To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Macon, Georgia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Macon–Bibb County
Official seal of Macon
Location within Bibb County
Location within Bibb County
Macon is located in Georgia
Location within Georgia
Macon is located in the United States
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 32°50′5″N 83°39′6″W / 32.83472°N 83.65167°W / 32.83472; -83.65167
CountryUnited States
Settled around Fort Benjamin Hawkins1809
 • MayorLester Miller
 • Consolidated city-county254.90 sq mi (660.19 km2)
 • Land249.38 sq mi (645.89 km2)
 • Water5.52 sq mi (14.30 km2)
381 ft (116 m)
 • Consolidated city-county157,346
 • Rank
  • 164th in the United States
  • 4th in Georgia
 • Density630.95/sq mi (243.61/km2)
 • Metro233,802 (197th)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code478
FIPS code13-49000[4]
GNIS feature ID0332301[5]

Macon (/ˈmkən/ MAY-kən), officially Macon–Bibb County, is a consolidated city-county in Georgia, United States. Situated near the fall line of the Ocmulgee River, it is 85 miles (137 km) southeast of Atlanta and near the state's geographic center—hence its nickname "The Heart of Georgia".

Macon's population was 157,346 in the 2020 census.[2] It is the principal city of the Macon metropolitan statistical area, which had 234,802 people in 2020.[3] It also is the largest city in the Macon–Warner Robins Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which had approximately 420,693 residents in 2017 and abuts the Atlanta metropolitan area to the northwest.

Voters approved the consolidation of the City of Macon and Bibb County governments in a 2012 referendum. Macon became the state's fourth-largest city (after Augusta) when the merger became official on January 1, 2014.[6]

Macon is served by three interstate highways: I-16 (connecting to Savannah and coastal Georgia), I-75 (connecting to Atlanta to the north and Valdosta to the south), and I-475 (a city bypass highway). The area has two small general aviation airports, Middle Georgia Regional Airport and Herbert Smart Downtown Airport. Residents traveling to and from the area mainly use the large commercial airport in Atlanta, approximately 80 miles to the northwest.

The city has several institutions of higher education and numerous museums and tourism sites.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    32 822
    817 333
  • Macon | Hometown Georgia
  • 10 Places In Georgia You Should NEVER Move To



Macon was founded on the site of the Ocmulgee Old Fields, where the Creek Indians lived in the 18th century. Their predecessors, the Mississippian culture, built a powerful agriculture-based chiefdom (950–1100 AD). The Mississippian culture constructed earthwork mounds for ceremonial, religious, and burial purposes. Indigenous peoples inhabited the areas along the Southeast's rivers for 13,000 years before Europeans arrived.[7]

Macon was developed at the site of Fort Benjamin Hawkins, built in 1809 at President Thomas Jefferson's direction after he forced the Creek to cede their lands east of the Ocmulgee River. (Archeological excavations in the 21st century found evidence of two separate fortifications.)[8] The fort was named for Benjamin Hawkins, who served as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southeast territory south of the Ohio River for more than 20 years, had lived among the Creek, and was married to a Creek woman. Located at the fall line of the Ocmulgee River, the fort established a trading post with Native peoples at the river's most inland point navigable from the Low Country.

Sholes' directory of the city of Macon, September 1, 1888

Fort Hawkins guarded the Lower Creek Pathway, an extensive and well-traveled American Indian network that the U.S. government later improved as the Federal Road, linking Washington, D.C., to the ports of Mobile, Alabama and New Orleans, Louisiana.[8] Used for trading with the Creek, the fort also was used by state militia and federal troops. It was a major military distribution point during the War of 1812 and the Creek War of 1813. After the wars, it was a trading post and garrisoned troops until 1821. Decommissioned around 1828, it later burned to the ground. A replica of the southeast blockhouse was built in 1938 and stands on an east Macon hill. Fort Hawkins Grammar School occupied part of the site. In the 21st century, archeological excavations have revealed more of the fort, increasing its historical significance, and led to further reconstruction planning for this major historical site.[8]

Child labor in Macon, 1909. Photo by Lewis Hine.
25-cent bill inscribed "THIS CERTIFIES THAT THERE HAS BEEN DEPOSITED IN THE MACON SAVINGS BANK IN CONFEDERATE TREASURY NOTES TWENTY FIVE CENTS. Payable to the Holder with FOUR PER CENT INTEREST. after thirty days notice in Confederate Treasury Notes when presented in sums of FIVE DOLLARS MACON, GA. March 16. 1863."
1863 twenty-five cent bill from Macon Savings Bank

With the arrival of more settlers, Fort Hawkins was renamed "Newtown". After Bibb County's organization in 1822, the city was chartered as the county seat in 1823 and officially named Macon, in honor of Nathaniel Macon,[9] a statesman from North Carolina, from where many early Georgia residents hailed. City planners envisioned "a city within a park" and created a city of spacious streets and landscapes. Over 250 acres (1.0 km2) were dedicated for Central City Park, and ordinances required residents to plant shade trees in their front yards.

Wesleyan College circa 1877

Because of the beneficial local Black Belt geology and the availability of slave labor, cotton became the mainstay of Macon's early economy.[10] The city's location on the Ocmulgee River aided initial economic expansion, providing shipping access to new markets. Cotton steamboats, stagecoaches, and the 1843 arrival of the railroad increased marketing opportunities and contributed to Macon's economic prosperity.

Macon's growth had other benefits. In 1836, the Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church chose Macon as the location for Wesleyan College, the first U.S. college to grant women college degrees.[11] Nonetheless, Macon came in last in the 1855 referendum voting to be Georgia's capital city with 3,802 votes.[12]

During the American Civil War, Macon served as the official arsenal of the Confederacy[10] manufacturing percussion caps, friction primers, and pressed bullets.[13] Camp Oglethorpe was established as a prison for captured Union officers and enlisted men. Later, it held only officers, at one time numbering 2,300. The camp was evacuated in 1864.[14]

Macon City Hall served as the temporary state capitol in 1864 and was converted to a hospital for wounded Confederate soldiers. The Union General William Tecumseh Sherman spared Macon on his march to the sea. His troops sacked the nearby state capital of Milledgeville, and Maconites prepared for an attack. Sherman, however, passed by without entering Macon.

The Macon Telegraph reported the city had furnished 23 companies of men for the Confederacy, but casualties were high. By war end, Maconite survivors fit for duty could fill only five companies.[15]

The city was taken by Union forces during Wilson's Raid on April 20, 1865.[16]

Railyards in Macon, 1930s

Because of its central location, Macon developed as a state transportation hub. In 1895, the New York Times dubbed Macon "The Central City" because of is emergence as a railroad transportation and textile factory hub.[17] Terminal Station was built in 1916.[18] In the twentieth century, Macon grew into a prospering town in Middle Georgia.

Downtown Macon in the early 1900s, looking northeast near the intersections of Cotton Avenue, First Street and Poplar Street

Macon has been impacted by natural catastrophes. In 1994 Tropical Storm Alberto made landfall in Florida and flooded several Georgia cities. Macon, which received 24 inches (61 cm) of rain, suffered major flooding.[19]

On May 11, 2008, an EF2 tornado hit Macon. Touching down in nearby Lizella, the tornado moved northeast to the southern shore of Lake Tobesofkee, continued into Macon, and lifted near Dry Branch in Twiggs County. The storm's total path length was 18 miles (29 km), and its path width was 100 yards (91 m).[citation needed] The tornado produced sporadic areas of major damage, with widespread straight-line wind damage along its southern track. The most significant damage was along Eisenhower Parkway and Pio Nono Avenue in Macon, where two businesses were destroyed and several others were heavily damaged. The tornado also impacted Middle Georgia State College, where almost half of the campus's trees were snapped or uprooted and several buildings were damaged, with the gymnasium suffering the worst. The tornado's intensity varied from EF0 to EF2, with the EF2 damage and winds up to 130 miles per hour (210 km/h) occurring near the intersection of Eisenhower Parkway and Pio Nono Avenue.


Location of Macon within Bibb County before consolidation

On July 31, 2012, voters in Macon (57.8 percent approval) and Bibb County (56.7 percent approval) passed a referendum to merge the governments of the city of Macon and most of unincorporated Bibb County. The vote came after the Georgia General Assembly passed House Bill 1171, authorizing the referendum earlier in the year;[6][20] Four previous consolidation attempts (in 1933, 1960, 1972, and 1976) failed.[21][22][23]

As a result of the referendum, (i) the Macon and Bibb County governments were replaced with a mayor and a nine-member county commission elected by districts and (ii) a portion of Macon extending into nearby Jones County was disincorporated. Robert Reichert was elected the first mayor of Macon-Bibb in the September 2013 election, which required a runoff with C. Jack Ellis in October.[24][25][26][27]


Timeline of Macon, Georgia


The Macon-Bibb County Courthouse

The Ocmulgee River is a major river that runs through the city. Macon is one of Georgia's three major Fall Line Cities, along with Augusta and Columbus. The Fall Line is where the hilly lands of the Piedmont plateau meet the flat terrain of the coastal plain. As such, Macon has a varied landscape of rolling hills on the north side and flat plains on the south. The fall line, where the altitude drops noticeably, causes rivers and creeks in the area to flow rapidly toward the ocean. In the past, Macon and other Fall Line cities had many textile mills powered by the rivers.

Macon is located at 32°50′05″N 83°39′06″W / 32.834839°N 83.651672°W / 32.834839; -83.651672 (32.834839, −83.651672).[58]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 56.3 square miles (146 km2), of which 55.8 square miles (145 km2) is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) (0.82%) is water.

Macon is approximately 330 feet (100 m) above sea level.[5]


Macon has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 46.3 °F (7.9 °C) in January to 81.8 °F (27.7 °C) in July. On average, there are 4.8 days with 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs,[a] 83 days with 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs,[b] and 43 days with a low at or below freezing; the average window for freezing temperatures is November 7 thru March 22, allowing a growing season of 228 days.

The city has an average annual precipitation of 45.7 inches (1,160 mm). The wettest day on record was July 5, 1994, with 10.25 inches (260 mm) of rain, and the wettest month on record was July 1994, with 18.16 inches (461 mm) of rain. On the other hand, since 1892, when precipitation records for the city began, there have been two months, October 1961 and October 1963, which did not even record a trace of precipitation in the city, and two other months, October 1939 and May 2007, which only recorded a trace.[59] Snow is occasional, with about half of the winters receiving trace amounts or no snowfall, averaging 0.7 inches (1.8 cm); the snowiest winter was 1972−73 with 16.5 in (42 cm).[59][60][61]

Climate data for Macon, Georgia (Middle Georgia Regional Airport), 1991−2020 normals,[c] extremes 1892−present[d]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
Mean maximum °F (°C) 73.9
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 59.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 47.6
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 35.9
Mean minimum °F (°C) 19.0
Record low °F (°C) −6
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.32
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.2 9.2 9.4 8.2 7.5 11.2 11.3 10.2 7.1 6.3 7.7 9.4 107.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7
Average relative humidity (%) 70.2 67.2 66.6 64.8 68.5 70.7 74.2 76.1 76.4 71.2 71.1 70.9 70.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.5 192.2 250.8 283.2 315.3 300.0 293.9 288.0 247.4 253.7 200.2 182.2 2,986.4
Percent possible sunshine 56 62 67 73 73 70 67 70 67 72 64 59 67
Source: NOAA (snow 1981–2010, relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[59][62][63][64]

Surrounding cities and towns

Downtown Macon at night in 2008


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[65]
1850-1870[66] 1870-1880[67]
1890-1910[68] 1920-1930[69]
1930-1940[70] 1940-1950[71]
1960-1980[72] 1980-2000[73]
2010[74] 2020[75]
Locator map of the Macon-Warner Robins-Fort Valley Combined Statistical Area in central Georgia.
Location of the Macon-Warner Robins-Fort Valley CSA and its components:
  Macon Metropolitan Statistical Area
  Warner Robins Metropolitan Statistical Area

Macon is the largest principal city in the Macon-Warner Robins-Fort Valley CSA, a combined statistical area that includes the Macon metropolitan area (Bibb, Crawford, Jones, Monroe, and Twiggs counties) and the Warner Robins metropolitan area (Houston, Peach, and Pulaski counties) with a combined population of 411,898 in the 2010 census.[4]

Macon-Bibb County, Georgia – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 2000[76] Pop 2010[74] Pop 2020[75] % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 34,050 25,296 56,787 35.01% 27.69% 36.09%
Black or African American alone (NH) 60,503 61,768 85,234 62.21% 67.62% 54.17%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 177 146 281 0.18% 0.16% 0.18%
Asian alone (NH) 608 683 3,209 0.63% 0.75% 2.04%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 27 28 42 0.03% 0.03% 0.03%
Other race alone (NH) 60 97 602 0.06% 0.11% 0.38%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH) 664 1,069 4,454 0.68% 1.17% 2.83%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 1,166 2,264 6,737 1.20% 2.48% 4.28%
Total 97,255 91,351 157,346 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

As of the official 2010 U.S. census,[4] the population of Macon was 91,351. In the last official census, in 2000, there were 97,255 people, 38,444 households, and 24,219 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,742.8 inhabitants per square mile (672.9/km2). There were 44,341 housing units at an average density of 794.6 per square mile (306.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 67.94% African American, 28.56% White, 0.02% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, and 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.48% of the population. By the 2020 census, its population increased to 157,346.

There were 38,444 households, out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.0% were married couples living together, 25.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.0% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 26.9% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.7 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 72.8 males.


Since 2020, crime has become a higher concern in the city. In 2022, Macon set a homicide record with 70 homicides.[77] In 2023, Macon had the highest crime rate in Georgia. Macon had a crime rate of 52.6 crimes per 1,000 residents.[78] Gang activity is a major reason for the crime problem in Macon.[79] The Georgia Bureau of Investigation expanded its Gang Task Force Office to Macon in 2023.[80] As of 2024, crime has reduced in Macon compared to 2022 and 2023.[81][82]


The aerospace, advanced manufacturing, food processing, healthcare, professional services, and warehouse and distribution industries drive the economy in Macon-Bibb County. Long-standing large private employers include Mercer University, GEICO's Southeast Corporate Headquarters, YKK USA, and Norfolk Southern Railway's Brosnan Yard.

The decline of the textile industry in the South, along with the shuttering of other large manufacturing operations, such as the closing of the Brown and Williamson plant in 2006, caused a decline in the city's economy in the 2000s. In recent years, the city has successfully landed numerous new employers to diversify the economy, such as Irving Consumer Products and Kuhmo Tire manufacturing plants, as well as multiple aerospace employers at the Middle Georgia Regional Airport, including an Embraer aircraft maintenance facility.[83]

The health care and social assistance sector is the largest industry in Macon by number of employees,[84] with the Atrium Health Navicent and Piedmont Healthcare Macon hospital systems, two of the city's largest employers, making Macon the healthcare hub for the Middle and South Georgia regions.

Personal income

The 2010 Census listed Macon's median household income as $28,366, below the state average of $49,347. The median family income was $37,268. Full-time working males had a median income of $34,163, higher than the $28,082 for females. The city's per capita income was $17,010. About 24.1% of families and 30.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.6% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those over 65.[85]


Malls include The Shoppes at River Crossing, Macon Mall, and Eisenhower Crossing. Traditional[clarification needed] shopping centers are in the downtown area and Ingleside Village.[86]


Macon is the headquarters of the 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, Georgia Army National Guard.

The largest single-site industrial complex in Georgia,[87] Robins Air Force Base, is 10 miles south of Macon on Highway 247, just east of Warner Robins.

Arts and culture

Musical heritage

Macon has been home for numerous musicians and composers, including Emmett Miller, The Allman Brothers Band, Randy Crawford, Mark Heard, Lucille Hegamin, Ben Johnston, Otis Redding, Little Richard, Mike Mills,[88] and Bill Berry of R.E.M., as well as more recent artists like violinist Robert McDuffie and country artist Jason Aldean.[clarification needed] Capricorn Records, run by Macon natives Phil Walden and briefly Alan Walden, made the city a Southern rock music production center in the late 1960s and 1970s.[89]

The Macon Symphony Orchestra,[90] a youth symphony, and the Middle Georgia Concert Band perform at the Grand Opera House in downtown Macon.[91]

The Georgia Music Hall of Fame was located in Macon from 1996 to 2011.[92]


Cherry Blossom Festival
Georgia State Fair
  • International Cherry Blossom Festival - a 10-day celebration held every mid-March in Macon.
  • The Mulberry Street Festival[93] - an arts and crafts festival held downtown the last weekend of March.
  • The Juneteenth Freedom Festival - An annual June performing arts and educational celebration of the end of American slavery in 1865, celebrating black freedom and heritage both ancient and contemporary.[94]
  • Pan African Festival - An annual celebration of the African diaspora and culture, held in April
  • Ocmulgee Indigenous Celebration - A celebration of the original residents of the land where Macon now sits, this festival is held every third weekend in September[95] at Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park.[96] Representatives from the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and other nations come to share stories, exhibit Native art, and perform traditional songs and dance.
  • Skydog[97] is a music festival celebrating the birthday, life, and music of Skydog (Duane Allman) held in November.
  • The Georgia Music Hall of Fame hosts Georgia Music Week in September.
  • Macon's annual Bragg Jam festival features an Art and Kids' Festival along the Ocmulgee Heritage Trail and a nighttime Pub Crawl.
  • Macon Film Festival[98] - an annual celebration of independent films, held the third weekend in July

Points of interest

Fort Benjamin Hawkins

Historical sites



  • City Hall, Georgia's capital for part of the Civil War
Macon City Auditorium - featuring the world's largest true copper dome
  • Douglass Theatre, named for its founder Charles Henry Douglass. An entrepreneur from a prominent black family, he was an established theatre developer well versed in the vaudeville and entertainment business. The theatre has undergone modern renovations and hosts numerous theatrical events.
  • The Grand Opera House, where the Macon Symphony Orchestra performs
  • Hay House - also known as the "Johnston-Felton-Hay House," it has been referred to as the "Palace of the South"[103]
  • City Auditorium, the world's largest true copper dome[104]
  • Macon Coliseum
  • Macon Little Theatre, established in 1934, is the area's oldest community theatre, producing seven plays/musicals per season
  • Waddell Barnes Botanical Gardens
  • Theatre Macon, in the old Ritz Theatre; they perform around nine shows a year


Macon is home to the Mercer Bears, with NCAA Division I teams in soccer (men's and women's), football, baseball, basketball (men's and women's), tennis, and lacrosse. Central Georgia Technical College competes in men's and women's basketball. Wesleyan College, a women's school, has basketball, soccer, cross country, tennis, softball, and volleyball teams.

Club Sport League Venue
Macon Bacon[105] Baseball Coastal Plain League Luther Williams Field
Macon Mayhem Ice hockey SPHL Macon Coliseum

Former teams

Club Sport League Venue Active
Macon State College Blue Storm Various NCCAA Various 2009–2013
Macon Central City/Hornets Baseball Southern League Central City Park 1892–1894
Macon Highlanders/Brigands/Peaches/Tigers Baseball South Atlantic League Central City Park and Luther Williams Field 1904–1917, 1923–1930
Macon Peaches/Dodgers/Redbirds/Pirates Baseball Southeastern League (1932), South Atlantic League (1936–42, 1946–60, 1962–63, 1980–87), Southern Association (1961), Southern League (1964, 1966–67) Luther Williams Field 1932, 1936–1942, 1946–1960, 1961–1964, 1966–1967, 1980–1982
Macon Braves Baseball South Atlantic League Luther Williams Field 1991–2002
Macon Peaches Baseball Southeastern League Luther Williams Field 2003
Macon Music Baseball South Coast League Luther Williams Field 2007
Macon Pinetoppers Baseball Peach State League Luther Williams Field 2010
Macon Blaze Basketball World Basketball Association Macon Coliseum 2005
Macon Whoopees Ice hockey Southern Hockey League Macon Coliseum 1974
Macon Whoopee Ice hockey Central Hockey League (1996-2001), ECHL (2001-02) Macon Coliseum 1996–2002
Macon Trax Ice hockey Atlantic Coast Hockey League (2002–03), World Hockey Association 2 (2003-04), Southern Professional Hockey League (2004–05) Macon Coliseum 2002–2005
Macon Knights Arena football af2 Macon Coliseum 2001–2006
Macon Steel Indoor football American Indoor Football Macon Coliseum 2012
Georgia Doom Indoor football American Arena League Macon Coliseum 2018–2019
Middle Georgia United Soccer UPSL Cavalier Fields 2021-2021

Parks and recreation

The city maintains several parks and community centers.[106]

Ocmulgee Riverwalk
Central City Skatepark
Central City Park, 1877
  • Ocmulgee Heritage Trail - a green way of parks, plazas, and landmarks along the Ocmulgee River in downtown Macon
  • Bloomfield Park
  • East Macon Park
  • Frank Johnson Recreation Center
  • Freedom Park
  • L.H. Williams Community School Center
  • Memorial Park
  • North Macon Park
  • Rosa Jackson
  • Senior Center
  • John Drew Smith Tennis Center
  • Tattnall Square Tennis Center
  • Charles H. Jones Gateway Park[107]
  • Carolyn Crayton Park (formerly Central City Park)[108]
  • Central City Skatepark

Baconsfield Park

U.S. Senator Augustus Bacon, of Georgia, in his 1911 will, devised land in Macon in trust, to be used as a public park for the exclusive benefit of white people. The park, known as Baconsfield, was operated in that manner for many years.[109] In Evans v. Newton,[110] the Supreme Court of the United States held that the park could not continue to be operated on a racially discriminatory basis. The Supreme Court of Georgia thereupon declared "that the sole purpose for which the trust was created has become impossible of accomplishment" and remanded the case to the trial court, which held cy-près doctrine to be inapplicable, since the park's segregated character was an essential and inseparable part of Bacon's plan. The trial court ruled that the trust failed and that the property reverted to Bacon's heirs. The Supreme Court of Georgia[111] and the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed.[112] The 50-acre (20 ha) park was lost and commercially developed.[113]


Prior to 2013, the city government consisted of a mayor and city council. Robert Reichert was elected the first mayor of the consolidated Macon-Bibb County in October 2013.[27] There are also 9 County Commissioners elected from districts within the county.[24]

On March 15, 2019, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charged the former County Manager, Dale M. Walker, with fraud.[114]


Mercer University
Georgia Academy for the Blind

Public schools

Bibb County Public School District operates district public schools.

Public high schools include:

Georgia Academy for the Blind, operated by the state of Georgia, is a statewide school for blind students.[120]

Also operated by Bibb County Public Schools:

  • Elam Alexander Academy[121]
  • Northwoods Academy[122]

Private high schools

Macon is home to several private high schools, many of which were established as segregation academies for parents wishing to avoid the desegration of private schools.[123]

State public charter schools

  • The Academy for Classical Education[125]
  • Cirrus Academy Charter School[126][127]

Colleges and universities

Approximately 30,000 college students live in the greater Macon area.[128]


Macon has a substantial number of local television and radio stations. It is also served by two local papers.

Newspapers and magazines

  • The 11th Hour
  • Gateway Macon (web portal), The Local's Guide for Things To Do in Macon
  • Macon Business Journal, a journal chronicling the business community in the Middle Georgia region
  • Macon Community News, a monthly positive news print newspaper
  • The Mercer Cluster
  • The Telegraph, a daily newspaper published in Macon

References in popular culture

The Simpsons

In "Bart on the Road", the Season 7 episode of The Simpsons, character Nelson Muntz suggests the boys take a road trip to Macon. Later he reminds the group that none of their trouble would have happened had they chosen Macon over Knoxville, Tennessee.

Gone with the Wind

In Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind, Aunt Pittypat's coachman, Uncle Peter, protected her when she fled to Macon during Sherman's assault on Atlanta.

Telltale's The Walking Dead

The city of Macon is visited in The Walking Dead episodic adventure game by Telltale Games and its standalone DLC 400 Days.

In Season One, the city is portrayed as a small rural town and is visited by the main characters as they temporarily set up camp in the city. The city is the hometown of the game's main protagonist and the playable character throughout the game, Lee Everett. He and the other survivors barricade themselves inside his family's pharmacy as they are besieged by zombies. After one of the survivors dies, the group heads to a motel on the outskirts of Macon where they set up camp for two more episodes, before eventually deciding to leave the city for Savannah.

In 400 Days, the city is briefly shown in the episode "Vince's Story" as a flashback to when the episode's main character, Vince, fatally shoots an unseen and unnamed resident of the city before fleeing into the night before the apocalypse began. This murder would ultimately lead to Vince's arrest and the events that occurred at the beginning of the zombie apocalypse.







U.S. Routes:

State Routes:

Mass transit

MTA-MAC City Bus

The Macon Transit Authority (MTA) is Macon's public-transit system, operating the Public Transit City Bus System throughout Macon-Bibb County. As of 2022, the MTA has a total of 10 city bus routes, operating out of the Terminal Station hub.[133]

Intercity bus and rail

Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service. In 2019, they moved from a stand-alone bus station to the Terminal Station to be in the same hub as the local mass transit busses.[134]

Macon grew as a center of rail transport after the 1846 opening of the Macon and Western Railroad.[135] Two of the most note-worthy train companies operating through the city were the Central of Georgia Railway and the Southern Railway. The city continued to be served by passenger trains at Terminal Station until 1971. The Frisco Railroad's Kansas City–Florida Special served the city until 1964.[136] The Southern's Royal Palm ran from Cincinnati, through Macon, to Miami, Florida until 1966. (A truncated route served to Valdosta, Georgia until 1970.) The Central of Georgia's Nancy Hanks ran through Macon, from Atlanta to Savannah until 1971. Since at least 2006 Macon has been included in the proposed Georgia Rail Passenger Program to restore inter-city rail service but as of 2020, Georgia lacks any inter-city passenger rail service other than the federally funded inter-state Amtrak services. In 2022, Amtrak announced a new fifteen year plan to expand its services, which Macon was included in.[137]

Pedestrians and cycling

  • Heritage Trail
  • Ocmulgee Heritage Trail

Notable people

Sister cities

Macon has six sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):[138]

See also


  1. ^ The record number of triple-digit (Fahrenheit) readings is 24 in 1954.[59]
  2. ^ The historical range is 31 in 1994 to 116 in 2011.[59]
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. ^ Official records for Macon were kept at downtown from October 1892 to 7 April 1899, the Weather Bureau from 8 April 1899 to November 1948, and at Middle Georgia Regional Airport since December 1948. For more information, see ThreadEx.


  1. ^ "2021 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "QuickFacts: Macon-Bibb County, Georgia". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ a b "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ a b "Macon-Bibb County consolidation wins with strong majorities". The Macon Telegraph. July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on July 19, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgia Encyclopedia. May 20, 2009. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c "Fort Hawkins". Archived from the original on September 19, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  9. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 195.
  10. ^ a b Davis, Robert Scott (2007). "A Cotton Kingdom Retooled for War: The Macon Arsenal and the Confederate Ordnance Establishment". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 91 (3): 266–291. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  11. ^ "Colleges and Universities". January 1, 1970. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  12. ^ "Macon, Georgia". March 19, 1990. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  13. ^ Miller, Francis Trevelyan (1957). The Photographic History of The Civil War. Vol. 5: Forts and Artillery. New York: Castle Books. p. 162.
  14. ^ "Macon (Camp Oglethorpe) Prisoner of War Camp". Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  15. ^ Davis, Robert Scott (1998). Cotton, Fire and Dreams. Mercer University Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780865545984. Retrieved May 30, 2012. macon arsenal.
  16. ^ "The Last Battle of the Civil War". Digital Gallery, University of South Georgia.
  17. ^ "College Hill Corridor / Mercer Village Master Plan" (PDF). Mercer University City of Macon. January 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ a b "Macon Terminal Station". Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  19. ^ "Record Rain Pelts Georgia; 4 Die in Flood". The New York Times. July 31, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  20. ^ "HB 1171 – Macon-Bibb County; create and incorporate new political body corporate". Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  21. ^ City-County Consolidation Proposals, 1921 - Present (PDF). National Association of Counties (Report). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  22. ^ Staley, Samuel R.; Faulk, Dagney; Leland, Suzanne M.; Schansberg, D. Eric (November 16, 2005). The Effects of City-County Consolidation: A Review of the Recent Academic Literature (PDF) (Report). Fort Wayne, IN: Indiana Policy Review Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  23. ^ Consolidation pass for Macon and Bibb county in the 2012 vote. "Consolidation of City and County Governments: Attempts in Five Cities". Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  24. ^ a b Lee, Maggie (February 28, 2012). "Macon-Bibb merger proposes smaller, redesigned local government". The Telegraph. Macon, Georgia. Retrieved January 17, 2022.(subscription required)
  25. ^ Mike Stucka (July 31, 2012). "Macon-Bibb County consolidation wins with strong majorities". The Telegraph. Macon, Georgia. Archived from the original on July 19, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  26. ^ Lockwood, Erica (July 13, 2012). "Consolidation: 3 Areas of Macon and Bibb Affected Differently". 13 WMAZ. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.
  27. ^ a b Gaines, Jim (October 15, 2013). "Reichert wins Macon-Bibb mayor's office by wide margin over Ellis". The Telegraph. Macon, Georgia. Retrieved January 17, 2022.(subscription required)
  28. ^ a b c d e f Candler & Evans 1906.
  29. ^ Scholl Center for American History and Culture. "Georgia: Individual County Chronologies". Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. Chicago: Newberry Library. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  30. ^ a b c "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  31. ^ "(Bibb County: Macon)". Explore Georgia's Historical Markers. Georgia Historical Society. May 22, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Hellmann 2006.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Federal Writers' Project 1940.
  34. ^ Ernie Gross (1990). This Day in American History. Neal-Schuman. ISBN 978-1-55570-046-1.
  35. ^ a b c Waring 1887.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h "Historic Moments in Macon". City of Macon. Archived from the original on April 7, 2001. (Timeline)
  37. ^ "Macon Loses Historic Georgia State Fair to New City". Georgia Public Broadcasting. October 23, 2013. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  38. ^ "Conventions by Year". Colored Conventions. University of Delaware, Library. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  39. ^ Davies Project. "American Libraries before 1876". Princeton University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  40. ^ "History of Riverside Cemetery". Riverside Cemetery. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  41. ^ a b c d "Today in Georgia History". Georgia Historical Society; Georgia Public Broadcasting. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  42. ^ "Library History". Middle Georgia Regional Library. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  43. ^ "Membership: Georgia", Report...1917 and 1918, NAACP annual report (1948), New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1919, pp. 10 v, hdl:2027/uiug.30112051986880
  44. ^ American Art Annual, vol. 17, NY: American Federation of Arts, 1920
  45. ^ a b "Movie Theaters in Macon, GA". Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures LLC. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  46. ^ Jack Alicoate, ed. (1939), "Standard Broadcasting Stations of the United States: Georgia", Radio Annual, New York: Radio Daily, OCLC 2459636 Free access icon
  47. ^ "Macon, Georgia". Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities. Jackson, Mississippi: Goldring / Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  48. ^ "Walker's Commercial & Vocational College". The Crisis. 49 (1). The Crisis Publishing Company: 12, 17–18, 27. January 16, 1942. ISSN 0011-1422 – via Google Books.
  49. ^ Alicoate, Charles A., ed. (1960), "Television Stations: Georgia", Radio Annual and Television Year Book, New York: Radio Daily Corp., OCLC 10512206 Free access icon
  50. ^ McKay, John J. Jr. (1979). "Story of the Middle Georgia Historical Society, Inc". Georgia Historical Quarterly. 63 (1): 156–160. JSTOR 40580094.
  51. ^ Mikula, M. F.; et al., eds. (1999). Great American Court Cases. Gale.
  52. ^ "Middle Georgia Archives". Macon. Archived from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  53. ^ "Georgia". Official Congressional Directory. 1991/1992- : S. Pub. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1983. hdl:2027/uc1.31158007157232 – via HathiTrust.
  54. ^ "Members of Congress". GovTrack. Washington DC. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  55. ^ "City of Macon, Georgia". Archived from the original on April 4, 2001 – via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
  56. ^ "About". Historic Macon Foundation. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  57. ^ "Macon-Bibb County, Georgia". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  58. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  59. ^ a b c d e "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  60. ^ "Average Total Snowfall (inches) for Selected Cities in the Southeast". Archived from the original on April 17, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  61. ^ "Macon Weather". US Travel and Weather. July 2011. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
  62. ^ "Station: Macon Middle GA RGNL AP, GA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  63. ^ "Station: Macon Middle GA Regional Airport, GA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  64. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for MACON/LEWIS B WILSON ARPT GA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
  65. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". United States Census Bureau.
  66. ^ "1870 Census of Population - Georgia - Population of Civil Divisions less than Counties" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1870.
  67. ^ "1880 Census of Population - Georgia - Population of Civil Divisions less than Counties" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1880.
  68. ^ "1910 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1930.
  69. ^ "1930 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1930. p. 253.
  70. ^ "1940 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1940.
  71. ^ "1950 Census of Population - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1980.
  72. ^ "1980 Census of Population - Number of Inhabitants - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1980.
  73. ^ "2000 Census of Population - General Population Characteristics - Georgia" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2000.
  74. ^ a b "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Macon city, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  75. ^ a b "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Macon- Bibb County, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  76. ^ "P004 Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Macon city, Georgia". United States Census Bureau.
  77. ^ "Bibb Co. Coroner reacts to 2022 record breaking homicide numbers". January 2, 2023.
  78. ^ "Study: Bibb County revealed as Georgia's crime capital". December 13, 2023.
  79. ^ "13Investigates: Former Macon gang member talks how gangs operate and how he got out". February 16, 2023.
  80. ^ "GBI Expands Gang Task Force to Middle Georgia | Georgia Bureau of Investigation".
  81. ^ "Yes, so far this year, crime is down in Macon-Bibb County | VERIFY". WMAZ. April 18, 2024. Retrieved April 23, 2024.
  82. ^ Fabian, Liz (January 3, 2024). "AskMayorMiller: New jail, downtown development, reduced crime rates". The Macon Newsroom. Retrieved April 23, 2024.
  83. ^ "Leading Industries".
  84. ^
  85. ^ "U.S. Census website". March 9, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  86. ^ Georgia Department of Economic Development (August 26, 2014). "Ingleside Village Shopping & Arts District | Macon, Georgia". Archived from the original on February 2, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  87. ^ "Robins Air Force Base". Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  88. ^ Jason Ankeny (December 17, 1958). "Mike Mills | Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  89. ^ Georgia Music Hall of Fame. "Alan Walden - Georgia Music Hall of Fame 2003 Inductee" Archived May 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
  90. ^ "Macon Symphony Orchestra Website". May 5, 2012. Archived from the original on November 5, 2006. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  91. ^ "Middle Georgia Concert Band website". January 9, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  92. ^ Williams, Dave (February 23, 2012). "Closed Georgia Music Hall site 'surplus property'".
  93. ^ "Home - Middle Georgia Art Association". Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  94. ^ "Macon Makes Juneteenth Bigger Than Ever - Macon Magazine". Macon Magazine. June 17, 2023. Retrieved April 24, 2024.
  95. ^ "Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park". Official Georgia Tourism & Travel Website | Explore Retrieved April 24, 2024.
  96. ^ "Ocmulgee Indigenous Celebration - Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved April 24, 2024.
  97. ^ "Skydog 73".
  98. ^ "Macon Film Festival". Macon Film Festival. February 19, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  99. ^ ""Cannonball House" Website". February 6, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  100. ^ "coming soon...Historic Macon Foundation". Archived from the original on August 28, 2004. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  101. ^ "History of Temple Beth Israel". Archived from the original on February 6, 2005. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  102. ^ "Georgia Children's Museum in Macon, GA". Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  103. ^ "History of the Hay House". The Georgia Trust. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  104. ^ "Rutland Architectural Blog - Roof Domes". September 8, 2010. Archived from the original on September 13, 2010. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  105. ^ "info". March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  106. ^ "Recreation Centers |". Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  107. ^ "Otis Redding Statue at Ocmulgee Heritage Trail Gateway Park | Macon, Georgia". August 26, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  108. ^ McGouirk, Brandon (July 12, 2023). "Macon community celebrates as Central City Park officially rebrands to honor local icon, Carolyn Crayton". WGXA News. Retrieved August 21, 2023.
  109. ^ "The Case over Baconsfield Park". Mercer University. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  110. ^ 382 U.S. 296 (1966),
  111. ^ 224 Ga. 826, 165 S.E.2d 160 (1968)
  112. ^ Evans v. Abney, 396 U.S. 435 (1970).
  113. ^ "Baconsfield: Macon's Missing Park". May 3, 2019.
  114. ^ "SEC Charges Former Municipal Officer with Fraud in Connection with Public Pension Funds". U.S.Securities and Exchange Commission. March 15, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  115. ^ "School Listing". Bibb County Board of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  116. ^ "School Listing". Bibb County Board of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  117. ^ "School Listing". Bibb County Board of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  118. ^ "School Listing". Bibb County Board of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  119. ^ "School Listing". Bibb County Board of Education. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  120. ^ "Welcome to Georgia Academy for the Blind". Georgia Academy for the Blind. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  121. ^ "Elam Alexander Academy / Overview". Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  122. ^ [dead link]
  123. ^ Manis, Andrew Michael (2004). Macon Black and White: An Unutterable Separation in the American Century. Mercer University Press. p. 312. ISBN 9780865549586.
  124. ^ "Covenant Academy". Archived from the original on December 3, 2001. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  125. ^ "Academy for Classical Education". Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  126. ^ Cirrus Academy Charter School
  127. ^ Madison Cavalchire (August 1, 2016). "New charter school opens in Macon; 13 WMAZ". Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  128. ^ "Great South League | Macon Giants". January 2, 2011. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  129. ^ "The Medical Center - Navicent Health, Macon, Georgia - Atrium Health Navicent". Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  130. ^ "'Cost-effective and efficient care': Piedmont Healthcare purchasing Coliseum Medical Centers, Coliseum Northside". WMAZ. May 3, 2021. Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  131. ^ "Piedmont Macon Medical Center | Piedmont Healthcare". Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  132. ^ "Piedmont Macon North Hospital | Piedmont Healthcare". Retrieved September 2, 2022.
  133. ^ Eason, Jenna (April 30, 2021). "Riding the bus in Macon isn't so hard. Here's a simple guide to get you started". The Macon Telegraph. Retrieved May 30, 2022.(subscription required)
  134. ^ Kousouris, Abby (July 31, 2019). "'It's all here in the same building:' Greyhound station relocates to Macon Transit hub". Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  135. ^ "Norfolk Southern – The Thoroughbred of Transportation | Creating green jobs shipping freight by rail". Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  136. ^ ""Kansas City-Florida Special" (Train): Timetable, Schedule".
  137. ^ "People in Macon could soon catch a train to Atlanta, Savannah under new federal infrastructure plan". April 4, 2021.
  138. ^ "Macon Sister Cities Commission |". Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2017.


Published in 19th century

Published in 20th century

  • Allen D. Candler; Clement A. Evans, eds. (1906). "Macon". Georgia: Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions, and Persons Arranged in Cyclopedic Form. Vol. 2. Atlanta: State Historical Association. pp. 511+. hdl:2027/mdp.39015027784332.
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Macon" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 267.
  • Federal Writers' Project (1940), "Macon", Georgia: a Guide to Its Towns and Countryside, American Guide Series, Athens: University of Georgia Press, p. 102+ Free access icon
  • Ida Young, Julius Gholson, and Clara Nell Hargrove. History of Macon, Georgia (Macon, Ga.: Lyon, Marshall & Brooks, 1950).
  • John A. Eisterhold. "Commercial, Financial, and Industrial Macon, Georgia, During the 1840s", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Winter 1969, Vol. 53 Issue 4, pp 424–441
  • James H. Stone. "Economic Conditions in Macon, Georgia in the 1830s", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Summer 1970, Vol. 54 Issue 2, pp 209–225
  • Bowling C. Yates. "Macon, Georgia, Inland Trading Center 1826–1836", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Fall 1971, Vol. 55 Issue 3, pp 365–377
  • McInvale, Morton Ray "Macon, Georgia: The War Years, 1861–1865" (Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1973)
  • Roger K. Hux. "The Ku Klux Klan in Macon 1919–1925", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Summer 1978, Vol. 62 Issue 2, pp 155–168
  • Nancy Anderson, Macon: A Pictorial History (Virginia Beach, Va.: Donning, 1979).
  • Donnie D. Bellamy. "Macon, Georgia, 1823–1860: A Study in Urban Slavery", Phylon 45 (December 1984): 300–304, 308–309
  • Kristina Simms. Macon, Georgia's Central City: An Illustrated History (Chatsworth, Calif.: Windsor, 1989).
  • Titus Brown. "Origins of African American Education in Macon, Georgia 1865–1866", Journal of South Georgia History, Oct 1996, Vol. 11, pp 43–59
  • Macon: An Architectural Historical Guide (Macon, Ga.: Middle Georgia Historical Society, 1996).
  • Macon's Black Heritage: The Untold Story (Macon, Ga.: Tubman African American Museum, 1997).
  • Matthew W. Norman. "James H. Burton and the Confederate States Armory at Macon", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Winter 1997, Vol. 81 Issue 4, pp 974–987
  • Titus Brown. "A New England Missionary and African-American Education in Macon: Raymond G. Von Tobel at the Ballard Normal School, 1908–1935", The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Summer 1998, Vol. 82 Issue 2, pp 283–304
  • Robert S. Davis. Cotton, Fire, & Dreams: The Robert Findlay Iron Works and Heavy Industry in Macon, Georgia, 1839–1912 (Macon, Ga., 1998)
  • Richard W. Iobst (2009) [1999]. Civil War Macon: The History of a Confederate City. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-88146-172-5.
  • Jeanne Herring (2000). Macon, Georgia. Black America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia.

Published in 21st century

External links

This page was last edited on 7 June 2024, at 02:28
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.