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Federal subjects of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Federal subjects
Субъекты федерации  (Russian)
Map of federal subjects of Russia 2014, disputed Crimea.svg
Crimean peninsula, internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, shown with diagonal stripes.
  Oblasts (provinces)
  Republics
  Krais (territories)
  Autonomous Okrugs (with a substantial ethnic minority)
  Federal cities
  Autonomous Oblast
CategoryFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic
Location Russian Federation
Created
  • 12 December 1993
Number85
Populations39,000 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 10,392,000 (Moscow)
Areas864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)
Government
Subdivisions

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, romanizedsubyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации, romanizedsubyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea,  are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries.

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[1] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.[2][3]

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.[1] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny dogovor),[4] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on 25 December 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (the dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

Terminology

An official government translation of the constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[1] A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".[5]

Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject".[6] This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[7]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian English translations of the constitution ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
(Cyrillic) (Latin) Official[1] Unofficial[5]
субъект Российской Федерации sub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika republic republic republic
2 край kray


kray territory administrative territory
3 область oblastʹ oblast region administrative region
3 город федерального значения gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblastʹ autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyy okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district

Types

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types.

Legend Description
  46 oblasts
The most common type, with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
  22 republics
Nominally autonomous,[8][9] each with its own constitution, language, and legislature, but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Each is home to a specific ethnic minority.
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", or "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions.
The only one is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

List

Map
Code Name Capital/Administrative centre[a] Flag Coat
of arms
Type Federal district Economic region Area
(km2)[10]
Population
[11]
Population density (km2) Year established
01 Adygea, Republic of Maykop
Flag of Adygea.svg
Coat of arms of Adygea.svg
republic Southern North Caucasus 7,600 452,000 58.83 1922
02 Bashkortostan, Republic of Ufa
Flag of Bashkortostan.svg
Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan (Better Colors).png
republic Volga Ural 143,600 4,097,000 28.58 1919
03 Buryatia, Republic of Ulan-Ude
Flag of Buryatia.svg
Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg
republic Far Eastern East Siberian 351,300 1,003,000 2.79 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk
Flag of Altai Republic.svg
Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg
republic Siberian West Siberian 92,600 196,000 2.19 1922
05 Dagestan, Republic of Makhachkala
Flag of Dagestan.svg
Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,300 2,586,000 51.22 1921
06 Ingushetia, Republic of Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia.svg
Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000 472,000 116.82 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik
Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg
Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500 897,000 72.12 1936
08 Kalmykia, Republic of Elista
Flag of Kalmykia.svg
Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg
republic Southern Volga 76,100 301,000 3.84 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk
Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg
Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,109 444,000 31.17 1957
10 Karelia, Republic of Petrozavodsk
Flag of Karelia.svg
Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg
republic Northwestern Northern 172,400 712,000 4.15 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar
Flag of Komi.svg
Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg
republic Northwestern Northern 415,900 1,024,000 2.45 1921
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola
Flag of Mari El.svg
Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg
republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200 721,000 31.38 1920
13 Mordovia, Republic of Saransk
Flag of Mordovia.svg
Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg
republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200 894,000 33.92 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk
Flag of Sakha.svg
Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg
republic Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200 957,000 0.31 1922
15 North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Vladikavkaz
Flag of North Ossetia.svg
Wapen Ossetien.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000 698,000 88.78 1924
16 Tatarstan, Republic of Kazan
Flag of Tatarstan.svg
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg
republic Volga Volga 68,000 3,785,000 55.58 1920
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl
Flag of Tuva.svg
Coat of arms of Tuva.svg
republic Siberian East Siberian 170,500 296,000 1.79 1944
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk
Flag of Udmurtia.svg
Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg
republic Volga Ural 42,100 1,578,000 37.30 1920
19 Khakassia, Republic of Abakan
Flag of Khakassia.svg
Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg
republic Siberian East Siberian 61,900 553,000 8.82 1930
20 Chechen Republic Grozny
Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg
Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg
republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,300 1,098,000 72.14 1991
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary
Flag of Chuvashia.svg
Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg
republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,318,000 71.79 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul
Flag of Altai Krai.svg
Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg
krai Siberian West Siberian 169,100 2,599,000 15.42 1937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar
Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg
krai Southern North Caucasus 76,000 5,118,000 67.44 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk
Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg
krai Siberian East Siberian 2,339,700 2,974,000 1.27 1934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok
Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg
krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,900 2,084,000 12.48 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol
Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg
krai North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,500 2,744,000 41.13 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk
Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Khabarovsk Krai.svg
krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,600 1,443,000 1.82 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk
Flag of Amur Oblast.svg
Amurskaja obl coa 2008.png
oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700 893,000 2.48 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk
Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg
oblast Northwestern Northern 587,400 1,342,000 2.28 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan
Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg
oblast Southern Volga 44,100 999,000 22.80 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod
New Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg
New Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central Black Earth 27,100 1,519,000 55.78 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk
Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 34,900 1,386,000 39.51 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir
Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 29,000 1,515,000 52.55 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd
Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg
oblast Southern Volga 113,900 2,703,000 23.70 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg
oblast Northwestern Northern 145,700 1,276,000 8.71 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh
Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central Black Earth 52,400 2,375,000 45.40 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo
Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 21,800 1,142,000 52.68 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk
Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Irkutsk Oblast.svg
oblast Siberian East Siberian 767,900 2,588,000 3.36 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad
Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg
oblast Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100 961,000 63.26 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga
Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 29,900 1,048,000 34.84 1944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg
Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg
krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 481,000 358,801 0.76 2007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo
Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg
oblast Siberian West Siberian 95,500 2,903,000 30.36 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov
Flag of Kirov Region.svg
Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg
oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,497,000 12.45 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma
Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 60,100 742,000 12.26 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan
Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg
oblast Ural Ural 71,000 1,030,000 14.36 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk
Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg
oblast Central Central Black Earth 29,800 1,244,000 41.45 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[b]
Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg
oblast Northwestern Northwestern 84,500 1,676,000 19.75 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk
Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg
oblast Central Central Black Earth 24,100 1,207,000 50.35 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan
Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg
oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400 175,000 0.40 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[c]
Flag of Moscow oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Moscow Oblast (large).svg
oblast Central Central 44,300[12] 6,611,000 149.40 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk
Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg
Герб Мурманской области.svg
oblast Northwestern Northern 144,900 901,000 6.16 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod
Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg
Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg
oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,532,000 45.83 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod
Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.png
oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 706,000 12.56 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk
Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg
oblast Siberian West Siberian 178,200 2,686,000 15.11 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk
Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Omsk Oblast.svg
oblast Siberian West Siberian 139,700 2,085,000 14.88 1934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg
Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg
oblast Volga Ural 124,000 2,172,000 17.58 1934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol
Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg
oblast Central Central 24,700 855,000 34.83 1937
58 Penza Oblast Penza
Flag of Penza Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Penza Oblast.svg
oblast Volga Volga 43,200 1,463,000 33.63 1939
59 Perm Krai Perm
Flag of Perm Krai.svg
Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg
krai Volga Ural 160,600 2,826,000 17.56 2005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov
Flag of Pskov Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Pskov Oblast.svg
oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 767,000 13.76 1944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don
Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Rostov Oblast.svg
oblast Southern North Caucasus 100,800 4,396,000 43.69 1937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan
Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Ryazan Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 39,600 1,235,000 31.01 1937
63 Samara Oblast Samara
Flag of Samara Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Samara Oblast.svg
oblast Volga Volga 53,600 3,233,000 60.44 1928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov
Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg
oblast Volga Volga 100,200 2,675,000 26.63 1936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg
Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg
oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100 553,000 6.28 1947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg
Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg
oblast Ural Ural 194,800 4,494,000 23.03 1935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk
Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 49,800 1,056,000 21.08 1937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov
Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central Black Earth 34,300 1,183,000 34.36 1937
69 Tver Oblast Tver
Flag of Tver Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 84,100 1,465,000 17.50 1935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk
Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast, Russia.svg
oblast Siberian West Siberian 316,900 1,039,000 3.30 1944
71 Tula Oblast Tula
Flag of Tula Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png
oblast Central Central 25,700 1,667,000 65.20 1937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen
Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg
Coat of Arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg
oblast Ural West Siberian 143,520 3,257,000 22.75 1944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk
Флаг Ульяновской области (2013).svg
Герб Ульяновской области (2013).svg
oblast Volga Volga 37,300 1,391,000 37.07 1943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk
Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg
oblast Ural Ural 87,900 3,594,000 40.99 1934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita
Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg
Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg
krai Far Eastern East Siberian 431,500 1,163,000 2.68 2008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl
Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg
oblast Central Central 36,400 1,360,000 37.57 1936
77 Moscow
Flag of Moscow.svg
Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg
federal city Central Central 2,511 10,392,000 4,134.91 1147
78 Saint Petersburg
Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg
Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg
federal city Northwestern Northwestern 1,439 4,671,000 3,240.13 1703
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan
Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg
Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg
autonomous oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000 187,000 5.30 1934
80 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar
Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg
Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg
autonomous okrug Northwestern Northern 176,700 39,000 0.24 1929
81 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra.svg
Coat of arms of Yugra (Khanty-Mansia).svg
autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 523,100 1,440,000 2.74 1930
82 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr
Flag of Chukotka.svg
Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg
autonomous okrug Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,700 48,000 0.07 1930
83 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg
Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg
autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 750,300 498,000 0.68 1930
84 Republic of Crimea[d] Simferopol
Flag of Crimea.svg
Emblem of Crimea.svg
republic Southern[13][14] North Caucasus 26,964[15] 1,973,000[16] 72.94 2014
85 Sevastopol[d]
Flag of Sevastopol.svg
COA of Sevastopol.svg
federal city Southern[13][14] North Caucasus 864[17] 385,000[17] 438.89 2014

Notes

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative centre.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

d. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

Statistics of federal subjects

Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)
Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:

With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a Gross Regional Product [GRP] per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.

In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average.[18][19]

Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.

In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[20][21] The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.[22]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Government of the Russian Federation. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  2. ^ Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (in Russian)
  3. ^ Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  4. ^ This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  5. ^ a b "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Garant-Internet. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  6. ^ Knizhnik, Irina (2009). "On legal terminology, the jury is still out" (PDF). SlavFile. Slavic Languages Division, American Translators Association. 18 (1): 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Nekrasova, Tamara (2011). "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" (PDF). Eulita. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  8. ^ The Territories of the Russian Federation 2012. Taylor & Francis. 2012. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-135-09584-0. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  9. ^ Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-5381-2048-4. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  10. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
  11. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  12. ^ "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  13. ^ a b "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  14. ^ a b "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  15. ^ "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  16. ^ "Population as of February 1, 2014. Average annual populations January 2014". ukrstat.gov.ua. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  17. ^ a b "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  18. ^ [3][4]
  19. ^ ""Рейтинг трезвости-2017": кто в России меньше всех пьет".
  20. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  21. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved July 6, 2020.

Sources

  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).
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