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List of states with limited recognition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  UN member states which at least one other UN member state does not recognise   Non-UN member states and observer states recognised by at least one UN member state   Non-UN member states recognised by other non-UN member states only   Non-UN member state not recognised by any state
  UN member states which at least one other UN member state does not recognise
  Non-UN member states and observer states recognised by at least one UN member state
  Non-UN member states recognised by other non-UN member states only
  Non-UN member state not recognised by any state

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past.

There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria:

  1. a defined territory
  2. a permanent population
  3. a government, and
  4. a capacity to enter into relations with other states.

According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community.[1][2]

Proto-states often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto partial or complete control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China (PRC), and North and South Korea). Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.

In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country's de facto status problematic. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or the German-created Slovak Republic and Independent State of Croatia before and during World War II. In the 1996 case Loizidou v. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus.

There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929), Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation), and more recently the State of Palestine at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is currently in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.

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Criteria for inclusion

Women in Somaliland, wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag.
Women in Somaliland, wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag.

The criteria for inclusion means a polity must claim sovereignty, lack recognition from at least one UN member state, and either:


There are 193 United Nations (UN) member states, while both the Holy See and the State of Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations.[3] However, some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations, but are still included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts.

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany,[4] Italy,[5] the United States,[6] and the United Kingdom,[7] maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC. Kosovo,[8] the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh),[9] the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,[10] Abkhazia,[11] Transnistria,[11] the Sahrawi Republic,[12] Somaliland,[13] and Palestine[14] also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

UN member states not recognised by at least one UN member state

Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 South Korea 1948 South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.  North Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [15][16]
 Republic of Armenia 1991 Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, which has a position of supporting Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War. None Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [17][18]
 Republic of Cyprus 1960 The Republic of Cyprus, independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one UN non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.  Northern Cyprus claims part of the island of Cyprus. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [19][20][21][22]
 North Korea 1948 North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan, South Korea; and one non-UN member: Taiwan.[23][24][25][original research?][26][27]  South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [25][28][29][26][27]
 People's Republic of China 1949 The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of "China", the other being the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (16 UN members and the Holy See as of 21 August 2018). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognising the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru).[30][31] Some states which currently recognise only the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu).[32][33][34] According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[a]  Republic of China claims to be the sole legitimate government over all of China under the Constitution of the Republic of China. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
 State of Israel 1948 Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 31 UN members.  Syria claims the Golan Heights.
 Lebanon claims Shebaa Farms.
 Palestine claims areas controlled by Israel. Subject to the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian peace process and broader Arab–Israeli peace process.
Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition

UN observer states not recognised by at least one UN member state

Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 State of Palestine 1988 The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) declared the State of Palestine in 1988. At the time the Israeli Armed Forces had control of most of the proclaimed territory.[41] It is recognised by 137 UN member states, the Holy See,[42] and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.[43] Today the PLC (Palestinian Legislative Council) executes the government functions in all Palestinian territories outside of Israeli military-controlled zones. Prior to the Council's administration, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) was established in 1994 according to the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement.[b] Palestine participates in the United Nations as an observer state,[44] and has membership in the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and UNESCO.[45] It was accorded non-member observer state status at the United Nations by United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19.  Israel does not recognise the state of Palestine and controls areas claimed by Palestine.[b] Subject to the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian peace process. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Proposals for a Palestinian state

States that are neither UN members nor UN observers

States recognised by at least one UN member state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 Republic of Kosovo 2008 Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is currently recognised by 103 UN members, the Republic of China, the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Ten other UN members have recognised Kosovo and subsequently withdrawn recognition. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank Group, Venice Commission, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Olympic Committee, among others.  Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976 Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. The SADR, which declared its independence in 1976, is currently recognised by 44 UN member states and South Ossetia. 40 other UN member states have recognised the SADR but subsequently retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination.[62][63] Western Sahara is not recognised as part of Morocco by any state, but some states support the Moroccan autonomy plan. Moroccan "territorial integrity" is favoured by the Arab League. The SADR is a member of the African Union. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people.[64] Western Sahara is listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.  Morocco claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
 Republic of China 1912[c] The Republic of China (ROC, usually called Taiwan), constitutionally formed in 1912, enjoyed majority recognition as the sole government of China until the end of the Chinese Civil War, after which a majority of UN member states have gradually switched recognition to the People's Republic of China. The ROC is currently recognised as a state by 16 UN members and the Holy See. The remaining UN member states either regard its controlled territory as de jure part of the People's Republic of China (PRC) or have used careful diplomatic language to avoid taking a position as to whether the territory of the ROC is part of the PRC.[a] Throughout the years, the ROC has adopted differing positions towards simultaneous recognition of the ROC and the PRC by other countries.[67]  People's Republic of China claims to be the successor of the former Republic of China and claims all of the territory under ROC jurisdiction as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Political status
 Republic of South Ossetia 1991 South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Syria), and four UN non-member states (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and Transnistria).[69][70] One UN member (Tuvalu) recognised South Ossetia but subsequently withdrew its recognition.[71][72]  Georgia claims both Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
 Republic of Abkhazia 1999 Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999.[76] It is currently recognised by 5 UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Syria), and three UN non-member states (South Ossetia, Transnistria and Republic of Artsakh).[69][77] Two other UN member states (Tuvalu and Vanuatu) have recognised Abkhazia[78][79][80][81][82] but subsequently withdrawn their recognition.[83][71][72] Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 1983 Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983. It is recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization have granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid.[86] The International Court of Justice stated in its advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2010 that "the Security Council in an exceptional character attached illegality to the DOI of TRNC because it was, or would have been connected with the unlawful use of force" and "general international law contains no applicable prohibition of declarations of independence".[87]  Cyprus claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Cyprus dispute
States recognised only by other non-UN member states
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 Republic of Artsakh 1991 Artsakh (formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) declared its independence in 1991 (roughly at the same time as Azerbaijan itself when the Soviet Union fell). It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[70]  Azerbaijan claims Artsakh as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
 Transnistria 1990 Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, declared its independence in 1990. It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and South Ossetia.  Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
States not recognised by any other state
Name Declared Status Other claimants Further information References
 Republic of Somaliland 1991 Somaliland declared its independence from Somalia in 1991. It claims to be the successor to the State of Somaliland, a short lived sovereign state that existed from 26 June 1960 (when the British Somaliland Protectorate gained full independence from the United Kingdom) to 1 July 1960 (when the State of Somaliland united with Somalia to form the Somali Republic). Somaliland is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.  Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory. Foreign relations, missions (of, to) [89][92]

Excluded entities

See also


  1. ^ a b Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area controlled by the PRC and the area controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while recognising only the PRC as a state. Some states recognise only the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC.[66]
  2. ^ a b Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air,[46] sea beyond internal waters,[46][47] land[48]) in the Gaza strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), maximum in "Area C" and varying degrees of interference elsewhere.[49][50][51][52][53] See also Israeli-occupied territories.
  3. ^ Date of constitutional formation.
  4. ^ Micronations are not included even if they are recognised by another micronation
  5. ^ It is far from certain that micronations, which are generally of minuscule size, have sovereign control over their claimed territories, contrasted with the mere disregard and indifference toward micronations’ assertions by the states from which they allege to have seceded. By not deeming such declarations (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way, these states generally consider micronations to be private property and their claims as unofficial private announcements of individuals, who remain subject to the laws of the states in which their properties are located.


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  95. ^ Shaw, Malcolm Nathan International Law Fifth Edition Cambridge University Press 2003 ISBN 0-521-82473-7 p. 218 Searchable text, available via, "The Italian Court of Cassation in 1935 recognised the international personality of the Order, noting that ‘the modern theory of the subjects of international law recognises a number of collective units whose composition is independent of the nationality of their constituent members and whose scope transcends by virtue of their universal character the territorial confines of any single state.’ (Nanni v. Pace and the Sovereign Order of Malta 8 AD, p. 2. See also …)"
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  98. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintains embassies around the world and receives accreditations from foreign ambassadors.
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Further reading

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