympics making it the third consecutive Olympic Games held in Asia. By this time, China will have also completed their first space station, with a design lifetime of ten years. In 2023, Turkey will celebrate its 100th anniversary as an independent republic and by 2024 India will surpass China to become the most populous nation on Earth with over 1.4 billion people. Come 2026, rising sea levels will wreak havoc on the island country of the Maldives the smallest Asian country by land area and population also the lowest lying country on the planet at just 1.5 meters above sea level. Yes by this point, the Maldives would be well on its way to submersion. A mass evacuation plan would subsequently be underway with many citizens making their way to Sri Lanka, India and Australia. 2027 will see much of China reach an unparalleled level of urbanization. With its growing economy, and the hundreds of cities with over a million inhabitants, many of the world’s tallest buildings will now be found in China we’re talking about Jeddah Tower-sized buildings at the very least. In 2028, if all goes according to plan, China (now taking their ambitions a step further), will have built the world’s largest particle accelerator in Beijing about twice the circumference of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland. Shanghai may also eclipse Wall Street in 2030, as the World’s leading financial centre, but around this time China’s population will start seeing a slow decline. This contrasted with India’s population which will see it hit 1.5 billion making it the first political entity in history to reach that milestone. 2032 may see most of Southeast Asia unified by transport links including the Sunda Strait Bridge connecting the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra and the Malacca Strait Bridge connecting Sumatra with Western Malaysia meaning Indonesia will now be connected to the Asian mainland. This would greatly expand the economies of Indonesia and many other Southeast Asian countries. Unfortunately though, Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, with a population of over 12 million will face dire consequences due to rising sea levels and increased monsoon rains. Add to the fact the city having been built on swampland and clay has actually been sinking for the last decades. By 2034, Borneo’s rainforests - one of the oldest in the world, along with its stunning range of biodiversity will be wiped out, at least at the current rate of deforestation which is unparalleled in human history. Many critically endangered species, will be close to extinction by this time including one of the most intelligent of the great apes, the orangutan. In the year 2035, Russia will become a global food superpower. With climate change resulting in lower crop yields in many parts of the world and with the world’s population nearing 9 billion, demand for crop production will be at an all time high. With the melting permafrost and retreating polar icecap vast tracts of land will have opened up by this time in North Asia turning the once remote, harsh, barren landscape of Siberia into endless stretches of arable land that is land suitable for farming and for growing crops. Also Japan may be connected to the mainland for the very first time with the completion of a new tunnel Running from the Northern Japanese Island of Hokkaido to the Russian island of Sakhalin with a smaller tunnel connecting Sakhalin to the mainland Along with the long-existing Seikan Tunnel, all four of the main Japanese islands would now be connected to Russia. 2036 will see China’s first astronauts on the moon, the first Asian country to do so, and only the second ever after the US in 1969. Yes that’s a whopping 67 years apart the US’ Apollo program quite the technological anomaly here. By 2038, capital punishment across the globe will have greatly declined in use particularly in Asia and The Middle East, though with a few notable exceptions. As we arrive at 2040, India’s economy will now be rivaling the US and China’s. A second tunnel connecting Japan to mainland Asia will possibly be completed but this time linking the southern Japanese island of Kyushu to South Korea. In around 2041, also on the island of Kyushu, Japan will experience a major volcanic eruption, its largest since 1914. Casualties will be at minimum however, thanks to technological advancements and extensive precautionary measures. 2045 will see a substantial decline in homoesexual discrimination particularly in the Middle East. The Indian Elephant, native to mainland Asia, will be on the brink of extinction. Indonesia will celebrate its 100th anniversary of independence. And it will also be the 100th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the only time nuclear weapons were used in the history of warfare… assuming nothing drastic happens in this 27 years span. Regardless though, Japan’s population will fall below a 100 million by 2046 but as part of its ongoing, slow decline and fundamentally irreversible low birth rate. By now, entire Japanese communities, mainly in the rural areas, will have disappeared in its entirety. In 2047, Pakistan and India will celebrate the 100th anniversary of their independence. The ‘One country, two systems’ agreement for Hong Kong will expire which would be the end of Beijing’s 50-year promise to maintain the city’s existing way of life after the British handover in 1997. Israel will celebrate the 100th anniversary of their independence in 2048. And North Korea will celebrate the 100th anniversary of their founding although whether they’ll exist in their current form by this year is questionable to some. In 2049, the ‘One country, two systems’ agreement (this time) for Macau will expire the Dead sea, located between Israel and Jordan will have almost vanished the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster will be cleared up, having taken approximately 35 years and costing tens of billions of dollars. And finally, we arrive at 2050. The global population is getting close to 10 billion, with Asia by far making up the majority. India’s population will finally start declining. We’d be in the midst of the biggest refugee crisis in history in Southeast Asia with rising sea levels forcing people inland. The Everest region will have its glacier volume declined by half. Robots will be commonplace, especially in Japan and Korea where issues relating to population decline will be balanced out by a growing robot population. And Asia will be connected to almost every part of the world by a Transglobal Highway, which will likely include this crossing - the Bering Strait Bridge connecting Asia to North America which means by 2050 you may be able to drive from Tokyo, Jakarta, Dubai or Beijing to New York or California. If you want to learn more about the Transglobal Highway as it relates to America as well future events relating to that part of the world you can check out Second Thought’s video by clicking here! I hope you enjoyed this topic, please leave a comment below, and for more Asiany videos, don’t forget to subscribe and click that little bell button to be part of our notification squad. Next video will be Asian Border part 3, I’ll see you there, thanks for watching and I’m out.

Contents

History

Map of Northern Asia in 1921
Map of Northern Asia in 1921

The region was started to be populated by hominins in the Late Pleistocene, approximately 50,000 years ago,[9] With the first humans arriving in the region having West Eurasian origins.[10] Its Neolithic culture is characterized by a characteristic stone production techniques and presence of pottery of eastern origin.[10] Bronze Age began during the 3rd-millennium BCE,[11] with influences of Indo-Iranian cultures as evidenced by Andronovo culture. During the 1st-millennium BCE, polities such as the Scythians and Xiongnus emerged in the region, whom often clashed with its Persian and Chinese neighbors in the south. The Turkic Khaganate dominated the southern Siberia during the 1st-millennium CE, while, in early 2nd-millennium CE, the Mongol Empire and its successor states ruled the region. The Khanate of Sibir was one of the last independent Turkic state in North Asia before its conquest by Tsardom of Russia in 16th-century CE. Russia would then gradually incorporate the region into its territory until the Convention of Peking was signed in 1860. After the October Revolution in 1917, the region was contested between the Bolsheviks and Whites until Soviet Union asserted full control in 1923. The collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 left Russia as the administrator of the region.

Geography

For geographic and statistical reasons, the UN geoscheme and various other classification schemes will not subdivide countries, and thus place all of Russia in the Europe or Eastern Europe subregion.

There are no mountain chains in Northern Asia to prevent air currents from the Arctic flowing down over the plains of Siberia and Turkestan.[12]

The plateau and plains of Northern Asia comprise the West Siberian lowlands; the Angara Shield, with the Taimyr Peninsula, the coastal lowlands, the Putorana Plateau, the Anabar Plateau, the Tunguska Plateau, and the Angara Plateau; and the Lena–Vilyuy Basin.[13] Western Siberia is usually regarded as the Northwest Asia, Kazakhstan also sometimes included there. But Northwest Asia sometimes refers to Caucasus or nearby provinces.

Geomorphology

The geomorphology of Asia in general is imperfectly known, although the deposits and mountain ranges are well known.[13]

To compensate for new sea floor having been created in the Siberian basin, the whole of the Asian Plate has pivoted about a point in the New Siberian Islands, causing compression in the Verkhoyansk mountains, which were formed along the eastern margin of the Angara Shield by tectonic uplift during the Mesozoic Era. There is a southern boundary to this across the northern margin of the Alpine folds of Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan, which at the east of Brahmaputra turns to run south towards the Bay of Bengal along the line of the Naga hills and the Arakan Yoma, continues around Indonesia, and follows the edge of the continental shelf along the eastern seaboard of China. The Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate meet across the neck of Alaska, following the line of the Aleutian Trench, rather than meeting at the Bering Straits.[13]

Northern Asia is built around the Angara Shield, which lies between the Yenisey River and the Lena River. It developed from fragments of Laurasia, whose rocks were mainly Precambrian crystalline rocks, gneisses, and schists, and Gondwana. These rocks can be found in the Angara Shield, the Inner Mongolian-Korean Shield, the Ordes Shield and the Southeast Asia Shield. The fragments have been subject to orogenesis around their margins, giving a complex of plateaux and mountain ranges. One can find outcrops of these rocks in unfolded sections of the Shields. Their presence has been confirmed below Mesozoic and later sediments.[13]

There are three main periods of mountain building in Northern Asia, although it has occurred many times. The outer fold mountains, that are on the margins of the Shields and that only affected Asia north of the line of the Himalayas, are attributed to the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies of the late Palaeozoic Era. The Alpine orogeny caused extensive folding and faulting of Mesozoic and early Tertiary sediments from the Tethys geosyncline. The Tibetan and Mongolian plateaux, and the structural basins of Tarim, Qaidam, and Junggar, are delimited by major east-west lithospheric faults that were probably the results of stresses caused by the impact of the Indian Plate against Laurasia. Erosion of the mountains caused by this orogeny has created a large amount of sediment, which has been transported southwards to produce the alluvial plains of India, China, and Cambodia, and which has also been deposited in large amounts in the Tarim and Dzungarian basins.[13]

Northern Asia was glaciated in the Pleistocene, but this played a less significant part in the geology of the area compared to the part that it played in North America and Europe. The Scandinavian ice sheet extended to the east of the Urals, covering the northern two thirds of the Ob Basin and extending onto the Angara Shield between the Yenisei River and the Lena River. There are legacies of mountain glaciation to be found on the east Siberian mountains, on the mountains of the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the Altai, on Tian Shan, and on other small areas of mountains, ice caps remain on the islands of Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya, and several Central Asian mountains still have individual glaciers. North Asia itself has permafrost, ranging in depths from 30 to 600 metres and covering an area of 9.6 million km².[13]

Several of the mountainous regions are volcanic, with both the Koryak Mountains and the Kamchatka Peninsula having active volcanoes. The Anadyr Plateau is formed from igneous rocks. The Mongolian Plateau has an area of basaltic lavas and volcanic cones.[13]

The Angara Shield also underlies the lowlands of the Ob River, but to the south and east in the Central Asian mountains and in the East Siberian mountains there are folded and faulted mountains of Lower Palaeozoic rocks.[13]

Demographics

Most estimates are that there are around 33 million Russian citizens living east of the Ural Mountains, a widely recognized but informal geographical divide between Europe and Asia. The native Turkic, Uralic and Tungusic peoples now are a minority in North Asia due to the Russification process during the last three centuries. Russian census records indicate they make up only an estimated 10% of the region's population with the Buryats numbering at 445,175, which makes them the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia. There are 443,852 Yakuts (Russian Census of 2002) living in Russian Far East.[14] According to the 2002 census, there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia, but 300,000 of them are Volga Tatars who settled in Siberia during periods of colonization.[15] Other ethnic groups that live in the region and make a significant portion are ethnic Germans and they number about 400,000.

In 1875, Chambers reported the population of Northern Asia to be 8 million.[12] Between 1801 and 1914, an estimated 7 million settlers moved from European Russia to Siberia, 85% during the quarter-century before World War I.[16]

Urban centres

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Валовой региональный продукт::Мордовиястат
  2. ^ Vishnevsky, Anatoly (15 August 2000). "Replacement Migration: Is it a solution for Russia?" (PDF). EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON POLICY RESPONSES TO POPULATION AGEING AND POPULATION DECLINE /UN/POP/PRA/2000/14. United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. pp. 6, 10. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  3. ^ Haywood, A. J. (2010). Siberia: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199754182.
  4. ^ Kotkin, Stephen; Wolff, David (2015-03-04). Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far East: Siberia and the Russian Far East. Routledge. ISBN 9781317461302.
  5. ^ King, Alexander David (2011-06-01). Living with Koryak Traditions: Playing with Culture in Siberia. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0803235090.
  6. ^ Minahan, James B. (2014-02-10). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610690188.
  7. ^ Golovnev, Andrei V.; Osherenko, Gail (2018-09-05). Siberian Survival: The Nenets and Their Story. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9781501727221.
  8. ^ Gray, Patty A.; Gray, Patty (2005). The Predicament of Chukotka's Indigenous Movement: Post-Soviet Activism in the Russian Far North. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521823463.
  9. ^ "World's oldest needle found in Siberian cave that stitches together human history". siberiantimes.com. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  10. ^ a b Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Kashuba, Natalija; Yaka, Reyhan; Sümer, Arev Pelin; Yüncü, Eren; Shergin, Dmitrij; Ivanov, Grigorij Leonidovich; Kichigin, Dmitrii; Pestereva, Kjunnej (2018-06-12). "Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 8969. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.8969K. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-27325-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5997703. PMID 29895902.
  11. ^ Dupuy, Paula Doumani (2016-06-02). "Bronze Age Central Asia". doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935413.001.0001 (inactive 2019-02-23).
  12. ^ a b William Chambers and Robert Chambers (1875). Chambers's Information for the People. London and Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers. pp. 274–276.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Edwin Michael Bridges (1990). "Northern Asia". World Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124–126. ISBN 978-0-521-28965-8.
  14. ^ Siberian Germans
  15. ^ Siberian Tatars
  16. ^ The Great Siberian Migration: Government and Peasant in Resettlement from Emancipation to the First World War
  17. ^ "31. Численность населения городов и поселков городского типа по федеральным округам и субъектам Российской Федерации  на 1 января 2017 года". Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Russia: Federal Districts and Major Cities". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
This page was last edited on 27 March 2019, at 03:55
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