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Demographics of Georgia (U.S. state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The demographics of Georgia are inclusive of the ninth most populous state in the United States, with over 9.68 million people (2010 census), just over 3% of America's population.

Historical population
Census Pop.
Sources: 1910–2010[1]


A map of Georgia, detailing the population density and distribution.
A map of Georgia, detailing the population density and distribution.

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Georgia was 9,815,210 on July 1, 2011, a 1.32% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2]

In 2007, Georgia had an estimated population of 9,544,750 which was an increase of 180,809 from the previous year, and an increase of 1,177,125 since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people.

The state stood sixth in the country for illegal immigrants. There were 35,000 in 1990; the count more than doubled from January 2000 to January 2009, at 480,000.[3]

There were 743,000 veterans in 2009.[4]

The top countries of origin for immigrants were Mexico (25.7 percent of immigrants), India (8.6 percent), Korea (4.1 percent), Vietnam (3.5 percent), and Jamaica (3.2 percent).[5]

Race and ethnicity

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Georgia had a population of 9,687,653. In terms of race the population was:

The largest ancestry groups are: 10.8% American (mostly British descent), 9.5% Irish, 8.9% English and 8.2% German.[7] In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians cited that they were of English ancestry out of a total state population of 3,994,817 making them 40% of the state, and the largest ethnic group at the time.[8] Today, many of these same people cite that they are of "American" ancestry are actually of English descent and some are of Scots-Irish descent, however, they have families that have been in the state so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not, in fact, know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominantly English ancestry.[9][10][11][12]

Georgia ancestry map
Georgia ancestry map

As of 2004, 7.7% of its population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of 2004, females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.

Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who, prior to the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914–1970 reduced the African American population.[13]

Georgia had the second fastest growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period.[14] Georgia also has a significant and diverse population of Hispanics, especially Mexicans and Puerto Ricans. Most of the recent Hispanic, Asian, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan African populations is concentrated in the diverse Atlanta metropolitan area, with the rest of Georgia being mostly blacks and whites. In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American (after Mississippi and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000.

Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 10.1 percent (as of 2008).[15]

The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice growing regions of West Africa led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country.[16]

About 800,000 people in Georgia reported having Irish ancestry.[17] Germans are the fifth largest ancestry in Georgia.[18]

Other European ancestries in Georgia are Italian, French, Polish and Dutch.[19][20]

2018 United States Census American Community Survey estimates

Racial Makeup of Georgia (2018)[21]

  White alone (58.25%)
  Black alone (31.56%)
  Native American alone (0.33%)
  Asian Alone (4.15%)
  Pacific Islander Alone (0.13%)
  Some other race alone (2.86%)
  Two or more races (2.72%)

Racial Makeup of Georgia excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[21]

  White NH (52.23%)
  Black NH (31.19%)
  Asian NH (4.10%)
  Native American NH (0.17%)
  Pacific Islander NH (0.11%)
  Two or more races NH (2.17%)
  Other NH (0.32%)
  Hispanic Any Race (9.71%)

According to 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, Georgia's population was 58.3% White (52.2% Non-Hispanic White and 6.0% Hispanic White), 31.6% Black or African American, 4.2% Asian, 2.9% Some Other Race, 0.3% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander and 2.7% from two or more races.[21]

The White population continues to remain the largest racial category in Georgia and includes the 62.0% of Hispanics who self-identify as White. The remainder of Hispanics self-identify as Some Other Race (26.2%), Multiracial (5.7%), Black (3.8%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (1.7%), Asian (0.4%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.2%).[21]

If Hispanics are treated as a separate category from race, Georgia's population was 52.2% White, 31.2% Black or African American, 9.7% Hispanic-Latino, 4.1% Asian, 2.2% Some Other Race, 0.3% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander and 2.2% from two or more races.[21]

African Americans remain the largest minority group in the state at either 31.6% (including Black Hispanics) or 31.2% (excluding Black Hispanics).[21]

By ethnicity, 9.7% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 90.3% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). If treated as a category separate from race, Hispanics are the third largest minority group in Georgia.[21]

The majority of Hispanics in Georgia are of Mexican descent (58.1% of Hispanics) followed by those of Puerto Rican descent (10.1%), Guatemalan descent (6.3%), Salvadoran descent (4.8%), Cuban descent (3.4%), Colombian descent (3.1%), Honduran descent (2.5%), Dominican descent (2.2%), Venezuelan descent (1.4%), Peruvian descent (1.2%), Spanish (Spain) descent (1.2%), and those of other Hispanic ethnicity or of mixed Hispanic ethnicity (5.7%).[22]

The Asian population in Georgia is diverse with the largest group being that of Indian descent (32.6% of Asians) followed by those of Chinese (excluding Taiwan) descent (15.0%), Vietnamese descent (13.8%), Korean descent (12.2%), Filipino descent (6.0%), Pakistani descent (3.8%), Nepalese descent (2.4%), Japanese descent (2.1%), Burmese descent (1.9%), Hmong descent (1.5%), Bangladeshi descent (1.3%), Cambodian descent (1.1%), Thai descent (1.0%), and those of other Asian ethnicity or of mixed Asian ethnicity (5.3%).[23]

The Native American population of Georgia is small at 34,485 individuals of which 70.5% belong to federally recognized tribes. The largest recognized tribe is Cherokee (5,950 individuals) followed by Chippewa (727), Navajo (502), Sioux (347), and Alaska Natives (76).[24]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[25] 2014[26] 2015[27] 2016[28] 2017[29] 2018[30]
White: 75,114 (58.3%) 76,226 (58.2%) 76,904 (58.5%) ... ... ...
> Non-Hispanic White 59,379 (46.1%) 60,104 (45.9%) 60,328 (45.9%) 57,971 (44.6%) 56,985 (44.1%) 55,676 (44.1%)
Black 47,392 (36.8%) 47,909 (36.6%) 47,734 (36.3%) 44,408 (34.1%) 44,447 (34.4%) 43,746 (34.7%)
Asian 5,917 (4.6%) 6,519 (5.0%) 6,468 (4.9%) 5,879 (4.5%) 6,039 (4.7%) 5,768 (4.6%)
American Indian 325 (0.2%) 292 (0.2%) 298 (0.2%) 125 (0.1%) 223 (0.2%) 206 (0.2%)
Hispanic (of any race) 16,994 (13.2%) 17,442 (13.3%) 17,836 (13.6%) 17,957 (13.8%) 17,954 (13.9%) 17,432 (13.8%)
Total Georgia 128,748 (100%) 130,946 (100%) 131,404 (100%) 130,042 (100%) 129,243 (100%) 126,172 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Georgia
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[31]
Spanish 7.42%
Korean 0.51%
Vietnamese 0.44%
French 0.42%
Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.38%
German 0.29%
Hindi 0.23%
Niger-Congo languages of West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.21%
Gujarati 0.18%
Portuguese and French Creole (tied) 0.16%

As of 2010, 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.42% (651,583) spoke Spanish, 0.51% (44,702) Korean, 0.44% (38,244) Vietnamese, 0.42% (36,679) French, 0.38% (33,009) Chinese (which includes Mandarin,) and German was spoken as a main language by 0.29% (23,351) of the population over the age of five. In total, 12.65% (1,109,888) of Georgia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[31]

Largest cities


First Methodist Episcopal Church South, Atlanta, Georgia
First Methodist Episcopal Church South, Atlanta, Georgia
Temple Beth Tefilloh, Brunswick, Glynn County
Temple Beth Tefilloh, Brunswick, Glynn County
The Al-Farooq Masjid Mosque of Atlanta
The Al-Farooq Masjid Mosque of Atlanta

According to the 2014 U.S. Religious Landscape Study based on telephone interviews conducted by the Pew Research Center, 79 percent of Georgia residents identified as Christian, with two-thirds being Protestants, similar to the population of other Southern states. The overall breakdown of religious affiliations was as follows:[32]

The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,719,484; the United Methodist Church with 570,674; and the Catholic Church with 374,185.[33]


The city of Atlanta also has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks 3rd of all major cities, behind San Francisco and slightly behind Seattle, with 12.8% of the city's total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[34][35] According to the 2000 United States Census (revised in 2004), Atlanta has the twelfth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, which was at 38.5%.[36]


  1. ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  2. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011". 2011 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. December 2011. Archived from the original (CSV) on January 6, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  3. ^ "Illegals on rise in Southeast". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. February 24, 2010. p. 6A.[dead link]
  4. ^ Kanell, Michael E. (November 16, 2009). "Number of veterans, October". Atlanta, Georgia: Atlanta Constitution-Journal. pp. A6. quoting the Bureau of Labor Statistics
  5. ^
  6. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. October 5, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  7. ^ "American FactFinder". Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  8. ^ "Table 03. Persons who reported at least one specific ancestry group" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  9. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  10. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  11. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.
  12. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86.
  13. ^ William H. Frey, "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000", The Brookings Institution, May 2004, accessed May 19, 2008 Archived September 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Atlanta Profile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  15. ^ Georgia census Quickfacts Archived July 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Welcome to Georgia Early Mountain Life". 4 May 2008. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. Retrieved 2017-08-29.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - Georgia - 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  22. ^ "B03001 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN - Georgia - 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  23. ^ "B02015 ASIAN ALONE BY SELECTED GROUPS - Georgia - 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  24. ^ "C02014 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE ALONE FOR SELECTED TRIBAL GROUPINGS  - Georgia - 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  25. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  26. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  27. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  28. ^ "Births: Final Data for 2016" (PDF). 2016.
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Data" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  31. ^ a b "Georgia". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
  32. ^ "2014 Religious Landscape Survey". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  33. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports". Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  34. ^ "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times.
  35. ^ Gary J. Gates "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-02. (2.07 MiB). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, UCLA School of Law October, 2006
  36. ^ "Wayback Machine". 20 August 2002. Archived from the original on 2002-08-20.
This page was last edited on 23 May 2020, at 00:04
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