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Epirus (ancient state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Epirus

Ἄπειρος
Ápeiros
330 BC–167 BC
Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg
CapitalPassaron (330–295 BC)
Ambracia (295–224 BC)
Phoenice (224–167 BC)
Common languagesNorthwest Greek
Religion
Ancient Greek religion
GovernmentMonarchy (330–231 BC Federal Republic (231–167 BC)
King 
• 330–313 BC
Aeacides
• 307–302 BC
Pyrrhus of Epirus
• 302–297 BC
Neoptolemos II
• 297–272 BC
Pyrrhus of Epirus
• 231–167 BC
Epirote League
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Epirote tribes established united political entity
330 BC
280–275 BC
• Monarchy abolished
231 BC
• Conquered by the Roman Republic in the Third Macedonian War
167 BC
CurrencyEpirote drachma
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Molossians
Thesprotians
Chaonians
Macedonia (Roman province)

Epirus (/ɪˈprəs/; Northwest Greek: Ἄπειρος, Ápeiros; Attic: Ἤπειρος, Ḗpeiros) was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north. For a brief period (280–275 BC), the Epirote king Pyrrhus managed to make Epirus the most powerful state in the Greek world, and his armies marched against Rome during an unsuccessful campaign in Italy.

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Transcription

Italy was a melting pot of different cultures to the north with the Etruscans and Celtic tribes in the center were the Latin and Italian tribes and on the tip of the peninsula was a large concentration of Greek colonies in an area called Magna Grecia the Latin Romans would eventually threaten the established Greek colonies with the state of Epirus springing into action to defend their Greek cousins in Italy the kingdom of Epirus was a Greek kingdom located in the Western Balkans the area had been occupied since at least the Neolithic times by seafarers and traders these seafarers brought with them the Greek language the people occupying actress during this timeframe buried their leaders in large tombs by the end of the second millennium BC the Dorian's migrated by invasion into Greece via Epirus and Macedon although the reason why they did this has been lost to history by the 1st millennium BC three distinct tribes had emerged an empress with the center of the region in occupied by a tribe called the Mollosians by 370 BC onwards the Mollosians were expanding their power at the expense of rival tribes however the formants state began to experience harsh raids from the neighboring alien tribes who just by chance were also raiding nearby Macedon recognizing they had a common enemy the two powers allied with the Alliance being sealed by the marriage of the upright princess Olympius to king philip ii of macedon Olympius and king philip eventually had a son and his name was Alexander following his father's death Alexander would lead an exhibition against the huge Persian Empire eventually overthrowing the Persians and carving out a huge Empire for himself being given the title of Alexander the Great now whilst this was happening Alexander's uncle also called Alexander just to make things more confusing led an exhibition into southern Italy supporting the Greek cities of Magna Grecia against the Italian tribes although initially successful Alexander eventually was defeated by a coalition of italic tribes in 331 BC the subsequent fallout of Alexander the Great's death in Babylon resulted in Greece briefly being controlled by the ambitious general Cassander who in over 313 BC he founded the a pride king with his young a Prince Pyrrhus flee into Egypt and friend in the ptolemies and eventually returning to retake his kingdom in 281 BC Pyrrhus answered the call to aid the Greek city-states of Tarentum in Magna Grecia against the Romans Pyrrhus would go on to defeat the Romans several times utilizing war elephants in the region for the very first time however the losses Pyrrhus sustained was so high that it's believed he has said something along the lines of another victory against the Romans and we shall be utterly ruined Pyrrhus then turned South invading Sicily after being offered the crown of the Greek city-states in the region however his campaign in this region were proved to be unsuccessful Pyrrhus eventually returning to Italy however after a battle in 275 BC Pyrrhus lost all of his Italian holdings and returned to Epirus with his campaign in Italy in ruins Pyrrhus went to war with Macedonia in 275 BC and briefly ruled over the regions of Macedon and Thessaly until 285 BC after this he invaded southern Greece being killed by an old woman thrown a brick at him in a Street battle in the Greek city of Argos with Pyrrhus death Epirus became a minor power with royal family being deposed in 233 BC with this the Eporite league was set up and managed to remain neutral during the first two wars between Rome and Macedon however Emperor's did not survive the third war in conquered eventually by the Romans thank you for watching and listening all sources are listening linked in the description below be sure to LIKE comment and subscribe I've been the Ancienthistory guy and as always I'll be seeing you later

Contents

History

Prehistory

Epirus has been occupied since at least Neolithic times by seafarers along the coast and by hunters and shepherds in the interior who brought with them the Greek language.[1] These people buried their leaders in large tumuli containing shaft graves, similar to the Mycenaean tombs, indicating an ancestral link between Epirus and the Mycenaean civilization.[1] A number of Mycenaean remains have been found in Epirus,[2][3] especially at the most important ancient religious sites in the region, the Necromanteion (Oracle of the Dead) on the Acheron river, and the Oracle of Zeus at Dodona.[1][4]

The Dorians invaded Greece from Epirus and Macedonia at the end of the 2nd millennium BC (circa 1100–1000 BC), though the reasons for their migration are obscure. The region's original inhabitants were driven southward into the Greek mainland by the invasion and by the early 1st millennium BC three principal clusters of Greek-speaking tribes emerged in Epirus. These were the Chaonians of northwestern Epirus, the Molossians in the center, and the Thesprotians in the south.[5]

Molossian expansion (470–330 BC)

The Molossian Aeacidae dynasty managed to create the first centralized state in Epirus from about 370 BC onwards, expanding their power at the expense of rival tribes. The Aeacids allied themselves with the increasingly powerful kingdom of Macedon, in part against the common threat of Illyrian raids,[6] and in 359 BC the Molossian princess Olympias, niece of Arybbas of Epirus, married King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359–336 BC). She was to become the mother of Alexander the Great. On the death of Arybbas, Alexander the Molossian, uncle of Alexander the Great of Macedon, succeeded to the throne with the title King of Epirus.[7]

In 334 BC, the time Alexander the Great crossed into Asia, Alexander I the Molossian led an expedition in southern Italy in support of the Greek cities of Magna Graecia against the nearby Italian tribes and the emerging Roman Republic. After some successes on the battlefield, he was defeated by a coalition of Italic tribes at the Battle of Pandosia in 331 BC.

Kingdom of Epirus (330–231 BC)

Campaigns of Pyrrhus of Epirus in Italy.
Campaigns of Pyrrhus of Epirus in Italy.

In 330 BC, upon Alexander the Molossian's death, the term "Epirus" appears as a single political unit in the ancient Greek records for the first time, under the leadership of the Molossian dynasty. Subsequently, the coinages of the three major Epirote tribal groups came to an end, and a new coinage was issued with the legend Epirotes.[8] After Alexander's I death, Aeacides of Epirus, who succeeded him, espoused the cause of Olympias against Cassander, but was dethroned in 313 BC.

Aeacides's son Pyrrhus came to the throne in 295 BC. Pyrrhus, being a skillful general, was encouraged to aid the Greeks of Tarentum and decided to initiate a major offensive in the Italian peninsula and Sicily. Due to its superior martial abilities, the Epirote army defeated the Romans in the Battle of Heraclea (280 BC). Subsequently, Pyrrhus's forces nearly reached the outskirts of Rome, but had to retreat to avoid an unequal conflict with a more numerous Roman army. The following year, Pyrrhus invaded Apulia (279 BC) and the two armies met in the Battle of Asculum where the Epirotes won the original Pyrrhic victory, at a high cost.[9]

In 277 BC, Pyrrhus captured the Carthaginian fortress in Eryx, Sicily. This prompted the rest of the Carthaginian-controlled cities to defect to Pyrrhus. Meanwhile, he had begun to display despotic behavior towards the Sicilian Greeks and soon Sicilian opinion became inflamed against him. Though he defeated the Carthaginians in battle, he was forced to abandon Sicily.[10]

Pyrrhus's Italian campaign came to an end following the inconclusive Battle of Beneventum (275 BC). Having lost the vast majority of his army, he decided to return to Epirus, which finally resulted in the loss of all his Italian holdings. Because of his costly victories, the term "Pyrrhic victory" is often used for a victory with devastating cost to the victor.[11]

Epirote League (231–167 BC)

Coin of the Epirote League, depicting Zeus (left) and a lightning bolt with the word "ΑΠΕΙΡΩΤΑΝ" , "of the Epirotes" (right).
Coin of the Epirote League, depicting Zeus (left) and a lightning bolt with the word "ΑΠΕΙΡΩΤΑΝ" , "of the Epirotes" (right).

In 233 BC, the last surviving member of the Aeacid royal house, Deidamia, was murdered. Her death brought the Epirote royal family to an abrupt extinction and a federal republic was set up, though with diminished territory, since western Acarnania had asserted its independence, and the Aetolians seized Ambracia, Amphilochia, and the remaining land north of the Ambracian Gulf. The new Epirote capital was therefore established at Phoenice, the political center of the Chaonians. The reasons for the swift fall of the Aeacid dynasty were probably complex. Aetolian pressure must have played a part, and the alliance with Macedonia may have been unpopular; in addition, there were perhaps social tensions.[12] However, Epirus remained a substantial power, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own parliament (or synedrion).[12]

In the following years, Epirus faced the growing threat of the expansionist Roman Republic, which fought a series of wars with Macedonia. The League remained neutral in the first two Macedonian Wars but split in the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC), with the Molossians siding with the Macedonians and the Chaonians and Thesprotians siding with Rome. The outcome was disastrous for Epirus; Molossia fell to Rome in 167 BC and 150,000 of its inhabitants were enslaved.[1]

Organization

Political structure of the ancient Greek world (8th–5th centuries BC).
Political structure of the ancient Greek world (8th–5th centuries BC).

In antiquity, Epirus was settled by the same nomadic Hellenic tribes that went on to settle the rest of Greece.[13][14] Unlike most other Greeks of the time, who lived in or around city-states such as Athens or Sparta, the Epirotes lived in small villages and their way of life was foreign to that of polis of southern Greeks. Their region lay on the edge of the Greek world and was far from peaceful; for many centuries, it remained a frontier area contested with the Illyrian peoples of the Adriatic coast and interior. However, Epirus had a far greater religious significance than might have been expected given its geographical remoteness, due to the presence of the shrine and oracle at Dodona – regarded as second only to the more famous oracle at Delphi.[15]

Culture

The Epirotes were speakers of an epichoric Northwest Greek dialect, different from the Dorian of the Greek colonies on the Ionian islands, and bearers of mostly Greek names, as evidenced by epigraphy. They seem to have been regarded with some disdain by some classical Greek writers. The 5th century BC Athenian historian Thucydides describes them as "barbarians" in his History of the Peloponnesian War,[16] as does Strabo in his Geography.[17] Other writers, such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus,[18] Pausanias,[19] and Eutropius,[20] describe them as Greeks. Simon Hornblower interprets the vague, and sometimes even antithetical, comments of Thucydides on the Epirotes as implying that they were neither completely "barbarian" nor completely Greek, but akin to the latter. Nicholas Hammond opines that the principal social structure of the Epirotes was the tribe and that they spoke a West-Greek dialect.[21]

Plutarch mentions an interesting cultural element of the Epirotes regarding the Greek hero Achilles. In his biography of King Pyrrhus, he claims that Achilles "had a divine status in Epirus and in the local dialect he was called Aspetos" (meaning unspeakable, unspeakably great, in Homeric Greek).[22][dubious ]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Epirus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  2. ^ Tandy 2001, p. 4
  3. ^ McHenry 2003, p. 527: "Epirus itself remained culturally backward during this time, but Mycenean remains have been found at two religious shrines of great antiquity in the region: the Oracle of the Dead on the Acheron River, familiar to the heroes of Homer's Odyssey."
  4. ^ Tandy 2001, pp. 23, 30.
  5. ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. 284.
  6. ^ Roisman & Worthington 2010, Chapter 1: Edward M. Anson, "Why Study Ancient Macedonia and What this Companion is About", p. 5.
  7. ^ Lewis & Boardman 1994, p. 438.
  8. ^ Lewis & Boardman 1994, p. 442.
  9. ^ Walbank 1989, pp. 462–479.
  10. ^ Walbank 1989, pp. 477–480.
  11. ^ Walbank 1989, p. 468.
  12. ^ a b Walbank 1984, p. 452.
  13. ^ Borza 1992, p. 62
  14. ^ Minahan 2002, p. 578.
  15. ^ Hammond 1967.
  16. ^ Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War, 1.8.
  17. ^ Strabo. Geography, 7.7.1.
  18. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Roman Antiquities, 20.10 (19.11).
  19. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece, 1.11.7–1.12.2.
  20. ^ Eutropius. Abridgment of Roman History (Historiae Romanae Breviarium), 2.11.13.
  21. ^ Hammond 1998: "Epirus was a land of milk and animal products...The social unit was a small tribe, consisting of several nomadic or semi-nomadic groups, and these tribes, of which more than seventy names are known, coalesced into large tribal coalitions, three in number: Thesprotians, Molossians and Chaonians...We know from the discovery of inscriptions that these tribes were speaking the Greek language (in a West-Greek dialect)."
  22. ^ Cameron 2004, p. 141.

Sources

This page was last edited on 6 November 2019, at 11:47
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