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List of wars involving Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving Iran (Persia). This list is far from complete.

Conflict Iran
and allies
Opponents Results
Median Empire
(678–549 BC)
Battle of Nineveh
(612 BC)
Assyrian Empire Victory
  • Destruction of Assyria's capital

Founding of Neo-Babylonian Empire

Fall of Assur
(614 BC)
Assyrian Empire Victory
Battle of Eclipse
(585 BC)
Medes Kingdom of Lydia Undecided
Battle of Hyrba
(552 BC)
Medes Persis Decisive Persian victory
Battle of the Persian border
(551 BC)
Medes Persis Victory
  • Persian retreat to Pasargadae
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BC)
Persian Revolt
(552–549 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Median Empire Victory
  • By conquering Media, Iran became an empire.
Conquest of Lydia
(547 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Lydian Empire Victory
  • Lydia annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Babylonia
(540–539 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire Victory
  • Neo-Babylonian Empire annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Egypt
(525 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Kingdom of Egypt Victory
  • Egypt annexed by Iran.
European Scythian campaign
(513 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Scythians in European Scythia Expansive stalemate
  • Achaemenid domination of the European Black Sea regions.
Greco-Persian Wars
(499–449 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Greek city states
Delian League
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC)
Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) Supported by:
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Delian League (led by Athens) Victory
  • Dissolution of the Delian League. Spartan hegemony over Athens and its allies.
Battle of Cunaxa
(401 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Cyrus the Younger Victory
Corinthian War
(395–387 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Other allies
Peloponnesian League
Peace treaty dictated by Iran (Peace of Antalcidas)
Artaxerxes' II Cadusian Campaign
(385 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Cadusii Defeat, but diplomatic success
  • Negotiated peace with rival chiefs.
Revolt of the Satraps
(372–362 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Rebel satrapies Victory
  • Rebellions chrushed.
Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)
(343 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Egypt Victory
  • Egypt is conquered for a second time by Iran.
Macedon invasion of Iran
(355–328 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg
Achaemenid Empire
Macedon Defeat
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE–224 B)
Seleucid–Parthian Wars
(238 BC–129 BC)
Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory
  • Expulsion of the Seleucids from Iran.
Armenian–Parthian War
(87–85 BC)
Parthian Empire Kingdom of Armenia Defeat
Roman–Parthian Wars
(66 AD–217 AD)
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Roman Republic
Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Sassanid Empire
Roman-Sassanid Wars
Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Byzantine–Sassanid Wars
Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Ethiopian–Persian Wars
Sassanid Empire Kingdom of Aksum Victory
First Perso-Turkic War
Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire
  • The Sassanids captured Balkh.
Second Perso-Turkic War
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite Empire
  • Turkic invasion of Iran repelled.
Third Perso-Turkic War
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Byzantine Empire
Muslim conquest of Persia
Sassanid Empire
Arab Christians
Rashidun Caliphate Defeat
Saffarid Dynasty
Ghaznavid Dynasty
Seljuq Empire
Battle of Manzikert
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire Victory
Byzantine–Seljuq wars
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire
Empire of Trebizond
Crusader states
  • Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks.
Khwarazmian Dynasty
Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
Khwarazmian dynasty Mongol Empire Defeat
  • Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire.
Timurid Dynasty
Campaigns of Timur
Timurid dynasty
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg
Golden Horde
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Jalayirid Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Timurid Civil Wars
Various factions
Various factions
Collapse of the dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
Persian-Uzbek Wars
Flag of Persia (1502-1524).svg
Safavid dynasty
Shaybanids Victory
  • Fall of the Shaybanid Empire.
Battle of Chaldiran
Flag of Persia (1502-1524).svg
Safavid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • End of Shia uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1523
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Victory
Mughal–Safavid War of 1622
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
Mughal Empire Victory
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Defeat
Mughal–Safavid War of 1649
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg
Khanate of Bukhara
Mughal Empire Victory
Russo-Persian War of 1651
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Russia Victory
  • Russian fortress on the Iranian side of the Terek River destroyed, and its garrison expelled.
Hotaki-Safavid War
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
Black flag.svg
Hotaki dynasty
Regime change
  • Afghan control of most of Iran.
Omani Invasion of Bahrain
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
Imamate of Oman Defeat
  • Omani victory, Bahrain sold back to the Safavids.
Russo-Persian War of 1722
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty
 Russian Empire
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg
Cossack Hetmanate
Знамено Картлі.gif
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg
Melikdoms of Karabakh and Armenian rebels
Safavid-Hotaki War
Black flag.svg
Hotaki dynasty
Safavid Flag.svg
Safavid dynasty[1]
Regime change
  • End of the Afghan rule in Persia.
Afsharid Dynasty
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1730
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg
Afsharid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Persian reconquest of the entire Caucasus.
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg
Afsharid dynasty
  Mughal Empire Victory
  • Persian plundering of India.
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1743
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg
Afsharid dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Civil War between Afsharid and Qajar
Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg
Afsharid dynasty
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg
Qajar Dynasty
Regime change
Qajar Dynasty
Battle of Krtsanisi
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg
Qajar dynasty
Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg
Imereti - drosha.svg
Persian Expedition
Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan.svg
Qajar dynasty
 Russian Empire Victory
  • Tactical Russian withdrawal from Iran.
Russo-Persian War of 1804
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg
Qajar dynasty
 Russian Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Persian War of 1821
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg
Qajar dynasty
 Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Russo-Persian War of 1826
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg
Qajar dynasty
 Russian Empire Defeat
  • Treaty of Turkmenchay. Iran irrevocably cedes the remainder of its Caucasus territories comprising parts of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic that were not ceded yet in 1813, as well as all of what is nowadays the Republic of Armenia.
Siege of Herat
Mohammad Shah Qajar Flag.svg
Qajar dynasty
Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Anglo-Persian War
Amir Kabir Flag.svg
Qajar dynasty
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg
East India Company
Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Persian Campaign
(1914–1918) (Part of World War I)
Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg
Qajar dynasty
 Russian Empire
 British Empire
 British Raj
Pahlavi Dynasty
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
(1941) (Part of World War II)
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg
 Soviet Union
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Iran-Azerbaijan Crisis
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg
Dhofar Rebellion
State flag of Iran (1964–1980).svg
  • Defeat of insurgents, modernization of Oman.
Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran–Iraq War
Badr Brigades
Iraq Iraq
Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency
 Iran Jundallah (Iran) Victory
Iran–PJAK Conflict
PJAK Victory
  • PJAK withdraws from Iranian territory
Syrian Civil War
Syria Syria
Single Color Flag - FFFF00.svg
Syria Free Syrian Army
Islamic Front
al-Nusra Front
Islamic State
  • Rebel and Islamist uprisings quelled in much of Syria.
  • Most of Syria now controlled by Syrian Government, which is supported by Iran.
  • Islamic State in Syria defeated near the end of 2017.
Iraqi Civil War
 Iraqi Kurdistan
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq
Badr Organization
Kata'ib Hezbollah
Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Victory
  • Iran launches successful airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq.
  • Iranian military troops successfully defeat ISIL on the ground.
  • ISIL dissolved in Iraq due to Iranian military intervention.
  • Iranian victory

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According to the New York Times, at least 108 million people have been killed in wars in the twentieth century. The First World War started in Europe and lasted more than 4 years from 1914 to 1918 with 7 million civilians and 10 million military personnel losing their lives. The Second World War lasted for 6 years from 1939 to 1945 with deaths ranging from 50 million to more than 80 million. Both of these wars were catastrophic, but could it happen again? That’s what we’ll find out, in this episode of The Infographics Show: What Are The Chances of World War 3? Wars can break out for a number of reasons. World War One arguably started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated on June 28, 1914. This was the immediate cause but there were a series of events, which triggered the four year-long war. And though there were a number of incidents that led to World War Two, the European emergence of the conflict came about on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, which led Britain and France to declare war on Hitler's Nazi state in retaliation. A third world war could come about through a US/Russia dispute, or possibly US/China. And of course North Korea, which has been the hot topic in the press right now, after President Trump’s historic meeting with North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un. Hopefully that’s made it less likely that a war with North Korea will happen anytime soon. A recent New York Post article featured the words of Russian President, Vladimir Putin, who said ”The understanding that a third world war could be the end of ​civilization ​should restrain us from taking extreme steps on the international arena that are highly dangerous for modern ​civilization.​”​ This was during his annual televised call-in show where he fields questions from the public. When you mention the words World War Three, you can’t help but think of nuclear weapons, as it’s likely a third world war would be a nuclear one. Before we explore how a nuclear war might play out, let’s first take a brief look back at the history of nuclear weapons development. The world's first nuclear weapons explosion was on July 16, 1945, in New Mexico, when the United States tested its first nuclear bomb. It was only three weeks later, on August 6, 1945, that the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. It killed or wounded nearly 130,000 people, and three days later, the United States bombed Nagasaki, which killed 74,000 people and injured another 75,000. These two events marked the end of World War Two; because this was back at the beginning of nuclear weapons development and with only one side having nuclear capability, there was no retaliation. Following the Second World War, the United States, the Soviet Union and Great Britain conducted more nuclear weapons tests, and in 1958, nearly 10,000 scientists presented to United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold a petition that begged, “We deem it imperative that immediate action be taken to effect an international agreement to stop testing of all nuclear weapons.” Throughout the 1960’s and 70’s, as more development took place, treaties were signed to promote disarmament, but more and more countries developed nuclear weapons. Today there are believed to be around 16,300 nuclear weapons spread between nine countries. They are The United States, Russia, the UK, France, China, North Korea, India, Pakistan, and Israel. Russia and the US share 93 per cent of all nuclear warheads out there, but they have been asked to reduce the number of weapons under the START treaty, which stands for Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. All these weapons make the prospect of a third world war very different to the first and second world wars. So assuming world war three did kick off, and it was nuclear, what would it look like? HuffPost has launched HuffPost-Apocalypse, a project that aims to investigate what an apocalypse would mean for humanity, and to support this, have been doing their own research and analysis in to what the effects of a nuclear war might be. In a recent article they proposed two scenarios. The first, a global nuclear war centered on a US and Russia conflict. In this scenario, at between 1,800 and 3,000 large warheads, would be fired at nuclear weapon launch sites, ports, major industry, command centers, power stations and densely populated areas. The other potential area of tension that could spark a conflict is between India and Pakistan. This scenario would be on a much smaller scale, with around 100 smaller nuclear weapons being used out of stockpiles of around 200. With strikes on densely populated super cities such as Delhi and Karachi. But it’s possible that it could lead to a larger conflict, with other countries becoming involved. What would the fallout be? When these bombs are dropped, there would be intense nuclear radiation and a blinding flash brighter than the sun; a fierce fireball; and a massive blast wave that would kills thousands. With so many casualties, aid organizations would be overwhelmed and unable to help all of the injured. Meaning many would be left to fend for themselves with severe injuries including burns, broken bones, and deep cuts from flying debris. And the long-term results would be even more catastrophic. With so many fires burning, the skies would be filled with smoke clouds similar to a large volcanic eruption. These would block out the sun, which would cause the atmosphere and earth to cool, resulting in what’s known as a nuclear winter. The latest climate models suggest that the use of a few tens to a hundred of the smaller nuclear weapons in the India/Pakistan scenario would cause severe frosts, drought, and famine, which would last up to ten years and stretch across the entire northern hemisphere. In the bigger America/Russian scenario, there would be a long lasting cold period with a global reach. It would go one for a decade or more, and could be likened to a mini ice age. Talk of a third world war has been going on for years, much of the fear driven by the cold war tensions between Russia and America which lasted from 1947 to 1991. These days there are still concerns that these two nations could come to blows, but the rise in power of China and also the nuclear development program in North Korea, has meant new danger areas are present. Will there be a third world war? Let us know your thoughts in the comments. Also be sure to check out our other video called Russian Soldiers vs US soldiers - How do they compare? Thanks for watching, and as always, don’t forget to like, share and subscribe. See you next time!

See also


  1. ^ De facto ruled by Nader Shah.
  2. ^ The rebellion started already in 1962, but Iran did not intervene before 1973.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 June 2019, at 20:58
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