To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
新疆维吾尔自治区
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese新疆维吾尔自治区
(Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū)
 • AbbreviationXJ / (Pinyin: Xīn)
 • Uyghurشىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
 • Uyghur transl.Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni
Beautiful blue water in the foreground with evergreen forest and mountains in the back ground
Kanas Lake in the very north of Xinjiang
Map showing the location of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Map showing the location of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Coordinates: 41°N 85°E / 41°N 85°E / 41; 85
Named for
  • , xīn ("new")
  • , jiāng ("frontier" or "borderland")
Capital
(and largest city)
Ürümqi
Divisions14 prefectures, 99 counties, 1005 townships
Government
 • SecretaryChen Quanguo
 • ChairmanShohrat Zakir
Area
 • Total1,664,897 km2 (642,820 sq mi)
Area rank1st
Highest elevation
(K2)
8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Lowest elevation−154 m (−505 ft)
Population
 (2010)[3]
 • Total21,815,815
 • Estimate 
(2015)[4]
23,600,000
 • Rank25th
 • Density13/km2 (30/sq mi)
 • Density rank29th
Demographics
 • Ethnic
 composition
 • Languages
 and dialects
ISO 3166 codeCN-XJ
GDP (2017 [6])CNY 1.1 trillion
$162 billion (26th)
 - per capitaCNY 45,099
USD 6,680 (21st)
HDI (2014)0.718[7] (high) (27th)
WebsiteXinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

Xinjiang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ‎, SASM/GNC: Xinjang; Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang), officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region[8] (XUAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the far northwest of the country. Being the largest province-level division of China and the 8th largest country subdivision in the world, Xinjiang spans over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles).[1] A small part of Xinjiang is claimed by India, referring to it as "Aksai Chin". Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii, Khovd and Govi-Altai Provinces), Russia (Altai Republic), Kazakhstan (East Kazakhstan and Almaty Provinces), Kyrgyzstan (Issyk Kul, Naryn and Osh Regions), Tajikistan (Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region), Afghanistan (Badakhshan Province), Pakistan (Gilgit Baltistan) and India (Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir). The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border.

In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang and it is currently China's largest natural-gas-producing region.

It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakhs, Tibetans, Hui, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, Mongols, Russians and Xibe.[9] More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan.[10] Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.[11]

With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, which was later replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union and also promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkestan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.[12][13]


YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    2 655 308
    1 197
    28 265
    1 604 191
    1 726 414
  • ✪ Most Unique Street Food in China | DEEP China Street Food Tour - XINJIANG
  • ✪ WHAT I LEARNED TRAVELING XINJIANG CHINA + SUMMARY OF MY EXPERIENCE
  • ✪ Why is Uyghur Xinjiang so important for China? How are Muslims of China? How did Islam reach China?
  • ✪ Halal Street Food Journey To Islamic China | Xinjiang HUGE CHICKEN PLATE on the Chinese Silk Road
  • ✪ China's problems with the Uyghurs (Documentary from 2014 in HD)

Transcription

It’s Trevor James I just got into Turpan, China In west Xinjiang province And today, we are going for a full on Uighur, Halal, Muslim Chinese Street Food experience I can’t wait Let’s go check it out When you arrive in Turpan It feels like a whole new world We took the long distance train to Xining on our great Silk Road journey And as soon as you step in You notice that the people are Uighur muslims And the food is different from the rest of China Just walking down the street is an adventure and an experience in itself Make sure to watch until the end Because this episode has a huge selection of Uighur street food And the most insane meat sanctuary jackpot at the end First up, we found a delicious Uighur breakfast joint Serving up some of the most delicious central Asian themed pilaf And huge chunks of mutton That’s the true joy of Foodrangin’ Finding new stuff Zhuafan, look at that We are getting some Nangua pumpkin Ok, let’s go in Oh yeah It looks like it’s in a chili oil Mmm, that’s good A lot of Liangcai, but I’m going to stick with this Look at all of this beautiful Uighur food we have here in Turpan I have been looking forward to trying Pilaf, Zhuafan, for so long And I have a huge chunk of mutton on there And it’s just soaked It looks quite oily But I can really smell, the fragrance, almost sweetness, from those carrots This looks like a butter tea almost And then over here This is liangban doufu Like cold salad style chili oil tofu And then some pumpkin baozi Nice plump pumpkin baozi Look at that Let’s go right in Pilaf, my first time The carrots! Those carrots are like sweet! They almost taste like candied And the rice It has an al dente chew to it It is perfect What an experience Now this is Naicha But it honestly smells like butter tea Lets try it out Fatty and buttery and oily and strong Honestly this is a heavy breakfast Super fatty butter tea, salty butter tea Oily and sweet and fatty Pilaf And baozi stuffed with pumpkin That was delicious That was unbelievable Heavy breakfast After breakfast we hit the street in search of some pre-lunch street snacks And found an amazing Uighur style lamb stuffed pocket baked right on the street in a coal oven Alright so we are just walking through a little market here We are going to see if there is anything good to eat Wow, look at these! Oh look at thee beauties Oh the color This is so beautiful Just walking by here And you see this oven baking these kao baozi Let’s try it out Look inside there! It’s like fatty lamb with a little bit of onion It’s quite peppery And this bread is super crispy and a little salty Nice street snack Walking through a little market and there is so much food around here to eat Lots to eat here After that gorgeous kao baozi We went foodrangin for lunch And found the must try Uighur banmian noodles At a little hole in the wall This is street side satisfaction Ok we are at a little banmian place And we are going to order up some Xinjiang- Good morning! Good morning That’s gorgeous We are going to sit down and get some banmian You can eat banmian all over china AKA noodles with no broth But here in Xinjiang, the hand pulled noodles are taken to the next level Made super thick And they pack a nice chewy texture That you are going to enjoy for sure They are pulled slowly And smacked down hard to loosen the dough up And here, you choose the ingredients And they are fried into a delicious sauce that is poured on top of your freshly pulled noodles They will blow you away Super simple, yet so filling and delicious So our noodles just arrived Hand pulled And this is the sauce that they have been frying up And they are going to pour it right over top of the noodles That is the pure beauty We just got the banmian Oh look at these beautiful hand pulled noodles with lamb, tomato, green bell peppers Oh guys, that will fill you right up Let’s just take a big slurp Oh yeah They are quite simple Just a light tomato flavor And actually a little smoky But the mutton flavor is all through there That is the best part Oh yeah, that smooth tomato flavor will bring you to life Such an experience That was an amazing banmian we found here at this little hole in the wall We are going to keep walking around because this city has so much to offer And try and find some more good stuff for the afternoon Alright so here is our hostel Super cool location It’s about 110 RMB per night right now And it’s really nice and old school Hello This is Ting’s favorite This is Ting’s favorite here Alright so we just got out of the hostel and had a little break from eating And now we are just walking down the street And I think just right up here there is a few stalls that serve Nang Xinjiang’s famous flatbread Just look at how deep the oven goes Oh yeah, that is awesome You can really just smell the sesame It smells like toasted sesame in this deep oven And it’s still hot You can see they put a stamp on it It’s like a swirl I’m not sure if that is different in each location But they also coat is in sesame OK so you gotta break it Oh, there it is And I will taste it The toasted sesame flavor is really good After that delicious nang bread We took a taxi around town to take in the sights before our huge mutton feast for dinner And found rows upon rows of grape vineyards So we just took a taxi to the outside of town We asked him to take us to some local areas And we just stopped on the side of the road Because I want to show you Exactly what turban is famous for, these grapes You come here in August and you’ll get super plump, juicy, grapes Right now it is April so it’s off season But I gotta say coming here any time of year, especially now in April in the off season Is super enjoyable and I’m blown away by this city Our taxi is just right up there And we are going to take it to go get some delicious meat for dinner We made our way to find some meat And we really found the jackpot Mutton heaven So we have been walking around exploring And got a local tip from the taxi driver to come eat here To have lots of meat Because meat is famous in Xinjiang It’s hard to get it in That is a skill We are going to have a nice big bowl of this But I’m really bad at this What we stumbled into was a true meat jackpot There were these huge big fat juicy lamb kebabs Covered in salt, cumin and garlic And pressed right into these grilled nang breads So the juices would seep in But the real jackpot was this huge oven packed full of lamb legs Ribs, and steaks All lightly seasoned in salt 10 minutes before they were ready to pull out of the oven People started gathering around and competing to get the first taste Look at that That is This is gorgeous Oh look at that! This is meat heaven! Gorgeous meat! This is the most insane meat fest Gorgeous I am so excited for this meat Look at how much meat is on there Everyone is just so excited to eat this This is lamb heaven I can’t believe my eyes right now Even the shop owner is taking photos it’s so magical Everyone is fighting for the meat now It’s insane Everyone is fighting for the meat I’m just waiting patiently I don’t want to… I’m left with the last That meat is so bulky We are going to get a leg now We got two ribs Oh there it is Gorgeous So I had to wait for everyone to get theres And now… Awesome!! We have it all here now guys This is like meat heaven Oh, look at this beautiful huge chunk of lamb on a bone And the yellow fat is just bursting from it And I have two spare ribs as well! Guys this is totally lamb heaven Lamb paradise It’s a mutton sanctuary And then over here I have 5 beautiful lamb kebabs Over top of the naan bread Which is also spiced with chilies and cumin And the lamb juices are soaking in to that bread I have a mixed lamb organ It’s called yangzasui, so there is the fat, lung, and liver I actually don’t know everything that is in there And there is stuffed intestine Intestine stuffed with rice I think that is going to be good We will see And then over here, we have mianpian tang Which is those pinched off noodle slices In a nice hearty, and healthy broth It looks like there is some legumes in there And you know what we are going to go for first right This beauty Look at that chunk of meat That looks - I just gotta get in there Wow! Oh, wow Guys, I’ve never tasted lamb like that It just explodes with juice And it’s quite salty And the fat is just bursting from it So that gives it a lot of flavor Apart from the mixed lamb organ salad This was a meal to remember Everything was fantastic And turban truly is a city you have to visit If you come, you will have the time of your life And eat some of the best food too So we have had an incredible day here in Turpan From all of the really friendly people we have met here on the streets To all of the super delicious food we have had It has been an incredible experience And a must visit destination here in China So please leave me a comment down below letting me know what you thought Click that thumbs up button And subscribe to this channel if you haven’t already Because there is a lot of fun and delicious street food videos coming up From our trip on the Silk Road Thanks a lot guys

Contents

Names

Xinjiang
Xinjiang (Chinese characters).svg
"Xīnjiāng" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Chinese新疆
Hanyu PinyinXīnjiāng
PostalSinkiang
Literal meaning"New Frontier"
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Simplified Chinese新疆维吾尔自治区
Traditional Chinese新疆維吾爾自治區
Hanyu PinyinXīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
PostalSinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicШиньжян Уйгурын өөртөө засах орон
Mongolian scriptᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ
ᠮᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ
ᠮᠤᠨ
ᠮᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠮᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ
ᠮᠣᠷᠤᠨ
Uyghur name
Uyghurشىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
Russian name
RussianСиньцзян
RomanizationSin'czjan
Kazakh name
Kazakhشينجياڭ ۇيعۇر اۆتونوميالى رايونى
Шыңжаң Ұйғыр аутономиялық ауданы
Shyńjań Uıǵyr aýtonomııalyq aýdany
Kyrgyz name
Kyrgyzشئنجاڭ ۇيعۇر اپتونوم رايونۇ
Шинжаң-Уйгур автоном району
Şincañ-Uyğur avtonom rayonu
Oirat name
OiratЗуунгар
Zuungar

The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name (referring to "the six cities" of the Tarim), as well as Khotan, Khotay, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay (it was eastern part of Chagatai Khanate), Moghulistan ("land of the Mongols"), Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, Serindia (due to Indian cultural influence),[14] and, in Chinese, "Western Regions".[15]

In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu (西域), meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate (西域都護府) in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road.[16] The Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西). Qi refers to the Gobi Desert while Xi refers to the west. The Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate (安西都護府) in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu (準部, "Dzungar region") and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang (回疆, "Muslim Frontier") before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang", later simplified as "Xinjiang".

The current Chinese name "Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned" (故土新歸), or the new old land. (Note that "returned" [gui 歸] here is an ideological term, which does not indicate a "return", but what ought to be, from the Chinese empire's point of view).[note 1]

The term was also given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Xiyu Xinjiang (Chinese: 西域新疆; literally: 'Western Regions' New Frontier') and Gansu Xinjiang (Chinese: 甘肅新疆; literally: 'Gansu Province's New Frontier', especially for present-day eastern Xinjiang).[18]

The name "East Turkestan" is frequently used in the diaspora communities today, and also refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829.[note 2] Also, "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded.

In 1955, Xinjiang Province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The name that was originally proposed was simply "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region".[20]

Description

Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red), and Southern Xinjiang/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red), and Southern Xinjiang/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains

Xinjiang consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the Uyghur people. They were governed separately until 1884. The native Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin is Altishahr.

The Qing dynasty was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist Mongol area to the north of the Tian Shan and the Turkic Muslim area south of the Tian Shan, and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.[21] However, Qing people began to think of both areas as part of one distinct region called Xinjiang.[22] The very concept of Xinjiang as one distinct geographic identity was created by the Qing and it was originally not the native inhabitants who viewed it that way, but rather it was the Chinese who held that point of view.[23] During the Qing rule, no sense of "regional identity" was held by ordinary Xinjiang people; rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given to the region by the Qing, since it had distinct geography, history and culture, while at the same time it was created by the Chinese, multicultural, settled by Han and Hui, and separated from Central Asia for over a century and a half.[24]

In the late 19th century, it was still being proposed by some people that two separate parts be created out of Xinjiang, the area north of the Tianshan and the area south of the Tianshan, while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang into a province.[25]

Xinjiang is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (comparable in size to Iran), which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and India's Leh District to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India to the west.

The east-west chain of the Tian Shan separate Dzungaria in the north from the Tarim Basin in the south. Dzungaria is a dry steppe and the Tarim Basin contains the massive Taklamakan Desert, surrounded by oases. In the east is the Turpan Depression. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the Ili River valley.

History

Part of a series on the
History of Xinjiang
Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 063.jpg

Early history

According to J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair, the Chinese describe the existence of "white people with long hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing, who lived beyond their northwestern border.

The well-preserved Tarim mummies, today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 2nd millennium BC (4000 years ago), have been found in the same area of the Tarim Basin. Between 2009-2015, the remains of 92 individuals found at the Xiaohe Tomb complex were analyzed for Y-DNA and mtDNA markers. Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both East Asia and West Eurasia, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from West Eurasia.[26]

Various nomadic tribes, such as the Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun were probably part of the migration of Indo-European speakers who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu) at that time. The Ordos culture in northern China east of the Yuezhi, is another example. By the time the Han dynasty under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) wrestled the Western Regions of the Tarim Basin away from its previous overlords, the Xiongnu, it was inhabited by various peoples, such as Indo-European Tocharians in Turfan and Kucha and Indo-Iranian Saka peoples centered around Kashgar and Khotan.[27]

Nomadic cultures such as the Yuezhi (Rouzhi) are documented in the area of Xinjiang where the first known reference to the Yuezhi was made in 645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong in his work Guanzi (管子, Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81). He described the Yúshì 禺氏 (or Niúshì 牛氏), as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains (also known as Yushi) in Gansu.[28] The supply of jade[29] from the Tarim Basin from ancient times is well documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BC, the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China."[30][full citation needed]

The Roman Empire and the Han Empire around AD 1
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century

Traversed by the Northern Silk Road,[31] the Tarim and Dzungaria regions were known as the Western Regions. It was inhabited by various peoples, including Indo-European Tocharians in Turfan and Kucha and Indo-Iranian Saka peoples centered around Kashgar and Khotan.[27] At the beginning of the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220), the region was subservient to the Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people based in modern Mongolia. In the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty made preparations for war against Xiongnu when Emperor Wu of Han dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu. As a result of these battles, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu corridor to Lop Nor. They succeeded in separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang peoples to the south, and also gained direct access to the Western Regions. Han China sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states in the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu and Han China over dominance of the region, eventually ending in Chinese success. In 60 BC Han China established the Protectorate of the Western Regions (西域都護府) at Wulei (烏壘, near modern Luntai) to oversee the entire region as far west as the Pamir Mountains, which would remain under the influence and suzerainty of the Han dynasty with some interruptions. For instance, it fell out of their control during the civil war against Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23). It was brought back under Han control in AD 91 due to the efforts of the general Ban Chao.

The Western Jin dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The short-lived kingdoms that ruled northwestern China one after the other, including Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, and Western Liáng, all attempted to maintain the protectorate, with varying degrees of success. After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern region of Xinjiang. Local states such as Shule, Yutian, Guizi and Qiemo controlled the western region, while the central region around Turpan was controlled by Gaochang, remnants of a state (Northern Liang) that once ruled part of what is now Gansu province in northwestern China.

A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty

During the Tang dynasty, a series of expeditions were conducted against the Western Turkic Khaganate, and their vassals, the oasis states of southern Xinjiang.[32] Campaigns against the oasis states began under Emperor Taizong with the annexation of Gaochang in 640.[33] The nearby kingdom of Karasahr was captured by the Tang in 644 and the kingdom of Kucha was conquered in 649.[34] The Tang Dynasty then established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West (安西都護府) or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region.

During the devastating Anshi Rebellion, which nearly led to the destruction of the Tang dynasty, Tibet invaded the Tang on a wide front, from Xinjiang to Yunnan. It occupied the Tang capital of Chang'an in 763 for 16 days, and took control of southern Xinjiang by the end of the century. At the same time, the Uyghur Khaganate took control of northern Xinjiang, as well as much of the rest of Central Asia, including Mongolia.

As both Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate declined in the mid-9th century, the Kara-Khanid Khanate, which was a confederation of Turkic tribes such as the Karluks, Chigils and Yaghmas,[35] took control of western Xinjiang in the 10th century and the 11th century. Meanwhile, after the Uyghur Khaganate in Mongolia had been smashed by the Kirghiz in 840, branches of the Uyghurs established themselves in Qocha (Karakhoja) and Beshbalik, near the modern cities of Turfan and Urumchi. This Uyghur state remained in eastern Xinjiang until the 13th century, though it was subject to foreign overlords during that time. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam. The Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang remained Manichaean, but later converted to Buddhism.

In 1132, remnants of the Liao dynasty from Manchuria entered Xinjiang, fleeing the rebellion of their neighbors, the Jurchens. They established a new empire, the Qara Khitai, which ruled over both the Kara-Khanid-held and Uyghur-held parts of the Tarim Basin for the next century. Although Khitan and Chinese were the primary languages of administration, the empire also administered in Persian and Uyghur.[36]

Islamisation of Xinjiang

The historical area of what is contemporary Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion. The Turfan and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages,[37] with "Europoid" mummies found in the region.[38] The area was subjected to Islamicisation at the hands of Turkic Muslims. The cultural change was carried out in the 9th and 10th centuries by two different Turkic kingdoms, the Buddhist Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho and the Muslim Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate. Halfway through the 10th century the Saka Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan came under attack by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Islamicisation of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.[39]

Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at Temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.[40] The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed ethnic group of East Asian Mongoloid and Europoid Caucasian populations.[41][42][43]

Mongol period

Mongol states, 14th–17th century: 1.Northern Yuan dynasty 2. Four Oirat. 3.Moghulistan 4.Qara Del
Mongol states, 14th–17th century: 1.Northern Yuan dynasty 2. Four Oirat. 3.Moghulistan 4.Qara Del

After Genghis Khan unified Mongolia and began his advance west, the Uyghur state in the Turpan-Urumchi area offered its allegiance to the Mongols in 1209, contributing taxes and troops to the Mongol imperial effort. In return, the Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom. By contrast, Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire conquered the Qara Khitai in 1218.

Xinjiang was a stronghold of Ogedai and later came under the control of his descendant Kaidu. This branch of the Mongol family kept the Yuan dynasty at bay until their rule came to an end.

During the era of the Mongol Empire, the Yuan dynasty vied with the Chagatai Khanate for rule over the area, with the latter taking control of most of this region. After the break-up of the Chagatai Khanate into smaller khanates in the mid-14th century, the region fractured and was ruled by numerous Persianized Mongol Khans simultaneously, including the ones of Moghulistan (with the assistance of the local Dughlat Emirs), Uigurstan (later Turpan), and Kashgaria. These leaders engaged in wars with each other and the Timurids of Transoxania to the west and the Oirats to the east, the successor Chagatai regime based in Mongolia and in China. In the 17th century, the Dzungars established an empire over much of the region.

The Mongolian Dzungar was the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that formed and maintained one of the last nomadic empires. The Dzungar Khanate covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia. Most of this area was only renamed "Xinjiang" by the Chinese after the fall of the Dzungar Empire. It existed from the early 17th century to the mid-18th century.

Map showing Dzungar–Qing Wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
Map showing Dzungar–Qing Wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate

The Turkic Muslim sedentary people of the Tarim Basin were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate while the nomadic Buddhist Oirat Mongol in Dzungaria ruled over the Dzungar Khanate. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin in the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain) faction. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which resulted in the Afaq Khoja inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of the Tibetans, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The 5th Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar Buddhist followers in the Dzungar Khanate to act on this invitation. The Dzungar Khanate then conquered the Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler.

After converting to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs in Turfan failed to retain memory of their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist monuments in their area.[44]

Qing dynasty

The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756 between the Manchu and Oirat armies
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756 between the Manchu and Oirat armies
A scene of the Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr, 1828
A scene of the Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr, 1828

The Turkic Muslims of the Turfan and Kumul Oases then submitted to the Qing dynasty of China, and asked China to free them from the Dzungars. The Qing accepted the rulers of Turfan and Kumul as Qing vassals. The Qing dynasty waged war against the Dzungars for decades until finally defeating them and then Qing Manchu Bannermen carried out the Dzungar genocide, nearly wiping them from existence and depopulating Dzungaria. The Qing then freed the Afaqi Khoja leader Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khoja Jihan from their imprisonment by the Dzungars, and appointed them to rule as Qing vassals over the Tarim Basin. The Khoja brothers decided to renege on this deal and declare themselves as independent leaders of the Tarim Basin. The Qing and the Turfan leader Emin Khoja crushed their revolt and China then took full control of both Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin by 1759.

The Manchu Qing dynasty of China gained control over eastern Xinjiang as a result of a long struggle with the Dzungars that began in the 17th century. In 1755, with the help of the Oirat noble Amursana, the Qing attacked Ghulja and captured the Dzungar khan. After Amursana's request to be declared Dzungar khan went unanswered, he led a revolt against the Qing. Over the next two years, Qing armies destroyed the remnants of the Dzungar Khanate and many Han Chinese and (Hui) moved into the pacified areas.[45]

The Qing Empire ca. 1820
The Qing Empire ca. 1820

The native Dzungar Oirat Mongols suffered heavily from the brutal campaigns and a simultaneous smallpox epidemic. One writer, Wei Yuan, described the resulting desolation in what is now northern Xinjiang as: "an empty plain for several thousand li, with no Oirat yurt except those surrendered."[46] It has been estimated that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare,[47] and it took generations for it to recover.[48]

Han and Hui merchants were initially only allowed to trade in the Tarim Basin, while Han and Hui settlement in the Tarim Basin was banned, until the Muhammad Yusuf Khoja invasion, in 1830 when the Qing rewarded the merchants for fighting off Khoja by allowing them to settle down.[49] Robert Michell stated that in 1870 there were many Chinese of all occupations living in Dzungaria and they were well settled in the area, while in Turkestan (Tarim Basin) there were only a few Chinese merchants and soldiers in several garrisons among the Muslim population.[50][verification needed]

The Ush rebellion in 1765 by Uyghurs against the Manchus occurred after Uyghur women were gang raped by the servants and son of Manchu official Su-cheng.[51] It was said that Ush Muslims had long wanted to sleep on [Sucheng and son's] hides and eat their flesh. because of the rape of Uyghur Muslim women for months by the Manchu official Sucheng and his son.[52] The Manchu Emperor ordered that the Uyghur rebel town be massacred, the Qing forces enslaved all the Uyghur children and women and slaughtered the Uyghur men.[53] Manchu soldiers and Manchu officials regularly having sex with or raping Uyghur women caused massive hatred and anger by Uyghur Muslims to Manchu rule.[54]

After reconquering Xinjiang from the Tajik adventurer Yaqub Beg in the late 1870s, the Qing dynasty established Xinjiang ("new frontier") as a province in 1884,[55] formally applying to it the political systems of the rest of China and dropping the old names of Zhunbu (準部, Dzungar region) and Huijiang, "Muslimland".[56][57] After Xinjiang was converted into a province by the Qing, the provincialisation and reconstruction programs initiated by the Qing resulted in the Chinese government helping Uyghurs migrate from southern Xinjiang to other areas of the province, like the area between Qitai and the capital, which was formerly nearly completely inhabited by Han Chinese, and other areas like Ürümqi, Tacheng (Tabarghatai), Yili, Jinghe, Kur Kara Usu, Ruoqiang, Lop Nor, and the Tarim River's lower reaches.[58] It was during Qing times that Uyghurs were settled throughout all of Xinjiang, from their original home cities in the western Tarim Basin.

Republic of China

Governor Sheng Shicai ruled between 1933 and 1944
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled between 1933 and 1944
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942

In 1912, the Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates, Yang Zengxin, took control of the province and acceded in name to the Republic of China in March of the same year. Through a balancing of mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang maintained control over Xinjiang until his assassination in 1928 after the Northern Expedition of the Kuomintang.[59]

The Kumul Rebellion and other rebellions arose against his successor Jin Shuren in the early 1930s throughout Xinjiang, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups, and Hui (Muslim) Chinese. Jin drafted White Russians to crush the revolt. In the Kashgar region on November 12, 1933, the short-lived self-proclaimed First East Turkestan Republic was declared, after some debate over whether the proposed independent state should be called "East Turkestan" or "Uyghuristan".[60][61] The region claimed by the ETR in theory encompassed Kashgar, Khotan and Aqsu prefectures in southwestern Xinjiang.[62] The Chinese Muslim Kuomintang 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) destroyed the army of the First East Turkestan Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1934), bringing the Republic to an end after the Chinese Muslims executed the two Emirs of the Republic, Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Soviet Union invaded the province in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. In the Xinjiang War (1937), the entire province was brought under the control of northeast Han warlord Sheng Shicai, who ruled Xinjiang for the next decade with close support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies Sheng instituted in Xinjiang. The Soviet Union maintained a military base in Xinjiang and had several military and economic advisors deployed in the region. Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists to Xinjiang, including Mao Zedong's brother Mao Zemin, but in 1943, fearing a conspiracy, Sheng executed them all, including Mao Zemin. In 1944, then the President and Premier of China Chiang Kai-shek, was informed of Shicai's intention of joining the Soviet Union by Soviets, decided to shift him out of Xinjiang to Chongqing as the Minister of Agriculture and Forest.[63] More than one decade of Sheng's era had stopped. However, a short-lived Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic was established in that year, which lasted until 1949 in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay Districts) in northern Xinjiang.

Modern China (People's Republic of China)

The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic existed in what is now the Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts of Xinjiang
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic existed in what is now the Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts of Xinjiang

During the Ili Rebellion the Soviet Union backed Uyghur separatists to form the Second East Turkestan Republic (2nd ETR) in Ili region while the majority of Xinjiang was under Republic of China Kuomintang control.[60] The People's Liberation Army entered Xinjiang in 1949, then the Kuomintang commander Tao Zhiyue and the government's chairman Burhan Shahidi surrendered the province to them.[61] Five ETR leaders who were to negotiate with the Chinese over the ETR's sovereignty died in an air crash in 1949 in Soviet airspace over the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.[64]

The autonomous region of the PRC was established on October 1, 1955, replacing the province.[61] In 1955 (the first modern census in China was taken in 1953), Uyghurs were counted as 73% of Xinjiang's total population of 5.11 million.[20] Although Xinjiang as a whole is designated as a "Uyghur Autonomous Region", since 1954 more than 50% of Xinjiang's land area are designated autonomous areas for 13 native non-Uyghur groups.[65] The modern Uyghur people experienced ethnogenesis especially from 1955, when the PRC officially recognized that ethnic category – in opposition to the Han – of formerly separately self-identified oasis peoples.[66]

Southern Xinjiang is home to the majority of the Uyghur population (about nine million people). The majority of the Han (90%) population of Xinjiang, which is mostly urban, are in Northern Xinjiang.[67][68] This situation has been followed by an imbalance in the economic situation between the two ethnic groups, since the Northern Junghar Basin (Dzungaria) has been more developed than the Uyghur south.[69]

Since China's economic reform from the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development, more Uyghurs have migrated to Xinjiang cities and some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang for independent economic advancement. Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur separatist terrorism from the 1990s, such as the 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings.[70]

In 2000, Uyghurs comprised 45% of Xinjiang's population, but only 13% of Ürümqi's population. Despite having 9% of Xinjiang's population, Ürümqi accounts for 25% of the region's GDP, and many rural Uyghurs have been migrating to that city to seek work in the dominant light, heavy, and petrochemical industries.[71] Hans in Xinjiang are demographically older, better-educated, and work in higher-paying professions than their Uyghur cohabitants. Hans are more likely to cite business reasons for moving to Ürümqi, while some Uyghurs also cite trouble with the law back home and family reasons for their moving to Ürümqi.[72] Hans and Uyghurs are equally represented in Ürümqi's floating population that works mostly in commerce. Self-segregation within the city is widespread, in terms of residential concentration, employment relationships, and a social norm of endogamy.[73] In 2010, Uyghurs constituted a majority in the Tarim Basin, and a mere plurality in Xinjiang as a whole.[74]

Xinjiang has been a focal point of ethnic and other tensions:[75][76] incidents include the 2007 Xinjiang raid,[77] a thwarted 2008 suicide bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight,[78] and the 2008 Xinjiang attack which resulted in the deaths of sixteen police officers four days before the Beijing Olympics.[79][80]

Culturally, Xinjiang maintains 81 public libraries and 23 museums, compared to none of each in 1949, and Xinjiang has 98 newspapers in 44 languages, up from 4 newspapers in 1952. According to official statistics, the ratios of doctors, medical workers, medical clinics, and hospital beds to people surpass the national average, and immunization rates have reached 85%.[81]

Administrative divisions

Xinjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: four prefecture-level cities, six prefectures, and five autonomous prefectures (including the sub-provincial autonomous prefecture of Ili, which in turn has two of the seven prefectures within its jurisdiction) for Mongol, Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Hui minorities. At the end of the year 2017, the total population of Xinjiang is 24.45 million.中国统计年鉴—2018

These are then divided into 13 districts, 25 county-level cities, 62 counties, and 6 autonomous counties. Ten of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, and are de facto administered by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Sub-level divisions of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is shown in the adjacent picture and described in the table below:

Administrative divisions of Xinjiang
Xinjiang prfc map2alt.png

     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

No. Division code[82] Division Area in km2[83] Population 2010[84] Seat Divisions[85]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
  650000 Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 1664900.00 21,813,334 Ürümqi city 13 62 6 25
1 650100 Ürümqi city 13787.90 3,110,280 Tianshan District 7 1
2 650200 Karamay city 8654.08 391,008 Karamay District 4
3 650400 Turpan city 67562.91 622,679 Gaochang District 1 2
4 650500 Hami city 142094.88 572,400 Yizhou District 1 1 1
5 652300 Changji Autonomous Prefecture 73139.75 1,428,592 Changji city 4 1 2
6 652700 Bortala Autonomous Prefecture 24934.33 443,680 Bole city 2 2
7 652800 Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture 470954.25 1,278,492 Korla city 7 1 1
8 652900 Aksu Prefecture 127144.91 2,370,887 Aksu city 8 1
9 653000 Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture 72468.08 525,599 Artux city 3 1
10 653100 Kashi Prefecture 137578.51 3,979,362 Kashi city 10 1 1
11 653200 Hotan Prefecture 249146.59 2,014,365 Hotan city 7 1
12 654000 Ili Autonomous Prefecture 56381.53 * 2,482,627 * Yining city 7 * 1 * 3 *
12a 654200 Tacheng Prefecture* 94698.18 1,219,212 Tacheng city 4 1 2
12b 654300 Altay Prefecture* 117699.01 526,980 Altay city 6 1
A 659001 Shihezi city 456.84 635,582 <i>Hongshan Subdistrict</i> 1
B 659002 Wujiaqu city 5266.00 166,205 <i>Renmin Road Subdistrict</i> 1
C 659003 Tumxuk city 1927.00 147,465 Qiganquele Subdistrict 1
D 659004 Aral city 740.00 72,613 Jinyinchuan Road Subdistrict 1
E 659005 Beitun city 910.50 76,300 Beitun town 1
F 659006 Tiemenguan city 590.27 50,000 <i>Chengqu Subdistrict</i> 1
G 659007 Shuanghe city 742.18 53,800 Tasierhai town 1
H 659008 Kokdala city 979.71 75,000 Kokdala town 1
I 659009 Kunyu city 687.13 47,500 Kunyu town 1
J 659010 Huyanghe city 678 12,000 Gongqing town 1

* – Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. / The population or area figures do not include Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture which are subordinate to Ili Prefecture.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[86] District area[86] City proper[86] Census date
1 Ürümqi 2,853,398 3,029,372 3,112,559 2010-11-01
2 Korla 425,182 549,324 part of Bayingolin Prefecture 2010-11-01
3 Yining 368,813 515,082 part of Ili Prefecture 2010-11-01
4 Karamay 353,299 391,008 391,008 2010-11-01
5 Shihezi 313,768 380,130 380,130 2010-11-01
6 Hami[i] 310,500 472,175 572,400 2010-11-01
7 Kashi 310,448 506,640 part of Kashi Prefecture 2010-11-01
8 Changji 303,938 426,253 part of Changji Prefecture 2010-11-01
9 Aksu 284,872 535,657 part of Aksu Prefecture 2010-11-01
10 Usu 131,661 298,907 part of Tacheng Prefecture 2010-11-01
11 Bole 120,138 235,585 part of Bortala Prefecture 2010-11-01
12 Hotan 119,804 322,300 part of Hotan Prefecture 2010-11-01
13 Altay 112,711 190,064 part of Altay Prefecture 2010-11-01
14 Turpan[ii] 89,719 273,385 622,903 2010-11-01
15 Tacheng 75,122 161,037 part of Tacheng Prefecture 2010-11-01
16 Wujiaqu 75,088 96,436 96,436 2010-11-01
17 Fukang 67,598 165,006 part of Changji Prefecture 2010-11-01
18 Aral 65,175 158,593 158,593 2010-11-01
19 Artux 58,427 240,368 part of Kizilsu Prefecture 2010-11-01
(–) Beitun[iii] 57,889 57,889 57,889 2010-11-01
(–) Kokdala[iv] 57,537 57,537 57,537 2010-11-01
(–) Shuanghe[v] 53,565 53,565 53,565 2010-11-01
(–) Korgas[vi] 51,462 51,462 part of Ili Prefecture 2010-11-01
(–) Kunyu[vii] 36,399 36,399 36,399 2010-11-01
20 Tumxuk 34,808 135,727 135,727 2010-11-01
(–) Tiemenguan[viii] 30,244 30,244 30,244 2010-11-01
21 Kuytun 20,805 166,261 part of Ili Prefecture 2010-11-01
(–) Alashankou[ix] 15,492 15,492 part of Bortala Prefecture 2010-11-01
  1. ^ Hami Prefecture is currently known as Hami PLC after census; Hami CLC is currently known as Yizhou after census.
  2. ^ Turpan Prefecture is currently known as Turpan PLC after census; Turpan CLC is currently known as Gaochang after census.
  3. ^ Beitun CLC was established from parts of Altay CLC after census.
  4. ^ Kokdala CLC was established from parts of Huocheng County after census.
  5. ^ Shuanghe CLC was established from parts of Bole CLC after census.
  6. ^ Korgas CLC was established from parts of Huocheng County after census.
  7. ^ Kunyu CLC was established from parts of Hotan County, Pishan County, Moyu County, & Qira County after census.
  8. ^ Tiemenguan CLC was established from parts of Korla CLC after census.
  9. ^ Alashankou CLC was established from parts of Bole CLC & Jinghe County after census.

Geography and geology

Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Tianchi lake.
Tianchi lake.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.

Xinjiang is the largest political subdivision of China—it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. Xinjiang is mostly covered with uninhabitable deserts and dry grasslands, with dotted oases at the foot of Tian Shan, Kunlun Mountains and Altai Mountains. The inhabitable oasis accounts for 9.7% of Xinjiang's total area by 2015.[11]

Mountain systems and basins

Xinjiang is split by the Tian Shan mountain range (تەڭرى تاغ, Тәңри Тағ, Tengri Tagh), which divides it into two large basins: the Dzungarian Basin in the north, and the Tarim Basin in the south. A small V-shaped wedge between these two major basins, limited by the Tian Shan's main range in the south and the Borohoro Mountains in the north, is the basin of the Ili River, which flows into Kazakhstan's Lake Balkhash; an even smaller wedge farther north is the Emin Valley.

Other major mountain ranges of Xinjiang include the Pamir Mountains and Karakoram in the southwest, the Kunlun Mountains in the south (along the border with Tibet), and the Altai Mountains in the northeast (shared with Mongolia). The region's highest point is the mountain K2, 8611 metres above sea level, in the Karakoram Mountains on the border with Pakistan.

Much of the Tarim Basin is dominated by the Taklamakan Desert. North of it is the Turpan Depression, which contains the lowest point in Xinjiang, and in the entire PRC, at 155 metres below sea level.

The Dzungarian Basin is slightly cooler, and receives somewhat more precipitation, than the Tarim Basin. Nonetheless, it, too, has a large Gurbantünggüt Desert (also known as Dzoosotoyn Elisen) in its center.

The Tian Shan mountain range marks the Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border at the Torugart Pass (3752 m). The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass.

Geology

Xinjiang is young geologically. Collision of the Indian and the Eurasian plates formed the Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir mountain ranges. Xinjiang is a very active earthquake zone. Older geological formations are located in the far north, where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east, where is part of the North China Craton.

Center of the continent

Xinjiang has within its borders, in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, the location in Eurasia that is furthest from the sea in any direction (a continental pole of inaccessibility): 46°16.8′N 86°40.2′E / 46.2800°N 86.6700°E / 46.2800; 86.6700 (Eurasian pole of inaccessibility). It is at least 2,647 km (1,645 mi) (straight-line distance) from any coastline.

In 1992, local geographers determined another point within Xinjiang – 43°40′52″N 87°19′52″E / 43.68111°N 87.33111°E / 43.68111; 87.33111 in the southwestern suburbs of Ürümqi, Ürümqi County – to be the "center point of Asia". A monument to this effect was then erected there and the site has become a local tourist attraction.[87]

Rivers and lakes

Having hot summer and low precipitation, most of Xinjiang is endorheic. Its rivers either disappear in the desert, or terminate in salt lakes (within Xinjiang itself, or in neighboring Kazakhstan), instead of running towards an ocean. The northernmost part of the region, with the Irtysh River rising in the Altai Mountains, that flows (via Kazakhstan and Russia) toward the Arctic Ocean, is the only exception. But even so, a significant part of the Irtysh's waters were artificially diverted via the Irtysh–Karamay–Ürümqi Canal to the drier regions of southern Dzungarian Basin.

Elsewhere, most of Xinjiang's rivers are comparatively short streams fed by the snows of the several ranges of the Tian Shan. Once they enter the populated areas in the mountains' foothills, their waters are extensively used for irrigation, so that the river often disappears in the desert instead of reaching the lake to whose basin it nominally belongs. This is the case even with the main river of the Tarim Basin, the Tarim, which has been dammed at a number of locations along its course, and whose waters have been completely diverted before they can reach the Lop Lake. In the Dzungarian basin, a similar situation occurs with most rivers that historically flowed into Lake Manas. Some of the salt lakes, having lost much of their fresh water inflow, are now extensively use for the production of mineral salts (used e.g., in the manufacturing of potassium fertilizers); this includes the Lop Lake and the Manas Lake.

Time

Xinjiang has the same time belt as the rest of China, Beijing time, UTC+8. But while Xinjiang being about two time zones west of Beijing, some residents, local organizations and governments watch another time standard known as Xinjiang Time, UTC+6.[88] Han people tend to use Beijing Time, while Uyghurs tend to use Xinjiang Time as a form of resistance to Beijing.[89] But, regardless of the time standard preferences, most businesses, schools open and close two hours later than in the other regions of China.[90]

Deserts

Deserts include:

Major cities

Due to the water situation, most of Xinjiang's population lives within fairly narrow belts that are stretched along the foothills of the region's mountain ranges, where irrigated agriculture can be practised. It is in these belts where most of the region's cities are found.

Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang

Climate

A semiarid or desert climate (Köppen BSk or BWk, respectively) prevails in Xinjiang. The entire region has great seasonal differences in temperature with cold winters. The Turpan Depression recorded the hottest temperatures nationwide in summer,[91] with air temperatures easily exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). Winter temperatures regularly fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) in the far north and highest mountain elevations.

Continuous permafrost is typically found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500–3,700 m above sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost usually occurs down to 2,700–3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m.[92]

Bordering regions

Politics

Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Secretaries of the CPC Xinjiang Committee
  1. 1949–1952 Wang Zhen (王震)
  2. 1952–1967 Wang Enmao (王恩茂)
  3. 1970–1972 Long Shujin (龙书金)
  4. 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜; سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى)
  5. 1978–1981 Wang Feng (汪锋)
  6. 1981–1985 Wang Enmao (王恩茂)
  7. 1985–1994 Song Hanliang (宋汉良)
  8. 1994–2010 Wang Lequan (王乐泉)
  9. 2010–2016 Zhang Chunxian (张春贤)
  10. 2016–present Chen Quanguo (陈全国)
Chairmen of the Xinjiang Government
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
  1. 1949–1955 Burhan Shahidi (包尔汉·沙希迪; بۇرھان شەھىدى)
  2. 1955–1967 Saifuddin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜; سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى)
  3. 1968–1972 Long Shujin (龙书金)
  4. 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi (赛福鼎·艾则孜; سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى)
  5. 1978–1979 Wang Feng (汪锋)
  6. 1979–1985 Ismail Amat (司马义·艾买提; ئىسمائىل ئەھمەد)
  7. 1985–1993 Tömür Dawamat (铁木尔·达瓦买提; تۆمۈر داۋامەت)
  8. 1993–2003 Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (阿不来提·阿不都热西提; ئابلەت ئابدۇرىشىت)
  9. 2003–2007 Ismail Tiliwaldi (司马义·铁力瓦尔地; ئىسمائىل تىلىۋالدى)
  10. 2007–2015 Nur Bekri (努尔·白克力; نۇر بەكرى)
  11. 2015–present Shohrat Zakir (雪克来提·扎克尔; شۆھرەت زاكىر)

Human rights

Human Rights Watch has documented the denial of due legal process and fair trials and failure to hold genuinely open trials as mandated by law e.g. to suspects arrested following ethnic violence in the city of Ürümqi's 2009 riots.[93]

According to the Radio Free Asia and HRW, at least 120,000 members of Kashgar's Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in Xinjiang's re-education camps, aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities and their religious beliefs.[94][95][96] Reports from the World Uyghur Congress submitted to the United Nations in July 2018 suggest that 1 million Uyghurs are currently being held in the re-education camps.[97] The camps were established under General Secretary Xi Jinping’s administration.[98][99]

An October 2018 exposé by the BBC News claimed based on analysis of satellite imagery collected over time that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs must be interned in the camps, and they are rapidly being expanded.[100] In 2019, The Art Newspaper reported that "hundreds" of writers, artists, and academics had been imprisoned, in what the magazine qualified as an attempt to "punish any form of religious or cultural expression" among Uighurs.[101]

In July 2019, 22 countries including: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK, sent a letter to the UN Human Rights Council, criticizing China for its mass arbitrary detentions and other violations against Muslims in China's Xinjiang region. However, on 12 July, a group of 37 countries submitted a similar letter in defense of China's policies, including: Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Gabon, Kuwait, Laos, Myanmar, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe.[102][103] However, in August 2019, Qatar withdrew its signature for the 12 July letter, with Qatari Ambassador to the UN Ali Al-Mansouri quoted as: "co-authorizing the aforementioned letter would compromise our foreign policy key priorities".[104]

Economy

The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Sunday market in Khotan

Xinjiang being traditionally agricultural region, is rich of the deposits of minerals and oil.

Nominal GDP was about 932.4 billion RMB (US$140 billion) as of 2015 with an average annual increase of 10.4% for the past four years,[105] due to discovery of the abundant reserves of coal, oil, gas as well as the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China.[106] Its per capita GDP for 2009 was 19,798 RMB (US$2,898), with a growth rate of 1.7%.[106] Southern Xinjiang, with 95% non-Han population, has an average per capita income half that of Xinjiang as a whole.[107]

In July 2010, China Daily reported that:

Local governments in China's 19 provinces and municipalities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Liaoning, are engaged in the commitment of "pairing assistance" support projects in Xinjiang to promote the development of agriculture, industry, technology, education and health services in the region.[108]

Agriculture and fishing

Main area is of irrigated agriculture. By 2015, the agricultural land area of the region is 631 thousand km2 or 63.1 million ha, of which 6.1 million ha is arable land.[109] In 2016, the total cultivated land rose to 6.2 million ha, with the crop production reaching 15.1 million tons.[110] Wheat was the main staple crop of the region, maize grown as well, millet found in the south, while only a few areas (in particular, Aksu) grew rice.[111]

Cotton became an important crop in several oases, notably Khotan, Yarkand, and Turpan by the late 19th century.[111] Sericulture is also practiced.[112] Xinjiang is the world's largest cotton exporter, producing 84% of Chinese cotton while the country provides 26% of global cotton export.[113]

Xinjiang is famous for its grapes, melons, pears, walnuts, particularly Hami melons and Turpan raisins.[citation needed] The region is also a leading source for tomato paste, which it supplies for international brands.[113]

The main livestock of the region have traditionally been sheep. Much of the region's pasture land is in its northern part, where more precipitation is available,[114] but there are mountain pastures throughout the region.

Due to the lack of access to the ocean, and limited amount of inland water, Xinjiang's fish resources are somewhat limited. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of fishing in Lake Ulungur and Lake Bosten and in the Irtysh River. A large number of fish ponds have been constructed since the 1970s, their total surface exceeding 10,000 hectares by the 1990s. In 2000, the total of 58,835 tons of fish was produced in Xinjiang, 85% of which came from aquaculture.[115]

In the past, the Lop Lake was known for its fisheries, and the area residents, for their fishing culture; now, due to the diversion of the waters of the Tarim River, the lake has dried out.

Mining and minerals

Xinjiang was known for producing salt, soda, borax, gold, jade in the 19th century.[116]

The oil and gas extraction industry in Aksu and Karamay is on the rise, with the West–East Gas Pipeline linking to Shanghai. The oil and petrochemical sector get up to 60 percent of Xinjiang's economy.[117] Containing over a fifth of China's coal, natural gas and oil resources, Xinjiang has the highest concentration of fossil fuel reserves of any region in the country.[118]

Foreign trade

Xinjiang's exports amounted to US$19.3 billion, while imports turned out to be US$2.9 billion in 2008. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and from Kazakhstan through Ala Pass. China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos.[119] Horgos is the largest "land port" in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang also opened its second border trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone.[120]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area[121]
  • Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation Area[122]
  • Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation Area[123]
  • Ürümqi Economic & Technological Development Zone is northwest of Ürümqi. It was approved in 1994 by the State Council as a national level economic and technological development zones. It is 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the Ürümqi International Airport, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the North Railway Station, and 10 km (6.2 mi) from the city center. Wu Chang Expressway and 312 National Road passes through the zone. The development has unique resources and geographical advantages. Xinjiang's vast land, rich in resources, borders eight countries. As the leading economic zone, it brings together the resources of Xinjiang's industrial development, capital, technology, information, personnel and other factors of production.[124]
  • Ürümqi Export Processing Zone is in Urumuqi Economic and Technology Development Zone. It was established in 2007 as a state-level export processing zone.[125]
  • Ürümqi New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, and it is the only high-tech development zone in Xinjiang, China. There are more than 3470 enterprises in the zone, of which 23 are Fortune 500 companies. It has a planned area of 9.8 km2 (3.8 sq mi), and it is divided into four zones. There are plans to expand the zone.[126]
  • Yining Border Economic Cooperation Area[127]

Culture

Demographics

Distribution of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Distribution of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
The languages of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
The languages of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Three Uyghur girls at a Sunday market in the oasis city Khotan
Three Uyghur girls at a Sunday market in the oasis city Khotan
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912[128] 2,098,000—    
1928[129] 2,552,000+21.6%
1936–37[130] 4,360,000+70.8%
1947[131] 4,047,000−7.2%
1954[132] 4,873,608+20.4%
1964[133] 7,270,067+49.2%
1982[134] 13,081,681+79.9%
1990[135] 15,155,778+15.9%
2000[136] 18,459,511+21.8%
2010[137] 21,813,334+18.2%

The earliest Tarim mummies, dated to 1800 BC, are of a Caucasoid physical type.[138] East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, while the Uyghur peoples appeared after the collapse of the Orkon Uyghur Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, round about 842 CE.[139][140]

Xinjiang Muslim Turkic peoples contain Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Kazakhs; Muslim Iranian peoples comprise Pamiris, Sarikolis/Wakhis (often conflated as Pamiris); Muslim Sino-Tibetan peoples are such as the Hui. Other PRC ethnic groups in the region are Hans, Mongols (Oirats, Daurs, Dongxiangs), Russians, Xibes, Manchus. Around 70,000 Russian immigrants were living in Xinjiang in 1945.[141]

The Han Chinese of Xinjiang arrived at different times, from different directions and social backgrounds: They are descendants of criminals and officials who had been exiled from China proper during the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the 19th centuries; descendants of families of military and civil officers from Hunan, Yunnan, Gansu and Manchuria; descendants of merchants from Shanxi, Tianjin, Hubei and Hunan and descendants of peasants who started immigrating into the region in 1776.[142]

Some Uyghur scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uyghurs and the pre-Turkic Tocharians (or Tokharians, whose language was Indo-European), and relatively fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them.

In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 1.09%, with 1.63% of birth rate and 0.54% mortality rate.

The Qing began a process of settling Han, Hui, and Uyghur settlers into Northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria) starting in the 18th century. At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui Chinese in northern Xinjiang and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang.[143] A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census. However, a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han had been restored by 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur.[144] Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang.[145] Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in southern Xinjiang oases (Tarim Basin) and only a few Uyghurs lived in northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria).[146] After 1831 the Qing permitted and encouraged Han Chinese migration into the Tarim basin in southern Xinjiang, although with very little success, and stationed permanent troops on the land there as well.[147] Political killings and expulsions of non Uyghur populations in the uprisings of the 1860s[147] and 1930s saw them experience a sharp decline as a percentage of the total population[148] though they rose once again in the periods of stability following 1880 (which saw Xinjiang increase its population from 1.2 million)[149][150] and 1949. From a low of 7% in 1953, the Han began to return to Xinjiang between then and 1964, where they comprised 33% of the population (54% Uyghur), similarly to Qing times. A decade later, at the beginning of the Chinese economic reform in 1978, the demographic balance was 46% Uyghur and 40% Han;[144] this has not changed drastically until the last census in 2000, with the Uyghur population reduced to 42%.[151] Military personnel are not counted and national minorities are undercounted in the Chinese census, as in most censuses.[152] While some of the shift has been attributed to an increased Han presence,[9] Uyghurs have also emigrated to other parts of China, where their numbers have increased steadily. Uyghur independence activists express concern over the Han population changing the Uyghur character of the region, though the Han and Hui Chinese mostly live in northern Xinjiang Dzungaria, and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan mountains (southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs account for about 90% of the population.[153]

In general, Uyghurs are the majority in southwestern Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu (about 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in those four prefectures), as well as Turpan prefecture in eastern Xinjiang. Han are the majority in eastern and northern Xinjiang (Dzungaria), including the cities of Ürümqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changjyi, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the cities of Kuitun), and Kumul. Kazakhs are mostly concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang. Kazakhs are the majority in the northernmost part of Xinjiang.

Ethnic groups in Xinjiang
根据2015年底人口抽查统计 [154]
Nationality Population Percentage
Uyghur 1130.33 46.42%
Han 861.10 38.99%
Kazakh 159.12 7.02%
Hui 101.58 4.54%
Kirghiz 20.22 0.88%
Mongols
Dongxiangs
Daurs
18.06 0.83%
Pamiris 5.01 0.21%
Xibe 4.32 0.20%
Manchu 27,515 0.11%
Tujia 15,787 0.086%
Uzbek 18,769 0.066%
Russian 1.18 0.048%
Miao 7,006 0.038%
Tibetan 6,153 0.033%
Zhuang 5,642 0.031%
Tatar 5,183 0.024%
Salar 3,762 0.020%
Other 129,190 0.600%
Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang by region (2000 census)[I]
P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly administered county-level city.[155]
Uyghurs (%) Han (%) Kazakhs (%) others (%)
Xinjiang 43.6 40.6 8.3 7.5
Ürümqi PLC 11.8 75.3 3.3 9.6
Karamay PLC 13.8 78.1 3.7 4.5
Turpan Prefecture 70.0 23.3 < 0.1 6.6
Kumul Prefecture 18.4 68.9 8.8 3.9
Changji AP + Wujiaqu DACLC 3.9 75.1 8.0 13.0
Bortala AP 12.5 67.2 9.1 11.1
Bayin'gholin AP 32.7 57.5 < 0.1 9.7
Aksu Prefecture + Aral DACLC 71.8 26.6 0.1 1.4
Kizilsu AP 64.0 6.4 < 0.1 29.6
Kashgar Prefecture + Tumushuke DACLC 89.3 9.2 < 0.1 1.5
Khotan Prefecture 96.4 3.3 < 0.1 0.2
Ili AP[note 3] 16.1 44.4 25.6 13.9
Kuitun DACLC 0.5 94.6 1.8 3.1
former Ili Prefecture 27.2 32.4 22.6 17.8
Tacheng Prefecture 4.1 58.6 24.2 13.1
Altay Prefecture 1.8 40.9 51.4 5.9
Shihezi DACLC 1.2 94.5 0.6 3.7
  1. ^ Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.

Vital statistics

Year[156] Average
population
Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate
(per 1000)
Crude death rate
(per 1000)
Natural change
(per 1000)
2011 22,090,000 14.99 4.42 10.57
2012 22,330,000 15.32 4.48 10.84
2013 22,640,000 15.84 4.92 10.92
2014 22,980,000 16.44 4.97 11.47
2015 23,600,000 15.59 4.51 11.08
2016 23,980,000 15.34 4.26 11.08
2017 24,450,000 15.88 4.48 11.40

Religion

Religion in Xinjiang (around 2010)

  Islam[157] (58%)

The major religions in Xinjiang are Islam among the Uyghurs and the Hui Chinese minority, while many of the Han Chinese practice Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. According to a demographic analysis of the year 2010, Muslims form 58% of the province's population.[157] Christianity in Xinjiang is the religion of 1% of the population according to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009.[158]

A majority of the Uyghur Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence or madhab. A minority of Shias, almost exclusively of the Nizari Ismaili (Seveners) rites are located in the higher mountains of Pamir and Tian Shan. In the western mountains (the Pamirs), almost the entire population of Pamiris, (Sarikolis and Wakhis) are Nizari Ismaili Shia.[9] In the north, in the Tian Shan, the Kyrgyz and Kazakhs are Sunni.

Afaq Khoja Mausoleum and Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar are most important Islamic Xinjiang sites. Emin Minaret in Turfan is a key Islamic site. Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves is a noticeable Buddhist site.

Media

The Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited operates the Urumqi People Broadcasting Station and the Xinjiang People Broadcasting Station, broadcasting in Mandarin, Uyghur, Kazakh and Mongolian.

In 1995, there were 50 minority-language newspapers published in Xinjiang, including the Qapqal News, the world's only Xibe-language newspaper.[159] The Xinjiang Economic Daily is considered one of China's most dynamic newspapers.[160]

For a time after the July 2009 riots, authorities placed restrictions on the internet and text messaging, gradually permitting access to state-controlled websites like Xinhua's,[161] until restoring Internet to the same level as the rest of China on May 14, 2010.[162][163][164]

As reported by the BBC News, "China strictly controls media access to Xinjiang so reports are difficult to verify."[165]

Sports

Xinjiang is home to the Xinjiang Guanghui Flying Tigers professional basketball team of the Chinese Basketball Association, and to Xinjiang Tianshan Leopard F.C., a football team that plays in China League One.

The capital, Ürümqi, is home to the Xinjiang University baseball team, an integrated Uyghur and Han group profiled in the documentary film Diamond in the Dunes.

Transportation

Roads

In 2008, according to the Xinjiang Transportation Network Plan, the government has focused construction on State Road 314, Alar-Hotan Desert Highway, State Road 218, Qingshui River Line-Yining Highway, and State Road 217, as well as other roads.

The construction of the first expressway in the mountainous area of Xinjiang began a new stage in its construction on July 24, 2007. The 56 km (35 mi) highway linking Sayram Lake and Guozi Valley in Northern Xinjiang area had cost 2.39 billion yuan. The expressway is designed to improve the speed of national highway 312 in northern Xinjiang. The project started in August 2006 and several stages have been fully operational since March 2007. Over 3,000 construction workers have been involved. The 700 m-long Guozi Valley Cable Bridge over the expressway is now currently being constructed, with the 24 main pile foundations already completed. Highway 312 national highway Xinjiang section, connects Xinjiang with China's east coast, central and western Asia, plus some parts of Europe. It is a key factor in Xinjiang's economic development. The population it covers is around 40% of the overall in Xinjiang, who contribute half of the GDP in the area.

The head of the Transport Department was quoted as saying that 24,800,000,000 RMB had been invested into Xinjiang's road network in 2010 alone and, by this time, the roads covered approximately 152,000 km (94,000 mi).[166]

Rail

Xinjiang's rail hub is Ürümqi. To the east, a conventional and a high-speed rail line runs through Turpan and Hami to Lanzhou in Gansu Province. A third outlet to the east connects Hami and Inner Mongolia.

To the west, the Northern Xinjiang runs along the northern footslopes of the Tian Shan range through Changji, Shihezi, Kuytun and Jinghe to the Kazakh border at Alashankou, where it links up with the Turkestan-Siberia Railway. Together, the Northern Xinjiang and the Lanzhou-Xinjiang lines form part of the Trans-Eurasian Continental Railway, which extends from Rotterdam, on the North Sea, to Lianyungang, on the East China Sea. The Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railway provides additional rail transport capacity to Jinghe, from which the Jinghe-Yining-Horgos Railway heads into the Ili River Valley to Yining, Huocheng, and Khorgos, a second rail border crossing with Kazakhstan. The Kuytun-Beitun Railway runs from Kuytun north into the Junggar Basin to Karamay and Beitun, near Altay.

In the south, the Southern Xinjiang Line from Turpan runs southwest along the southern footslopes of the Tian Shan into the Tarim Basin, with stops at Yanqi, Korla, Kuqa, Aksu, Maralbexi (Bachu), Artux, and Kashgar. From Kashgar, the Kashgar-Hotan Railway, follows the southern rim of the Tarim to Hotan, with stops at Shule, Akto, Yengisar, Shache (Yarkant), Yecheng (Karghilik), Moyu (Karakax).

The Ürümqi-Dzungaria Railway connects Ürümqi with coal fields in the eastern Junggar Basin. The Hami–Lop Nur Railway connects Hami with potassium salt mines in and around Lop Nur.

The Golmud-Korla Railway, under construction as of August 2016, would provide an outlet to Qinghai. Railways to Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan have been proposed.

East Turkestan independence movement

This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.

Some factions in Xinjiang province advocate establishing an independent country, which has caused tension and ethnic strife in the Xinjiang province.[167][168] The Xinjiang conflict[169] is an ongoing[170] separatist conflict in the northwestern part of China. The separatist movement claims that the region, which they view as their homeland and refer to as "East Turkestan", is not part of China, but was invaded by China in 1949 and has been under Chinese occupation since then. China asserts that the region has been part of China since ancient times.[171] The separatist movement is led by ethnically Uyghur Muslim underground organizations, most notably the East Turkestan independence movement, against the Chinese government. According to the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the two main sources for separatism in the Xinjiang Province are religion and ethnicity. Religiously, the Uyghur peoples of Xinjiang follow Islam, while in the large cities of Han China, the primary religions practiced are Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism or a combination of them. The other major difference and source of friction with eastern China is ethnicity. The Uyghurs are ethnically, linguistically, and culturally Turkic, a clear distinction from the Han and other ethnicities that are the majority in the eastern regions of China. Hence, there is a noticeable voice of ethnic Uyghurs who would like to separate their region from China. Ironically, the capital of Xinjiang, Ürümqi, was originally a Han and Hui (Tungan) city with few Uyghur people before recent Uyghur migration to the city.[172] In retaliation against separatists, China has engaged in "strike hard" campaigns since 1996.[173] On June 5, 2014, China sentenced nine persons to death for terrorist attacks. They were seeking to overthrow Chinese rule in Xinjiang, and re-establish an independent Uyghur state of East Turkestan.[174]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The imperial-era Chinese word gui 歸 is not descriptive, but normative: It is a term which seeks to justify new conquests by presenting them as a naturally appropriate "return." It does not indicate that the territory already had been conquered earlier. Thus "Xinjiang" was also used in many other places newly conquered, but never were ruled by Chinese empires before, including in what is now Southern China.[17]
  2. ^ Bartholemew, the Scottish cartographer, as late as 1912 was using the term "Chinese Turkestan" in their world atlas.[19]
  3. ^ Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture is composed of Kuitun DACLC, Tacheng Prefecture, Aletai Prefecture, as well as former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by Ili AP.

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b 6-1 自然资源划 [6-1 Natural Resources] (in Chinese). Statistics Bureau of Xinjiang. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  2. ^ Mackerras, Colin; Yorke, Amanda (1991). The Cambridge handbook of contemporary China. Cambridge University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-521-38755-2. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
  3. ^ Susan M. Walcott; Corey Johnson (1 November 2013). "Where Inner Asia Meets Outer China: The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China". Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China to the Caspian Sea. Routledge. pp. 64–65.
  4. ^ "National Data". Retrieved 6 May 2015.[dead link]
  5. ^ "China". Ethnologue.
  6. ^ 新疆维吾尔自治区2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Xinjiang on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang. 25 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  7. ^ United Nations Development Program (2013). China Human Development Report 2013: Sustainable and Liveable Cities: Toward Ecological Urbanisation (PDF). Beijing: Translation and Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-7-5001-3754-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  8. ^ "______". The Government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "Regions and territories: Xinjiang". BBC News. 7 May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011.
  10. ^ "Turkestan". Catholic Encyclopedia. XV. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1912. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  11. ^ a b 新疆绿洲面积已从4.3%增至9.7% [Xinjiang oasis area has increased from 4.3% to 9.7%]. 人民网 [People's Network] (in Chinese). 3 August 2015. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  12. ^ Tiezzi, Shannonb (October 3, 2015). "China's 'Protracted War' in Xinjiang". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  13. ^ "East Turkestan: Chinese Authorities Confiscate Passports Amid Security Crackdown". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO). October 21, 2016. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  14. ^ Tyler (2004), p. 3.
  15. ^ Hill (2009), pp. xviii, 60.
  16. ^ Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: trade, travel, war and faith. Serindia Publications. p. 27.
  17. ^ Weinstein (2013), p. 4.
  18. ^ "Cultivating and Guarding the West Regions: the Establishment of Xinjiang Province" (in Chinese). China Central Television. December 6, 2004. Archived from the original on November 9, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  19. ^ Bellér-Hann (2007), p. 34.
  20. ^ a b Bovingdon (2010), p. 199.
  21. ^ Liu & Faure (1996), p. 69.
  22. ^ Liu & Faure (1996), p. 70.
  23. ^ Liu & Faure (1996), p. 67.
  24. ^ Liu & Faure (1996), p. 77.
  25. ^ Liu & Faure (1996), p. 78.
  26. ^ Chunxiang Li, Hongjie Li, Yinqiu Cui, Chengzhi Xie, Dawei Cai, Wenying Li, Victor H Mair, Zhi Xu, Quanchao Zhang, Idelis Abuduresule, Li Jin, Hong Zhu and Hui Zhou (2010). "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age". BMC Biology. 8 (15). doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-15. PMC 2838831. PMID 20163704.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ a b Tremblay, Xavier (2007). "The Spread of Buddhism in Serindia: Buddhism Among Iranians, Tocharians and Turks before the 13th Century". In Ann Heirman & Stephan Peter Bumbacker (eds.). The Spread of Buddhism. Leiden & Boston: Koninklijke Brill. p. 77. ISBN 978-90-04-15830-6.
  28. ^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Les Saces, ISBN 2-87772-337-2, p. 59.
  29. ^ Dillon, Michael (1998). China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-0439-2.
  30. ^ Liu (2001), pp. 267–268.
  31. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2007). "Silk Road, North China". The Megalithic Portal. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  32. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2010). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-521-12433-1.
  33. ^ Twitchett, Denis; Wechsler, Howard J. (1979). "Kao-tsung (reign 649-83) and the Empress Wu: The Inheritor and the Usurper". In Denis Twitchett; John Fairbank (eds.). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9.
  34. ^ Skaff, Jonathan Karem (2009). Nicola Di Cosmo (ed.). Military Culture in Imperial China. Harvard University Press. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-0-674-03109-8.
  35. ^ Soucek, Svatopluk (2000). "Chapter 5 – The Qarakhanids". A history of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65704-4.
  36. ^ The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World, pp. 94
  37. ^ Millward (2007), p. 15.
  38. ^ Millward (2007), p. 16.
  39. ^ Millward (2007), p. 55.
  40. ^ Millward (2007), p. 43.
  41. ^ Carter Vaughn Findley (11 November 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-19-988425-4.
  42. ^ Khan, Razib (28 March 2008). "Uyghurs are hybrids". Discover Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  43. ^ Khan, Razib (22 September 2009). "Yes, Uyghurs are a new hybrid population". Discover Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  44. ^ Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 677.
  45. ^ Millward (2007), p. 98.
  46. ^ Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Sheng Wu Ji, vol. 4.
  47. ^ Chu, Wen-Djang (1966). The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China 1862–1878. Mouton & co.. p. 1.
  48. ^ Tyler (2004), p. 55.
  49. ^ Millward (2007), p. 113.
  50. ^ Martin (1847), p. 21.
  51. ^ Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864. Stanford University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0804797927.
  52. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0231139243.
  53. ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0231139243.
  54. ^ Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864. Stanford University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 0804797927.
  55. ^ Mesny (1905), p. 5.
  56. ^ Tyler (2004), p. 61.
  57. ^ 从 斌静案 看清代驻疆官员与新疆的稳定 [Viewing the Stability of Xinjiang Officials and Xinjiang in the Case of Bin Jing] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  58. ^ Millward (2007), p. 151.
  59. ^ Falkenheim, Victor C.; Hsieh, Chiao-Min (9 August 2018) [Online article added July 26, 1999]. "Xinjiang: autonomous region, China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  60. ^ a b R. Michael Feener, "Islam in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives", ABC-CLIO, 2004, ISBN 1-57607-516-8
  61. ^ a b c "Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region". cfr.org. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  62. ^ Millward (2007), p. 24.
  63. ^ Jeremy Brown; Paul Pickowicz, eds. (2010). Dilemmas of Victory. Harvard University Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-6740-4702-0.
  64. ^ Amy Goodman (8 July 2009). "Uyghur Protests Widen as Xinjiang Unrest Flares". Axis of Logic. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  65. ^ Bovingdon (2010), pp. 43–46.
  66. ^ Hopper & Webber (2009), p. 176.
  67. ^ Guo & Guo (2007), p. 220.
  68. ^ Guo & Hickey (2009), p. 164.
  69. ^ Howell (2009), p. 37.
  70. ^ Hopper & Webber (2009), pp. 173–175.
  71. ^ Hopper & Webber (2009), pp. 178–179.
  72. ^ Hopper & Webber (2009), p. 184.
  73. ^ Hopper & Webber (2009), pp. 187–188.
  74. ^ Bovingdon (2010), p. 11.
  75. ^ Rudelson, Justin Ben-Adam (16 February 2000). "Uyghur "separatism": China's policies in Xinjiang fuel dissent". Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
  76. ^ Gunaratna, Rohan; Pereire, Kenneth George (2006). "An al-Qaeda associate group operating in China?" (PDF). China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly. 4 (2): 59. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2011. Since the Ghulja Incident, numerous attacks including attacks on buses, clashes between ETIM militants and Chinese security forces, assassination attempts, attempts to attack Chinese key installations and government buildings have taken place, though many cases go unreported.
  77. ^ "Chinese police destroy terrorist camp in Xinjiang, one policeman killed". CCTV International. 1 October 2007. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  78. ^ Elizabeth Van Wie Davis, "China confronts its Uyghur threat Archived May 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine," Asia Times Online, April 18, 2008.
  79. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (5 August 2008). "Ambush in China Raises Concerns as Olympics Near". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  80. ^ "Waterhouse Caulfield Cup breakthrough". Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  81. ^ "VI. Progress in Education, Science and Technology, Culture and Health Work". History and Development of Xinjiang. State Council of the People's Republic of China. 26 May 2003. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  82. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs. "Archived copy" 2014年12月中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 [Administrative code of the county or above in the People's Republic of China in December 2014] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  83. ^ Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. Archived copy深圳统计年鉴2014 [Shenzhen Statistical Yearbook 2014] (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  84. ^ 中国2010年人口普查分乡, 镇, 街道资料 [China 2010 Census by Country, Town, Street Information] (in Chinese). Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和就业统计司编 [Department of Population and Employment Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: Z Hongguo Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2. OCLC 992517929.CS1 maint: others (link)
  85. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 中国民政统计年鉴2014 [China Civil Affairs Statistics Yearbook 2014] (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  86. ^ a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.CS1 maint: others (link)
  87. ^ "DCP: Geographic Center of Asia (visit #1)". www.confluence.org. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  88. ^ "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government". Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
  89. ^ Han, Enze (2010). "Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China". International Journal of Conflict and Violence. 4 (2): 251. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  90. ^ Demick, Barbara (31 March 2009). "Clocks square off in China's far west". Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012 – via LA Times.
  91. ^ "Archived copy" 吐鲁番 – 气象数据 – 中国天气网. www.weather.com.cn. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  92. ^ Gorbunov, A.P. (1993), "Geocryology in Mt. Tianshan", PERMAFROST: Sixth International Conference. Proceedings. July 5–9, Beijing, China, 2, South China University of Technology Press, pp. 1105–1107, ISBN 978-7-5623-0484-5
  93. ^ "China Promises Unfulfilled, An Assessment of China's National Human Rights Action Plan" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  94. ^ "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". The Guardian. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  95. ^ "Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture". The Washington Post. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  96. ^ "China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  97. ^ Cite error: The named reference cnn.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  98. ^ Ramzy, Austin; Buckley, Chris (16 November 2019). "'Absolutely No Mercy': Leaked Files Expose How China Organized Mass Detentions of Muslims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  99. ^ Kate O’Keeffe and Katy Stech Ferek (14 November 2019). "Stop Calling China's Xi Jinping 'President,' U.S. Panel Says". The Wall Street Journal.
  100. ^ Sudworth, John (24 October 2018). "China's hidden camps". BBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  101. ^ Movius, Lisa. "'Hundreds' of cultural figures caught up in China's Uyghur persecution". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  102. ^ "37 countries rally around China at top UN human rights body". Associated Press. 12 July 2019.
  103. ^ "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019.
  104. ^ "Qatar refuses to certify China's human rights record on treatment of Uighur Muslims". The Print. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  105. ^ "Bulletin for the economy and society development in 2015". Retrieved 6 May 2010.
  106. ^ a b "Xinjiang Province: Economic News and Statistics for Xinjiang's Economy". Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  107. ^ Millward (2007), p. 305.
  108. ^ "Efforts to boost 'leapfrog development' in Xinjiang". China Daily / Xinhua. July 5, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  109. ^ "Archived copy" 12–13 主要年份农作物播种面积 [12–13 Sown Area of Crops in Major Years] (in Chinese). Statistics Bureau of Xinjiang. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  110. ^ "Archived copy" 新疆维吾尔自治区2016年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communique of 2016 National Economic and Social Development of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region] (in Chinese). Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region People's Government. 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  111. ^ a b Bellér-Hann (2008), pp. 112–113.
  112. ^ Bellér-Hann (2008), p. 152.
  113. ^ a b Caster, Michael (October 27, 2019). "It's time to boycott any company doing business in Xinjiang". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
  114. ^ Bellér-Hann (2008), p. 37.
  115. ^ Guo Yan, Fisheries Development in Xinjiang, China Archived October 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ Mesny (1899), p. 386.
  117. ^ Alain Charles (2005). The China Business Handbook (8th ed.). ISBN 978-0-9512512-8-7.
  118. ^ Jinhui Duan; Shuying Wei; Ming Zeng; Yanfang Ju (1 January 2016). "The Energy Industry in Xinjiang, China: Potential, Problems, and Solutions". Power Mag. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  119. ^ "Work on free trade zone on the agenda". People's Daily Online. 2 November 2004. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  120. ^ "Xinjiang to open 2nd border trade market to Kazakhstan". Xinhua. 12 December 2006. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  121. ^ "RightSite.asia – Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area". Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  122. ^ "RightSite.asia – Shihezi Border Economic Cooperation Area". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  123. ^ "RightSite.asia – Tacheng Border Economic Cooperation Area". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  124. ^ "RightSite.asia | Ürümqi Economic & Technological Development Zone". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  125. ^ "RightSite.asia | Ürümqi Export Processing Zone". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  126. ^ "RightSite.asia | Urumuqi Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  127. ^ "RightSite.asia | Yining Border Economic Cooperation Area". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  128. ^ "Archived copy" 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  129. ^ "Archived copy" 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  130. ^ "Archived copy" 1936–37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  131. ^ "Archived copy" 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  132. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
  133. ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012.
  134. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
  135. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012.
  136. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012.
  137. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
  138. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Mair, Victor H. (2000). "The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West". London: Thames & Hudson: 237. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  139. ^ A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's Celtic mummies Archived April 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Independent. August 28, 2006.
  140. ^ Wong, Edward. "Rumbles on the Rim of China's Empire". Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  141. ^ Ginsburgs, George (1983). The Citizenship Law of the USSR. BRILL. p. 309. ISBN 978-90-247-2863-3.
  142. ^ Bellér-Hann (2008), pp. 51–52.
  143. ^ Millward (2007), p. 306.
  144. ^ a b Toops, Stanley (May 2004). "Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949" (PDF). East-West Center Washington Working Papers. East–West Center (1): 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  145. ^ Starr (2004), p. 243.
  146. ^ Millward (2007), p. 104.
  147. ^ a b Millward (2007), p. 105.
  148. ^ Bellér-Hann (2008), p. 52.
  149. ^ Mesny (1896), p. 272.
  150. ^ Mesny (1899), p. 485.
  151. ^ "China: Human Rights Concerns in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch Backgrounder. Human Rights Watch. October 2001. Archived from the original on November 12, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  152. ^ Starr (2004), p. 242.
  153. ^ Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司); Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. (2003). 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料 [Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China] (in Chinese). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities PublishingHouse. ISBN 978-7-105-05425-1. OCLC 54494505.
  154. ^ http://www.xjtj.gov.cn/sjcx/tjnj_3415/2016xjtjnj/rkjy/201707/t20170714_539451.html/. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  155. ^ 新疆公布第六次人口普查数据:全区常住人口2181万 – 新疆天山网 Archived February 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Tianshannet.com (May 6, 2011). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  156. ^ Source: China Statistical Yearbook
  157. ^ a b Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29 Archived April 27, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
  158. ^ a b Wang, Xiuhua (2015). Explaining Christianity in China: Why a Foreign Religion has Taken Root in Unfertile Ground (PDF) (PhD thesis). p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2015.
  159. ^ "News Media for Ethnic Minorities in China". Xinhua News. 25 October 1995. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  160. ^ Hathaway, Tim (9 November 2007). "A journalist in China: Tim Hathaway writes about his experience reporting and writing for state-run 'Xinjiang Economic Daily'". AsiaMedia. UCLA Asia Institute. Archived from the original on 18 July 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2009.
  161. ^ Grammaticas, Damian (11 February 2010). "Trekking 1,000km in China for e-mail". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  162. ^ "Archived copy" 新疆互联网业务全面恢复 [Xinjiang internet service completely restored]. Tianshan Net (in Chinese). May 14, 2010. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  163. ^ "Archived copy" 新疆"7-5"事件后全面恢复互联网业务 [After the 'July 5' riots, Xinjiang completely restores Internet service]. news.163.com (in Chinese). 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  164. ^ Summers, Josh (May 14, 2010). "Xinjiang Internet restored after 10 months". FarWestChina blog. Archived from the original on May 17, 2010. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  165. ^ "Chinese forces kill 28 people 'responsible for Xinjiang mine attack'". BBC News. 20 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  166. ^ Su Qingxia (苏清霞), ed. (March 3, 2011). "Archived copy" 祖丽菲娅·阿不都卡德尔代表:见证新疆交通事业的日益腾飞 [Representative Zulfiya Abdiqadir: evidence that Xinjiang's transport projects are developing more with each passing day]. Tianshan Net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  167. ^ Deaths From Clashes in China's Xinjiang Area Rises to 35 Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
  168. ^ The Uyghurs in Xinjiang – The Malaise Grows Archived May 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Chinaperspectives.revues.org. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
  169. ^ The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language, Policy, and Political Discourse Archived October 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  170. ^ "Uyghur Separatist Conflict". Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  171. ^ History and Development of Xinjiang Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
  172. ^ Millward (2007), pp. 77–78, 133–134.
  173. ^ Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China Archived December 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  174. ^ Bodeen, Christopher (5 June 2014). "China Sentences 9 Persons to Death for Xinjiang Attacks". Time. Xinjiang. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.

Sources

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 7 December 2019, at 23:13
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.