To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Alpinia officinarum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alpinia officinarum
Alpinia officinarum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-156.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Alpinia
A. officinarum
Binomial name
Alpinia officinarum

Languas officinarum (Hance) P.H.Hô

Alpinia officinarum, known as lesser galangal, is a plant in the ginger family, cultivated in Southeast Asia. It originated in China, where its name ultimately derives. It can grow 1,5 to 2 m high[1], with long leaves and reddish-white flowers. The rhizomes, known as galangal, are valued for their sweet spicy flavor and aromatic scent. These are used throughout Asia in curries and perfumes, and were previously used widely in Europe.[citation needed] They are also used as an herbal remedy.


The genus is named for Prospero Alpini, a 17th-century Italian botanist who specialized in exotic plants. The word "galangal" comes from the Arabic form of a Chinese word for the plant, "高良薑" ("gou-loeng-goeng" in Cantonese, "gao-liang-jiang" in Mandarin).[2][3]


This herbaceous plant can grow up to 2 metres in height. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant's rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a sweet flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal which have a stronger peppery pine-like bite that is lacking in the sweeter rhizomes of lesser galangal.[2][3]


The galangal rhizomes were widely used in ancient and medieval Europe, where they were reputed to smell of roses and taste of sweet spice.[2] Its use in Europe has dramatically declined, however, and is now mainly used in Eastern Europe. It is used in Russia for flavoring vinegar and the liqueur Nastoika. It is still used as a spice and medicine in Lithuania and Estonia.[3]

In Asia the rhizomes are ground to powder for use in curries, drinks, and jellies.[2] In India an extract is used in perfumes, and Tatars prepare a tea with it.[3]

Alpinia officinarum contains high concentrations of the flavonol galangin.[4] Historically, the rhizomes were reputed to have stimulant and digestive effects.[2]


Lesser galangal is native to China, growing mainly on the southeastern coast, and is also grown in Hainan, Japan, Thailand, and Viet Nam.[2][5] It is also cultivated in India. Hong Kong is the commercial center for the sale and distribution of the lesser galangal.[2]

Common name confusion

Although the common name "lesser galangal" most appropriately refers to Alpinia officinarum, it is sometimes misapplied to other plants, such as Kaempferia galanga, which has a peppery camphorous taste and is used in Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. Cyperus longus is sometimes referred to as "galingal", and has similar uses, with spicy, starchy rhizomes used in cooking.[2] Boesenbergia rotunda, also called Chinese ginger or fingerroot, is sometimes also referred to as "lesser galangal."


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-671-73489-3.
  3. ^ a b c d Grieve, M. "Galangal". From A Modern Herbal, 1931.
  4. ^ Ciolino, H. P.; Yeh, G. C. (1999). "The flavonoid galangin is an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor". British Journal of Cancer. 79 (9/10): 1340–1346. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690216. PMC 2362711. PMID 10188874.
  5. ^ Nguyễn Tiến Bân (2005). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam. Tập III (in Vietnamese). Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp. p. 490.

External links

This page was last edited on 28 December 2018, at 18:48
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.