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Tiridates II of Armenia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tiridates II (Armenian: Տրդատ Բ, flourished second half of the 2nd century - died 252), known in Armenian sources as Khosrov,[1] was an Armenian Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.

Tiridates II was the son and heir of the Armenian King Khosrov I,[2] by an unnamed mother. Tiridates II was the namesake of his ancestor, Tiridates I of Armenia and of his Parthian ancestors who ruled with this name as King. As a part of the Armenian Arsacid period,[3] he was also known as Khosrov.[4]

Between 214 and 216, Tiridates II with his family where under detention by the Romans which provoked a major uprising in Armenia against Rome.[5] In 215, the Roman emperor Caracalla led the Roman army and invaded Armenia[6] to end the uprising.

In 217 Khosrov I had died and Tiridates II succeeded his father as King of Armenia.[7] Tiridates II was granted the Armenian crown[8] by Caracalla.[9] He was declared King of Armenia upon Caracalla's assassination (8 April 217).[10]

Tiridates II ruled as King of Armenia from 217 until his death in 252.[11] After the death of Caracalla, Macrinus became the new Roman emperor and Macrinus agreed to release Tiridates II's mother from Roman captivity.[12] After the Battle of Nisibis in 217 between Rome and Parthia and the treaty that was then agreed, Tiridates II was restored to his Armenian throne[13] and his rule over Armenia was officially recognised.

At an unknown date during his reign, there's the possibility that the Mamikonian family immigrated from Bactria to Armenia.[14] Tiridates II was the first king of Armenia to persecute Christians. This persecution continued under his successors.[15]

Partly due to his long reign, Tiridates II became one of the most powerful and most influential Armenian monarchs from the Arsacid dynasty.[16] In 224, the Parthian Empire was destroyed. The last king, Artabanus V of Parthia, who was Tiridates II's paternal uncle, was killed by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid Empire.[17]

Between 226 and 228, after annexing Parthia, Ardashir I wanted to expand his Empire to include Armenia. After two years of conflict, the armies of the Romans, Scythians and the Kushans withdrew their support for Armenia.[18] Tiridates II and his army were left alone to continue fighting against Ardashir I.[19]

Tiridates II put up a stubborn resistance against Ardashir I[20] and still was not defeated after ten years of fighting.[21] After twelve years of fighting against Tiridates II, Ardashir I withdrew his army and left Armenia.[22] Tiridates II's lengthy military conflict with Ardashir I highlighted the strength of Armenia during the rule of Tiridates II.[23] Tiridates II died in 252 and was succeeded by his son, Khosrov II of Armenia.[24]

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References

  1. ^ Russell 1987, p. 167.
  2. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  3. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  4. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  5. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  6. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  7. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  8. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  9. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  10. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  11. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, Book LXXIX, Chapter 27
  13. ^ Erdkamp, A Companion to the Roman Army, p.p.247&251
  14. ^ V. M. Kurkjian, A History of Armenia, Armenian General Benevolent Union of America 1958: Chapter XVII The Arsacids (Arshakunis) of Armenia
  15. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.261
  16. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  17. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  18. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  19. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  20. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  21. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  22. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  23. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  24. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.74

Sources

  • Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh (2016). "Ancient Iranian Motifs and Zoroastrian Iconography". In Williams, Markus; Stewart, Sarah; Hintze, Almut (eds.). The Zoroastrian Flame Exploring Religion, History and Tradition. I.B. Tauris. pp. 179–203. ISBN 9780857728159.
  • de Jong, Albert (2015). "Armenian and Georgian Zoroastrianism". In Stausberg, Michael; Vevaina, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw; Tessmann, Anna (eds.). The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Russell, James R. (1987). Zoroastrianism in Armenia. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674968509.
  • Toumanoff, C. (1986). "Arsacids vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. pp. 543–546.
This page was last edited on 22 July 2021, at 10:11
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