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Voronezh Oblast

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Voronezh Oblast
Воронежская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 51°03′N 40°09′E / 51.050°N 40.150°E / 51.050; 40.150
Political status
CountryRussia
Federal districtCentral[1]
Economic regionCentral Black Earth[2]
EstablishedJune 13, 1934[3]
Oblast dayJune 13[3]
Administrative centerVoronezh
Government (as of March 2011)
 • Governor[5]Alexander Gusev[4]
 • LegislatureOblast Duma[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 • Total52,400 km2 (20,200 sq mi)
Area rank51st
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total2,335,380
 • Rank22nd
 • Density[8]44.57/km2 (115.4/sq mi)
 • Urban63.7%
 • Rural36.3%
Population (January 2015 est.)
 • Total2,331,100[9]
Time zone(s)MSK (UTC+03:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2RU-VOR
License plates36
Official languagesRussian[11]
Official website

Voronezh Oblast (Russian: Воро́нежская о́бласть, Voronezhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh. Its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census.[7]

Voronezh is the oblast in the European Russia. The oblast is 22nd largest by population and 51st by area. The oblast is bordered by Belgorod Oblast at the west, Rostov Oblast at the south-east, Lipetsk Oblast at the north, Tambov Oblast at the north-east, Volgograd Oblast at the east, Kursk Oblast at the north-west and Saratov Oblast at the north-eastern side. Voronezh also had the international border with Ukraine (Luhansk Oblast) at the western side.The largest and most populous city is Voronezh with 1,032,895 inhabitants in 2010.

Voronezh oblast totally lie in the European Russia, it's half of the land is covered by mountains.


Voronezh Oblast is the birthplace of Pavel Cherenkov, co-recipient of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Timelapse Кривоборье Воронежская область / Timelapse Crimobile Voronezh oblast
  • Voronezh - Russia. HD Travel.
  • 26000 ha zonnebloemen oogsten bij Agrokultura Voronezh Russia, film Jan Rijpma©

Transcription

Contents

Geography

Voronezh Oblast borders internally with Belgorod Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast and Rostov Oblast and internationally with Ukraine.

Voronezh Oblast is located in the central belt of the European part of Russia, in a very advantageous strategic location, transport links to the site going to the industrial regions of Russia. Within the radius (12 hours of driving 80 km/h) 960 kilometers around Voronezh more than 50% of the population Russia, and 40% in Ukraine live.[citation needed]

The area of the region - 52.4 thousand km2, which is about one third of the whole area of Central Black Earth Region.[citation needed] The length of the region from north to south - 277.5 km, and from west to east - 352 km. Much of the area is steppe, among the predominant soil fertile soil black earth.

Voronezh oblast had the coordinates of 51°03'N 40°09'E which makes Voronezh triangular in shape. Voronezh is the 51st largest state in Russia with the area of 52,400 km² (20,200 sq mi).

Voronezh is also famous for its Garden Squares in which Brimansky garden,Bunin Garden Square, Garden Square of house of officers, Koltsovsky garden Square, Ratny Garden Square and Severny Garden Square are most famous to visit. As well as there are also many famous parks in the oblast which are one of the most famous parks in the Post-Soviet states.

There are also more than 30 protected areas in the Voronezh Oblast.



Main rivers

Don River, Voronezh Oblast
Don River, Voronezh Oblast

The oblast has 738 lakes and ponds in 2408, in 1343 the river flows over 10 km long. The main river is the Don, 530 of its 1,870 km flows through the area, forming a drainage area of 422,000 square kilometers.

Climate

The climate in the region is temperate continental, with an average January temperatures of −4.5 °C (23.9 °F), and with an average July temperatures of +25 to +30 °C (77 to 86 °F). Average annual temperature varies from +5 °C (41 °F) in the north to +6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in the south. Precipitation varies from 600 millimeters (24 in) in the northwest to 450 millimeters (18 in) in the southeast.

History

see also: History of the Voronezh Oblast

Several native Russian  started to live in the area modern day known as Voronezh Oblast. There were only just few tribes left when the Imperial Russian army entered the area. The area was first conquer by the southern Slavs, later Mongols and Russians, the inhabitants were already Russians but they were native and had a different culture. After the Voronezh Kingdom was annexed by the Russian Empire, many citizens stated settling in the region in the late 17th century. According to some of the local citizens in the 19th century saying that area at the bank of the Voronezh River is fictional. Many new areas were also discovered and Russians made the new Transport systems.

The Oblast achieve it's modern name in the late 18th century when Governor of Voronezh ask the Emperor to change the name on various basis, which are still unknown. The Oblast achieve it's name from the Voronezh River which is one of the most beautiful and Developed rivers in the world.

After the better transport system was introduced in 18th century, the population of the region started to grow heavily and the Imperial Government established the Voronezh Oblast, but not how the modern Voronezh looks like. Unlike the neighbor natural resources rich region Kursk, Voronezh was also rich in Gold, Diamond and Natural gas, which was famous in the Eastern European countries. Once the government started expedition in the banks of the Voronezh River the government made it a world's first protected area in 1806.

After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, the new provisional government made it a part of the Greater Kursk krai.

After the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922, the modern day Voronezh Oblast was established on 1934, due to division of the Greater Kursk krai in 1934, during the rule of Joseph Stalin. It became one of a Oblasts of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Communist Party of Voronezh was the responsible for the region activities.

In 1941, the Oblast governor Petr Usuyevich give right to women to vote in the communist party elections in the region. In addition the Voronezh government also welcomes the women politics. Many womens also granted the general position in the government. Due the history of it's human rights the Oblast nickname is “the Equal territory” which was officially granted in 2002.

The construction of Voronezh specially had a article about the women rights in the region.

After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the regional government was disbanded and was recovered in 1993 and the new constitution was adopted, but the human rights was still having a special status in the constitution. The Voronezh became a first level administrative division of the Russian Federation in 1993 and was also admitted to the Federation Council.

Administrative Divisions

Voronezh Oblast map
Voronezh Oblast map

Economy

The structure of Voronezh Oblast the industrial-agrarian. As part of the industry is dominated by mechanical engineering, power systems engineering, food industry, processing industry of agricultural raw materials. They account for 4/5 of the total volume of industrial output. Industry specialization of the region is the food industry (27%), second place is occupied by engineering and metalworking (23%), third place - power (18%).

Industry of the region specializes in the production of machine tools, oil and gas equipment, rocket engines, metal bridge structures, press-forging and mining equipment, electronic equipment, passenger aircraft Airbus.

The largest companies in the region include Sozvezdie (revenues of $414.81 million in 2017), Molvest (dairy industry; $293.11 million), Voronezhsintezkauchuk (Sibur group; $186.84 million), the Russian branch of COFCO Group ($161.12 million).[12]

Agriculture

A lake near Voronezh
A lake near Voronezh

Voronezh Oblast is a major supplier of agricultural products. For the first time in the history of farming region in 2011 produced record crops: sugar beet (factory) - 6 million. 992 thousand. Tons (3.9 times more than in 2010) and sunflower - 1 million. 002 thousand tons (2, 4 times more than in 2010) 2014 Voronezh Oblast ranked first in Russia in terms of gross harvest of potatoes, in farms of all categories have been collected 1.757 million tons of potatoes.

In general, the profile of agriculture - with crops of sunflowers and grain crops, dairy and beef cattle, pigs. Beet, sugar beet industry in Voronezh Oblast in terms of gross production of sugar beets and making sugar beet is one of the largest in the country. In 2014, sugar mills were produced 495.1 ths. tons of sugar.

Milk production in Voronezh Oblast in 2013 increased by 1.8% - up to 755,700. tons. In 2014, it increased by 4.2% to ↗788 000 tons, according to this indicator Voronezh Oblast takes first place in the Central Federal District. Milk yield per cow dairy herd in 2014 increased by 10.9% and amounted to 5545 kg.

Sights

The cave church Sicilian Mother of God in the Big Divah Museum, Reserve Divnogorie, Liski district of Voronezh region
The cave church Sicilian Mother of God in the Big Divah Museum, Reserve Divnogorie, Liski district of Voronezh region

Kostyonki, which is located within the Voronezh Oblast, is known for high concentration of cultural remains of anatomically modern humans from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic era. The first and oldest camp rights in Europe.[clarification needed] A layer of Campanian volcanic ash from about 40,000 years ago has been found above some of the finds, showing that "unknown humans" inhabited the site before this. The earliest directly dated human remains from this site are dated to 32,600 ± 1,100 14C years and consist of tibia and fibula, with traits classifying the bones to European early modern humans.

In 2009, DNA was extracted from the remains of a male hunter-gatherer who lived 40,000 years BP and died aged 20–25. His maternal lineage was found to be U2. He was buried in an oval pit in a crouched position and covered with red ochre.

Politics

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Voronezh CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Voronezh Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Voronezh Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Demographics

Population: 2,335,380 (2010 Census);[7] 2,378,803 (2002 Census);[13] 2,469,766 (1989 Census).[14]

  • Births (2012): 25 374 (Birth rate: 10.9)
  • Deaths (2012): 36 174 (Death rate: 15.6)[15]
  • Total fertility rate:[16]

2009 - 1.37 | 2010 - 1.36 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.45 | 2013 - 1.44 | 2014 - 1.47 | 2015 - 1.52 | 2016 - 1.48(e)

Ethnic composition (2010):[7]

  • Russians - 95.5%
  • Ukrainians - 1.9%
  • Armenians - 0.5%
  • Romani people - 0.2%
  • Others - 1.9%
  • 110,749 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[17]

Settlements

According to the Russian Bureau Cencus the population of Voronezh in 2017 is 4,780,007, which is the big change since the 2010 census. The center of the population is the Voronezh, capital of the Oblast.

According to the 2014 census, 92.7% where Russians, 2.7% where Ukrainian, 1.6% Chechen, 1.0% Romani people and 0.1% were Armenian. This shows a big change since the 2010 census.

Religion

Religion in Voronezh Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[18][19]
Russian Orthodoxy
62%
Other Orthodox
0.7%
Other Christians
3.8%
Spiritual but not religious
21.5%
Atheism and irreligion
6%
Other and undeclared
6%

According to a 2012 survey[18] 62% of the population of Voronezh Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, and 3.4% are unaffiliated Christians. In addition, 21.5% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist, and 7.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[18]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Charter of Voronezh Oblast, Article 1
  4. ^ Official website of Voronezh Oblast. Alexey Vasilyevich Gordeyev, Governor of Voronezh Oblast (in Russian)
  5. ^ a b Charter of Voronezh Oblast, Article 25
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  7. ^ a b c d ‹See Tfd›Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Voronezh Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Воронежской области на 1 января 2015 года (in Russian)
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ "Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО". СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  13. ^ ‹See Tfd›Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. ^ ‹See Tfd›"Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  16. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  17. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  18. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  19. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

Sources

  • Воронежская областная Дума. 7 июня 2006 г. «Устав Воронежской области», в ред. Закона №96-ОЗ от 5 июня 2015 г. «О поправках к Уставу Воронежской области». Вступил в силу 20 июня 2006 г. Опубликован: "Коммуна", №87–88, 10 июня 2006 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. June 7, 2006 Charter of Voronezh Oblast, as amended by the Law #96-OZ of June 5, 2015 On the Amendments to the Charter of Voronezh Oblast. Effective as of June 20, 2006.).

External links

This page was last edited on 5 December 2018, at 06:10
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