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Siege of Baghdad (1258)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siege of Baghdad (1258)
Part of the Mongol invasions
Bagdad1258.jpg

Hulagu's army besieging the walls of Baghdad
Date29 January – 10 February 1258 (13 days)
Location
Baghdad, modern-day Iraq
Result Decisive Mongol victory
Belligerents

Il-Khanate Flag.svg Ilkhanate
(Mongol Empire)

Black flag.svg
Abbasid Caliphate
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
Strength
120,000[3][unreliable source?]–150,000[4][unreliable source?] 50,000[citation needed]
Casualties and losses
Unknown but believed to be minimal
  • 50,000 soldiers killed
  • 200,000–800,000 civilians killed (Western sources)[5]
  • 2,000,000 civilians (Arab sources)[6]

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (or Hulegu Khan), brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Persia.

Hulagu began his campaign in Persia with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, who lost their stronghold of Alamut. He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days.[7]

During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. The Mongols executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements in diverse fields.[8]

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Transcription

This video is sponsored by The Great Courses Plus. Go to thegreatcoursesplus.com to start your free trial today. The Mongols had defeated the Khwarezmian Empire during the campaign of 1219 to 1221, but there was more to gain to the east and the expedition of Jebe and Subutai across Iran and the Caucasus proved just that. The Mongol Empire was slowly changing, but their desire for lands and riches was still strong. The Seljuks and Mamluks were standing in their way and they fought against Mongol expansion until it reached its peak at the decisive Battle of Ain Jalut. After his defeat at the Battle of the Indus River in the spring of 1221, the Prince of the Khwarezmian Empire, Jalal ad-Din, continued retreating deeper into Punjab. Soon the Mongol troops stopped chasing him. Jalal ad-Din spent the next three years gathering his forces in the area and even took over most of Punjab. He attempted to get the Mamluk Sultan of Delhi to ally against the Mongols but the latter wasn't eager to draw the ire of Genghis. Instead in 1224, the Sultan attacked Jalal ad-Din. The Prince was forced to leave Lahore. He raided Gujarat and then returned to Iran in the same year. As his father was long dead, Jalal ad-Din claimed the throne of Khwarezm. Iran and the Caucasus had been weakened by Jebe a and Subutai a few years before, so he had an easy time consolidating the region. He destroyed the state of the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and moved his capital to Tabriz away from Mongol reach. In the same year, he vassalized the Shirvan Shahs and attacked Georgia. In 1226, the Georgians were defeated at the Battle of Garni. Tbilisi was captured after that and both the Christian and Muslim population of the city were massacred. The Mongols sent a small army to Iran in 1227 but Jalal ad-Din crushed it near Ray. His activity in the area provoked a response. The Sultan of the Seljuqs of Rum Kayqubad I, Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil and the king of Cilician Armenia, Hethum I, united their forces against him in 1228 and the Khwarezmian forces were soundly defeated near Erevan. This war weakened him and all over Iran and the Caucasus rebellions against him began. The Great Khan Ogedei used this and sent an army under Chormaqan to conquer Iran once again. The Mongols won a battle against the Shah somewhere in central Iran in 1231. Jalal ad-Din retreated all the way to modern Turkey with the Mongols chasing. Finally, Jalal ad-Din was assassinated in Sylvan and the Khwarezmian Empire ceased to exist. The Seljuqs, Cilicia and Georgia became the vassals of the Great Khan. Little of note happened in the region in the next decade as the Mongols were busy with the campaign in Eastern Europe. But when Ogedei passed away in 1241, the Mongol governor of the region, Baiju, asked the Seljuq Sultan, Kaykhusraw II, to renew his vassal oath. The latter refused and raided another Mongol vassal, Georgia. Baiju pushed the Seljuqs back and moved towards Erzurum. The envoys sent to the city were not killed, but insulted. Still Erzurum was taken and its population was massacred. The Mongols then retreated to amass more troops in Georgia and Armenia. Sultan Kaykhusraw II asked his allies to help and received minor assistance from Nicaea, Trebizond, the Ayyubids and even recruited some mercenaries from among the Crusaders. The 30,000-strong Mongol army moved into Seljuq territory in 1243 and Kaykhusraw's 60,000 met them in June at Köse Dağ near modern-day Sivas. We know very little about the ensuing battle but the Mongols feigned retreat yet again and forced the Seljuq vanguard which had around 20,000 troops to chase them. As soon as a significant gap formed between the vanguard and the rest of the Sultan's forces, the Mongols turned back, surrounded and crushed the Seljuqs. The Sultan and his advisors retreated and the Seljuqs were forced to become Mongol vassals yet again. In Mongolia, Möngke became the Great Khan in 1251 and gave his brothers Kublai and Hulagu supervisory roles in China and Persia respectively. In 1256, Hulagu entered the Middle East with more than 100,000 warriors. He conquered the remnants of the Khwarezmian Empire and then moved against the legendary Hashashin Order. These renowned and feared assassins held dozens of fortresses but a combination of infighting and the fact that by now the Mongols were experts at siege warfare inflicted heavy casualties upon them. Their Grand Master surrendered and handed all the fortresses to Hulagu. With all of Iran secured, Hulagu sent words to the Abbasid caliph Al-Musta'sim demanding his obedience, but the latter refused. On January 11th, 1258, the Mongols approached Baghdad, the biggest and most prosperous city of its time. Al-Musta'sim finally decided to meet them in battle and sent out a force of 20,000 cavalry to attack the Mongols. These troops defeated the Mongol vanguard but rather than retreat to the safety of the city walls, they set up camp and enjoyed a feast of celebration. The next morning, they were surrounded by the Mongols on one side and by the river on the other. Those who were not killed in the slaughter drowned. The Mongols built walls around the city to provide safety for the siege engines as well as to prevent the defenders from breaking out. Al-Musta'sim made attempts to negotiate peace, but that ship had already sailed. By February 10th 1258, the city surrendered under a constant barrage of catapult fire. The sacking continued for seven days and only the Christian population of the city was spared. The Grand Library of Baghdad was burned to the ground. This destruction put an end to the Islamic Golden Age and moved the center of power from Baghdad to Cairo. For the first time in Muslim history, Islam had no caliph. Hulagu didn't intend to stop as he pushed forward toward Syria. Aside from the coastal territory belonging to the Crusader States, most of the Levant was still under the control of the Ayyubid Sultanate, which was weakened by the loss of Egypt to the Mamluks. The Ayyubids offered to pay tribute, but Hulagu was not interested. He was joined by the Georgians, Armenians and the troops of the Crusader Prince Bohemond VII and on January 18th 1260, Aleppo was besieged and suffered the same fate as Baghdad. This caused massive panic and resulted in the cities of Homs and Damascus willingly surrendering sparing themselves from destruction. But suddenly grave news was delivered to Hulagu. The Great Khan Möngke died of sickness during the war against the Song Dynasty in China. This sent a ripple through the empire and halted the massive campaigns. The Empire was on the brink of civil war and Hulagu left the Levant for Mongolia. One or two tumens stayed in the region under the command of Kitbuqa. The Mamluks were offered peace, but they knew that Hulagu left with the majority of his troops, so the Mongol envoys were killed. Kitbuqa tried to form an alliance with the Crusader States. However, that attempt failed. Mamluk Sultan Qutuz assembled his army and moved to Palestine. When news of this reached Kitbuqa, he prepared to meet the Mamluk army, but a rebellion in Damascus slowed him down. Meanwhile, the Mamluks moved north and camped outside of Acre. Mongol spies reported back to Kitbuqa that the enemy army outnumbered his at least 2 to 1. Still the Mongol general left Damascus with an army of some 25,000 men made up of Mongols, Georgians and Armenians. In early September 1260, he crossed the Jordan River and entered the valley near the village of Ain Jalut, where according to legend David slew Goliath. The Mongol cavalry charged the Mamluk vanguard commanded by Baybars. This group broke under the charge and fled up the valley. Kitbuqa gave chase but in reality, the Mongols were falling for their own trick as Baybars was luring his enemies in with his retreat. The Mongols pursued the broken vanguard to the valley where Qutuz awaited with most of his forces. Baybars' troops finally reached the main line. Despite having vastly superior numbers, the Sultan was cautious and stayed in position. Kitbuqa used that and decided to commit all of his troops. The Mongols were to engage the entire Mamluk army. The Mongol second line was ordered to wheel right and run the Mamluk front ranks towards Qutuz's left wing. The entire left flank of the Muslim army started crumbling under the Mongol pressure. The Sultan tried to regain his left side for hours. His troops from the right flank were sent to the left and eventually, the Mongols were pushed back and the left side was restored. Qutuz sent his reserves to the extreme wings. It was the moment for the final attack and Qutuz personally led his bodyguards into battle. The Mongol army fought well, but they were pinned in place by the overwhelming numbers of their foe. When all the Mongol troops were engaged, Qutuz sent his extreme flanks into the attack. The Mongols were close to being surrounded and when their leader died in the center, they started to flee. They lost between 5,000 and 10,000 warriors. The Mamluks won at Ain Jalut using their superior numbers and by mirroring the usual Mongol tactics. Ain Jalut also made the Mamluks into the most significant Muslim power of its time. Internal conflicts over the succession delayed the Mongol response and while they didn't know it yet, this would be their zenith and the beginning of the end of the greatest empire the world had ever seen. When we create our videos we often use the series of lectures called The Decisive Battles of World History from Professor Gregory Aldrete provided by the sponsor of this video, The Great Courses Plus. This 36-part series covers the crucial battles of history across all periods. Starting with the Battle of Kadesh in the Bronze Age to Stalingrad during World War Two. You can subscribe to The Great Courses Plus to get access to the vast library of 9000 lectures on history, science, literature and other subjects from the top-notch professors from the best universities in the world. The Great Courses Plus is giving viewers a great offer of a free trial. Show your support to our channel and learn more about the Steppe Peoples by subscribing to The Great Courses Plus through thegreatcoursesplus.com/kingsandgenerals or the short link in the description. Thank you for watching the fifth video in our series on the Mongol invasions. The next episode will conclude the first season of this series and will be dedicated to the Conquest of China and the campaigns against Japan. We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters who make the creation of our videos possible. Now you can also support us directly via YouTube by pressing the sponsorship button directly below the video. This is the Kings and Generals Channel, and we will catch you on the next one.

Contents

Background

Baghdad had for centuries been the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, the third caliphate whose rulers were descendants of Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. In 751, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads and moved the Caliph's seat from Damascus to Baghdad. At the city's peak, it was populated by approximately one million people and was defended by an army of 60,000 soldiers. By the middle of the 13th century the power of the Abbasids had declined and Turkic and Mamluk warlords often held power over the Caliphs.[9]

Baghdad still retained much symbolic significance, and it remained a rich and cultured city. The Caliphs of the 12th and 13th centuries had begun to develop links with the expanding Mongol Empire in the east. Caliph an-Nasir li-dini'llah, who reigned from 1180–1225, may have attempted an alliance with Genghis Khan when Muhammad II of Khwarezm threatened to attack the Abbasids.[10] It has been rumored that some Crusader captives were sent as tribute to the Mongol khagan.[11]

According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis and his successor, Ögedei Khan, ordered their general Chormaqan to attack Baghdad.[12] In 1236, Chormaqan led a division of the Mongol army to Irbil,[13] which remained under Abbasid rule. Further raids on Irbil and other regions of the caliphate became nearly annual occurrences.[14] Some raids were alleged to have reached Baghdad itself,[15] but these Mongol incursions were not always successful, with Abbasid forces defeating the invaders in 1238[16] and 1245.[17]

Despite their successes, the Abbasids hoped to come to terms with the Mongols and by 1241 had adopted the practice of sending an annual tribute to the court of the khagan.[15] Envoys from the Caliph were present at the coronation of Güyük Khan as khagan in 1246[18] and that of Möngke Khan in 1251.[19] During his brief reign, Güyük insisted that the Caliph Al-Musta'sim fully submit to Mongol rule and come personally to Karakorum. Blame for the Caliph's refusal and for other resistance offered by the Abbasids to increased attempts by the Mongols to extend their power was placed by the khagans on Chormaqan's lieutenant and successor, Baiju.

Hulagu's expedition

Planning

In 1257, Möngke resolved to establish firm authority over Mesopotamia, Syria, and Persia. The khagan gave his brother, Hulagu, authority over a subordinate khanate and army, the Ilkhanate, and instructions to compel the submission of various Muslim states, including the caliphate. Though not seeking the overthrow of Al-Musta'sim, Möngke ordered Hulagu to destroy Baghdad if the Caliph refused his demands of personal submission to Hulagu and the payment of tribute in the form of a military detachment, which would reinforce Hulagu's army during its campaigns against Persian Ismaili states.

In preparation for his invasion, Hulagu raised a large expeditionary force, conscripting one out of every ten military-age males in the entirety of the Mongol Empire, assembling what may have been the most numerous Mongol army to have existed and, by one estimate, 150,000 strong.[20] Generals of the army included the Oirat administrator Arghun Agha, Baiju, Buqa Temür, Guo Kan, and Kitbuqa, as well as Hulagu's brother Sunitai and various other warlords.[21] The force was also supplemented by Christian forces, including the King of Armenia and his army, a Frankish contingent from the Principality of Antioch,[22] and a Georgian force, seeking revenge on the Muslim Abbasids for the sacking of their capital, Tiflis, decades earlier by the Khwarazm-Shahs.[23] About 1,000 Chinese artillery experts accompanied the army,[24] as did Persian and Turkic auxiliaries, according to Ata-Malik Juvayni, a contemporary Persian observer.

Early campaigns

Hulagu led his army first to Persia, where he successfully campaigned against the Lurs, the Bukhara, and the remnants of the Khwarezm-Shah dynasty. After subduing them, Hulagu directed his attention toward the Ismaili Assassins and their Grand Master, Imam 'Ala al-Din Muhammad, who had attempted the murder of both Möngke and Hulagu's friend and subordinate, Kitbuqa. Though Assassins failed in both attempts, Hulagu marched his army to their stronghold of Alamut, which he captured. The Mongols later executed the Assassins' Grand Master, Imam Rukn al-Dun Khurshah, who had briefly succeeded 'Ala al-Din Muhammad from 1255-1256.

Capture of Baghdad

Hulagu's march to Baghdad

After defeating the Assassins, Hulagu sent word to Al-Musta'sim, demanding his acquiescence to the terms imposed by Möngke. Al-Musta'sim refused, in large part due to the influence of his advisor and grand vizier, Ibn al-Alkami. Historians have ascribed various motives to al-Alkami's opposition to submission, including treachery[25] and incompetence,[26] and it appears that he lied to the Caliph about the severity of the invasion, assuring Al-Musta'sim that, if the capital of the caliphate was endangered by a Mongol army, the Islamic world would rush to its aid.[26]

Although he replied to Hulagu's demands in a manner that the Mongol commander found menacing and offensive enough to break off further negotiation,[27] Al-Musta'sim neglected to summon armies to reinforce the troops at his disposal in Baghdad. Nor did he strengthen the city's walls. By January 11 the Mongols were close to the city,[26] establishing themselves on both banks of the Tigris River so as to form a pincer around the city. Al-Musta'sim finally decided to do battle with them and sent out a force of 20,000 cavalry to attack the Mongols. The cavalry were decisively defeated by the Mongols, whose sappers breached dikes along the Tigris River and flooded the ground behind the Abbasid forces, trapping them.[26]

Siege of the city

Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city. Note use of the siege engine
Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city. Note use of the siege engine

The Abbasid caliphate could supposedly call upon 50,000 soldiers for the defense of their capital, including the 20,000 cavalry under al-Musta'sim. However, these troops were assembled hastily, making them poorly equipped and disciplined. Although the caliph technically had the authority to summon soldiers from other Muslim empires to defend his realm, he either neglected to do so or lacked the ability to. His taunting opposition had lost him the loyalty of the Mamluks, and the Syrian emirs, who he supported, were busy preparing their own defenses.[28]

On January 29, the Mongol army began its siege of Baghdad, constructing a palisade and a ditch around the city. Employing siege engines and catapults, the Mongols attempted to breach the city's walls, and, by February 5, had seized a significant portion of the defenses. Realizing that his forces had little chance of retaking the walls, Al-Musta'sim attempted to open negotiations with Hulagu, who rebuffed the Caliph. Around 3,000 of Baghdad's notables also tried to negotiate with Hulagu but were murdered.[29] Five days later, on February 10, the city surrendered, but the Mongols did not enter the city until the 13th, beginning a week of massacre and destruction.

Destruction

Hulagu (left) imprisons Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death. Medieval depiction from Le livre des merveilles, 15th century
Hulagu (left) imprisons Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death. Medieval depiction from Le livre des merveilles, 15th century

Many historical accounts detailed the cruelties of the Mongol conquerors. Baghdad was a depopulated, ruined city for several centuries and only gradually recovered some of its former glory.

The Mongols looted and then destroyed mosques, palaces, libraries, and hospitals. Priceless books from Baghdad's thirty-six public libraries were torn apart, the looters using their leather covers as sandals.[30] Grand buildings that had been the work of generations were burned to the ground. The House of Wisdom (the Grand Library of Baghdad), containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed. Survivors said that the waters of the Tigris ran black with ink from the enormous quantities of books flung into the river and red from the blood of the scientists and philosophers killed.[31]

Citizens attempted to flee, but were intercepted by Mongol soldiers who killed in abundance, sparing neither women nor children. Martin Sicker writes that close to 90,000 people may have died.[32] Other estimates go much higher. Wassaf claims the loss of life was several hundred thousand. Ian Frazier of The New Yorker says estimates of the death toll have ranged from 200,000 to a million.[33]

The caliph Al-Musta'sim was captured and forced to watch as his citizens were murdered and his treasury plundered. According to most accounts, the caliph was killed by trampling. The Mongols rolled the caliph up in a rug, and rode their horses over him, as they believed that the earth would be offended if it were touched by royal blood. All but one of Al-Musta'sim's sons were killed, and the sole surviving son was sent to Mongolia, where Mongolian historians report he married and fathered children, but played no role in Islam thereafter (see The end of the Abbasid dynasty).

Hulagu had to move his camp upwind of the city, due to the stench of decay from the ruined city.

The historian David Morgan has quoted Wassaf describing the destruction: "They swept through the city like hungry falcons attacking a flight of doves, or like raging wolves attacking sheep, with loose reins and shameless faces, murdering and spreading terror...beds and cushions made of gold and encrusted with jewels were cut to pieces with knives and torn to shreds. Those hiding behind the veils of the great Harem were dragged...through the streets and alleys, each of them becoming a plaything...as the population died at the hands of the invaders."[34]

Causes for agricultural decline

Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for many millennia. Canals were cut as a military tactic and never repaired. So many people died or fled that neither the labour nor the organization were sufficient to maintain the canal system. It broke down or silted up. This theory was advanced (not for the first time) by historian Svatopluk Souček in his 2000 book, A History of Inner Asia.

Other historians point to soil salination as the primary cause for the decline in agriculture.[35][36]

Aftermath

Hulagu left 3,000 Mongol soldiers behind to rebuild Baghdad. Ata-Malik Juvayni was later appointed governor of Baghdad, Lower Mesopotamia, and Khuzistan after Guo Kan went back to Yuan dynasty to assist Kublai conquest over the Song dynasty. The Mongol Hulagu's Nestorian Christian wife, Dokuz Khatun successfully interceded to spare the lives of Baghdad's Christian inhabitants.[37][38] Hulagu offered the royal palace to the Nestorian Catholicos Mar Makikha, and ordered a cathedral to be built for him.[39]

Initially, the fall of Baghdad came as a shock to the whole Muslim world, but the city became an economic center where international trade, the minting of coins and religious affairs flourished under the Ilkhans.[40] The chief Mongol darughachi was thereafter stationed in the city.[41]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ John Masson Smith, Jr. Mongol Manpower and Persian Population, pp. 276
  2. ^ John Masson Smith, Jr. Mongol Manpower and Persian Population. pp. 271–299
  3. ^ a b c L. Venegoni (2003). Hülägü's Campaign in the West (1256–1260) Archived 2012-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, Transoxiana Webfestschrift Series I, Webfestschrift Marshak 2003.
  4. ^ National Geographic, v. 191 (1997)
  5. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 13.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  6. ^ The different aspects of Islamic culture: Science and technology in Islam, Vol. 4, Ed. A. Y. Al-Hassan, (Dergham sarl, 2001), 655.
  7. ^ Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today", The FASEB Journal 20, pp. 1581–1586.
  8. ^ Matthew E. Falagas, Effie A. Zarkadoulia, George Samonis (2006). "Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 C.E.) and today", The FASEB Journal 20, pp. 1581–1586.
  9. ^ Jack Weatherford Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world, p.135
  10. ^ Jack Weatherford Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world, p.135
  11. ^ Jack Weatherford Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world, p.136
  12. ^ Sh.Gaadamba Mongoliin nuuts tovchoo (1990), p.233
  13. ^ Timothy May Chormaqan Noyan, p.62
  14. ^ Al-Sa'idi,., op. cit., pp. 83, 84, from Ibn al-Fuwati
  15. ^ a b C. P. Atwood Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.2
  16. ^ Spuler, op. cit., from Ibn al-'Athir, vol. 12, p. 272.
  17. ^ "Mongol Plans for Expansion and Sack of Baghdad". alhassanain.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26.
  18. ^ Giovanni, da Pian del Carpine (translated by Erik Hildinger) The story of the Mongols whom we call the Tartars (1996), p. 108
  19. ^ "Wednesday University Lecture 3". depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  20. ^ "European & Asian History". telusplanet.net.
  21. ^ Rashiddudin, Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, E. Quatrieme ed. and trans. (Paris, 1836), p. 352.
  22. ^ Demurger, 80-81; Demurger 284
  23. ^ Khanbaghi, 60
  24. ^ L. Carrington Goodrich (2002). A Short History of the Chinese People (illustrated ed.). Courier Dover Publications. p. 173. ISBN 0-486-42488-X. Retrieved 2011-11-28. In the campaigns waged in western Asia (1253-1258) by Jenghis' grandson Hulagu, "a thousand engineers from China had to get themselves ready to serve the catapults, and to be able to cast inflammable substances." One of Hulagu's principal generals in his successful attack against the caliphate of Baghdad was Chinese.
  25. ^ Zaydān, Jirjī (1907). History of Islamic Civilization, Vol. 4. Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons, Ltd. p. 292. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  26. ^ a b c d Davis, Paul K. (2001). Besieged: 100 Great Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 67.
  27. ^ Nicolle
  28. ^ James Chambers, "The Devil's Horsemen," p. 144.
  29. ^ Fattah, Hala. A Brief History of Iraq. Checkmark Books. p. 101.
  30. ^ Murray, S.A.P. (2012). The library: An illustrated history. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, pp. 54.
  31. ^ Frazier, I., "Invaders: Destroying Baghdad," New Yorker Magazine, [Special edition: Annals of History], April 25, 2005, Online Issue Archived 2018-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ (Sicker 2000, p. 111)
  33. ^ Frazier, Ian (25 April 2005). "Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad". The New Yorker. p. 4. Archived from the original on 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
  34. ^ Marozzi, Justin (29 May 2014). Baghdad: City of Peace, City of Blood. Penguin Books. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-14-194804-1.
  35. ^ Alltel.net Archived 2006-06-22 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Saudi Aramco World :         The Greening of the Arab East: The Planters". saudiaramcoworld.com. Archived from the original on 2006-01-25. Retrieved 2006-02-03.
  37. ^ Maalouf, 243
  38. ^ Runciman, 306
  39. ^ Foltz, 123
  40. ^ Coke, Richard (1927). Baghdad, the City of Peace. London: T. Butterworth. p. 169.
  41. ^ Kolbas, Judith G. (2006). The Mongols in Iran: Chingiz Khan to Uljaytu, 1220–1309. London: Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 0-7007-0667-4.

References

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven. 1998. Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281 (first edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46226-6.
  • Demurger, Alain. 2005. Les Templiers. Une chevalerie chrétienne au Moyen Âge. Éditions du Seuil.
  • ibid. 2006. Croisades et Croisés au Moyen-Age. Paris: Groupe Flammarion.
  • Khanbaghi, Aptin. 2006. The fire, the star, and the cross: minority religions in medieval and early modern Iran. London: I. B. Tauris.
  • Morgan, David. 1990. The Mongols. Boston: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17563-6.
  • Nicolle, David, and Richard Hook (illustrator). 1998. The Mongol Warlords: Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, Hulegu, Tamerlane. London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-407-9.
  • Runciman, Steven. A history of the Crusades.
  • Saunders, J.J. 2001. The History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.
  • Sicker, Martin. 2000. The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96892-8.
  • Souček, Svat. 2000. A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65704-0.

External links

This page was last edited on 24 January 2020, at 04:37
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