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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turmeric
Turmeric inflorescence.jpg
Inflorescence of Curcuma longa
Turmeric BNC.jpg
Processed turmeric
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Curcuma
Species: C. longa
Binomial name
Curcuma longa
L.[1]
Synonyms

Curcurma domestica Valeton

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (/ˈtɜːrmərɪk/)[2] is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.[3] It is native to Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68–86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season.

When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder[4] commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing. Turmeric powder has a warm, bitter, pepper-like flavor and earthy, mustard-like aroma.[5][6]

Although long used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat various diseases, there is little high-quality clinical evidence for use of turmeric or its main constituent, curcumin, as a therapy.[7][8]

 Botanical view of Curcuma longa
Botanical view of Curcuma longa

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Health Benefits of Turmeric
  • You Must Know This Before Ever Using Turmeric Again
  • The Reason Why Turmeric Doesn't Work!
  • Everything You Want to Know about Organic Turmeric & It's Benefits
  • Drink 1 Cup of Turmeric Water in the Morning and These Things Will Happen to Your Body

Transcription

Hey guys, Dr. Axe here, Doctor of Functional Medicine and founder of DrAxe.com. Today I want to share with you the incredible benefits of turmeric. Listen to this. This will blow your mind. There are over 6,000 clinical studies proving turmeric to be maybe the number one healing herb available today. This herb, that most of you can find probably in your own kitchen cabinet, has been used for over 5,000 years. It's referenced throughout history. It's used throughout Asia today, especially India and China. It's been found to be probably more beneficial than at least 20 different medications out there today. The reason why turmeric is so beneficial is it contains an active compound called curcumin. Curcumin or curcumenoids, which there are many different types, are highly anti-inflammatory. If you want to harness the benefits of turmeric, I'm going to go through some of the benefits. Number one, turmeric, again being anti-inflammatory, can help relieve pain. If you struggle with chronic joint pain, muscle pain, whether it be something like fibromyalgia or arthritis, turmeric can help because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Number two, turmeric can also help with blood sugar. If you have issues like diabetes or low energy levels, we know turmeric, because of its antioxidants, can help balance out those blood sugar levels. Number three, turmeric has antimicrobial properties. In fact, many women today actually use turmeric as a face mask. You can simply mix a little bit of turmeric with raw honey, rub it on your face, and then wash it off about five minutes later. You can make a turmeric face mask mixing it with raw money. Also, you can actually use some essential oils like frankincense would be great as well. Put it on your face. Wash it off. It has incredible benefits of killing off different types of bacteria like acne. Also, turmeric has been shown to be very powerful when it comes to detoxification. It does support liver detoxification and boosting two antioxidants in your body called glutathione and SOD, that's superoxide dismutase. These are very important antioxidants for cellular function. Also, turmeric has been shown to be effective at cleaning out your arteries. If you have high cholesterol issues or high blood pressure, we know turmeric is helpful for that. If you have plaque in your arteries, turmeric and curcumin have been shown to be effective. Those are just really a few of the benefits of turmeric. There are numerous other benefits. If you go throughout the medical literature, you'll see it's been shown to be beneficial for just about everything because it's highly anti-inflammatory, it supports detoxification, it's so high in antioxidants, and it has antimicrobial properties. The benefits of turmeric are numerous. I want to mention a few ways to get more turmeric in your diet. The number one thing I do is I drink a turmeric tea every day. I take a tablespoon of turmeric with a little bit of coconut milk and then make an herbal tea with it. That's one way I get it. You can check out the recipe on my website. Just look up Dr. Axe turmeric tea. You can find my exact turmeric tea recipe for that. Another thing you can do with it is add it to let's say chicken breading. I tend to bread my chicken. If I fry up some coconut chicken tenders, I'll use a little bit of coconut flakes and gluten free flour. I also add turmeric to that as well. Also, I'll sprinkle turmeric in my burger meat and eat it that way. I then call it a power burger because of all the health benefits. I'll sprinkle it on my salad as well. Also, you can take turmeric in a capsule form. Take about two capsules a day or 500 to 1000 milligrams a day is another great way to get some turmeric in your diet. There are a lot of ways whether you take it in supplement form, in a tea form, or add it to any different type of food. One more, I love adding it to my hummus. In fact, I make a curry hummus. Turmeric is the active ingredient or the number one ingredient that you're going to find in curry powder today which is so popular in India. There are a lot of different ways to add turmeric to your diet. I recommend you try that. Again, remember the face mask is another great way to get it in there too. Hey, if you want to learn more benefits of healing herbs, make sure you subscribe here to the Dr.�Axe YouTube channel and check out some of my other videos on super healing herbs like ginger which is turmeric's cousin which also has some great benefits as well. Thanks, guys.

Contents

History

Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, Unani, and traditional Chinese medicine.[9] It was first used as a dye, and then later for its medicinal properties.[10]

Etymology

The origin of the name is uncertain. It possibly derives from Middle English or Early Modern English as turmeryte or tarmaret. It may be of Latin origin, terra merita ("meritorious earth").[11] The name of the genus, Curcuma, is derived from the Sanskrit kuṅkuma, referring to both turmeric and saffron, used in India since ancient times.[12]

Botanical description

Appearance

Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant that reaches up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tall. Highly branched, yellow to orange, cylindrical, aromatic rhizomes are found. The leaves are alternate and arranged in two rows. They are divided into leaf sheath, petiole, and leaf blade.[13] From the leaf sheaths, a false stem is formed. The petiole is 50 to 115 cm (20–45 in) long. The simple leaf blades are usually 76 to 115 cm (30–45 in) long and rarely up to 230 cm (91 in). They have a width of 38 to 45 cm (15–18 in) and are oblong to elliptic, narrowing at the tip.

Inflorescence, flower, and fruit

 Turmeric flower
Turmeric flower
 Wild turmeric, Australia
Wild turmeric, Australia

In China, the flowering time is usually in August. Terminally on the false stem is a 12 to 20 cm (4.7–7.9 in) long inflorescence stem containing many flowers. The bracts are light green and ovate to oblong with a blunt upper end with a length of 3 to 5 cm (1.2–2.0 in).

At the top of the inflorescence, stem bracts are present on which no flowers occur; these are white to green and sometimes, tinged reddish-purple, and the upper ends are tapered.[14]

The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and threefold. The three 0.8 to 1.2 cm (0.3–0.5 in) long sepals are fused, white, have fluffy hairs and the three calyx teeth are unequal. The three bright-yellow petals are fused into a corolla tube up to 3 cm (1.2 in) long. The three corolla lobes have a length of 1.0 to 1.5 cm (0.39–0.59 in) and are triangular with soft-spiny upper ends. While the average corolla lobe is larger than the two lateral, only the median stamen of the inner circle is fertile. The dust bag is spurred at its base. All other stamens are converted to staminodes. The outer staminodes are shorter than the labellum. The labellum is yellowish, with a yellow ribbon in its center and it is obovate, with a length from 1.2 to 2.0 cm (0.47–0.79 in). Three carpels are under a constant, trilobed ovary adherent, which is sparsely hairy. The fruit capsule opens with three compartments.[15][16][17]

Phytochemistry

Curcumin keto form
Curcumin keto form
Curcumin enol form
Curcumin enol form

Turmeric powder is approximately 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, and 1–6% curcuminoids.[7]

Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, which occur from numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.[7] Curcumin constitutes 3.14% (on average) of powdered turmeric, having variations in content among the species of Curcuma longa.[18] Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone, atlantone, and zingiberene are major constituents.[19][20][21]

Uses

Traditional medicine

Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia where it is collected for use in Indian traditional medicine (also called Siddha or Ayurveda).[7] From clinical research, there is no high-quality evidence that turmeric has medicinal properties.[7]

Culinary

 Turmeric powder
Turmeric powder
 Turmeric rhizome and powder
Turmeric rhizome and powder
 Curry using turmeric, referred to as haldi ki Sabji, a dish from India
Curry using turmeric, referred to as haldi ki Sabji, a dish from India
 Ganghwang-bap (turmeric rice)
Ganghwang-bap (turmeric rice)
 Patoleo – sweet rice cakes steamed in turmeric leaves consisting of a filling of coconut and coconut palm sugar prepared in Goan Catholic style.
Patoleo – sweet rice cakes steamed in turmeric leaves consisting of a filling of coconut and coconut palm sugar prepared in Goan Catholic style.

Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent, slightly bitter flavor to foods.[5][6]

Turmeric is used mostly in savory dishes, but also is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, Patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf, then closing and steaming it in a special utensil (chondrõ).[22] Most turmeric is used in the form of rhizome powder. In some regions (especially in Maharashtra, Goa, Konkan, and Kanara), turmeric leaves are used to wrap and cook food. Turmeric leaves are mainly used in this way in areas where turmeric is grown locally, since the leaves used are freshly picked. Turmeric leaves impart a distinctive flavor.

In recipes outside South Asia, turmeric sometimes is used as an agent to impart a golden yellow color.[5][6] It is used in many products such as canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, cereals, sauces, and gelatin. It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders.[5]

Although typically used in its dried, powdered form, turmeric also is used fresh, like ginger. It has numerous uses in East Asian recipes, such as pickle that contains large chunks of soft turmeric, made from fresh turmeric.

Turmeric is used widely as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Many Persian dishes use turmeric as a starter ingredient. Various Iranian khoresh dishes are started using onions caramelized in oil and turmeric, followed by other ingredients. The Moroccan spice mix ras el hanout typically includes turmeric.

In India and Nepal, turmeric is widely grown and extensively used in many vegetable and meat dishes for its color. It also is used in Nepal for its supposed value in traditional medicine.

In South Africa, turmeric is used to give boiled white rice a golden color, known as geelrys (yellow rice) traditionally served with bobotie.

In Vietnamese cuisine, turmeric powder is used to color and enhance the flavors of certain dishes, such as bánh xèo, bánh khọt, and mi quang. The powder is used in many other Vietnamese stir-fried and soup dishes.

The staple Cambodian curry paste kroeung, used in many dishes including Amok, typically contains fresh turmeric.

In Indonesia, turmeric leaves are used for Minang or Padang curry base of Sumatra, such as rendang, sate padang, and many other varieties.

In Thailand, fresh turmeric rhizomes are used widely in many dishes, in particular in the southern Thai cuisine, such as the yellow curry and turmeric soup.

In medieval Europe, turmeric became known as Indian saffron because it was used widely as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.

Dye

Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast, but is commonly used in Indian and Bangladeshi clothing, such as saris and Buddhist monks's robes.[6] Turmeric (coded as E100, when used as a food additive),[23] is used to protect food products from sunlight. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. A curcumin and polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Over-coloring, such as in pickles, relishes, and mustard, is sometimes used to compensate for fading.

In combination with annatto (E160b), turmeric has been used to color cheeses, yogurt, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter, and margarine. Turmeric also is used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broths, and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron).[24]

Indicator

Turmeric paper, also called curcuma paper or in German literature, Curcumapapier, is paper steeped in a tincture of turmeric and allowed to dry. It is used in chemical analysis as an indicator for acidity and alkalinity.[25] The paper is yellow in acidic and neutral solutions and turns brown to reddish-brown in alkaline solutions, with transition between pH of 7.4 and 9.2.[26]

Traditional uses

 Curcuma domestica Valeton, a drawing by A. Bernecker around 1860
Curcuma domestica Valeton, a drawing by A. Bernecker around 1860

In Ayurvedic and Siddha practices, turmeric has been used as an attempted treatment for a variety of internal disorders, such as indigestion, throat infections, common colds, or liver ailments, as well as topically, to cleanse wounds or treat skin sores.[7][8]

In Eastern India, the plant is used as one of the nine components of navapatrika along with young plantain or banana plant, taro leaves, barley (jayanti), wood apple (bilva), pomegranate (darimba), asoka, manaka or manakochu, and rice paddy. The Navapatrika worship is an important part of Durga festival rituals.[27]

Haldi ceremony (called Gaye holud in Bengal) (literally "yellow on the body") is a ceremony observed during Hindu wedding celebrations in many parts of India including Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.[28]

In Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, as a part of the Tamil–Telugu marriage ritual, dried turmeric tuber tied with string is used to create a Thali necklace, the equivalent of marriage rings in western cultures. In western and coastal India, during weddings of the Marathi and Konkani people, Kannada Brahmins turmeric tubers are tied with strings by the couple to their wrists during a ceremony, Kankanabandhana.[29]

Friedrich Ratzel reported in The History of Mankind during 1896, that in Micronesia, turmeric powder was applied for embellishment of body, clothing, utensils, and ceremonial uses.[30]

Adulteration

As turmeric and other spices are commonly sold by weight, the potential exists for powders of toxic, cheaper agents with a similar color to be added, such as lead(II,IV) oxide, giving turmeric an orange-red color instead of its native gold-yellow.[31] Another common adulterant in turmeric, metanil yellow (also known as acid yellow 36), is considered an illegal dye for use in foods by the British Food Standards Agency.[32]

Research

Claims that curcumin in turmeric may help to reduce inflammation have not been supported by strong studies.[7][8]

Turmeric or its principal constituent, curcumin, has been studied in numerous clinical trials for various human diseases and conditions, but the conclusions have either been uncertain or negative.[7][33][34]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Curcuma longa information from NPGS/GRIN". ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  2. ^ "Turmeric (pronunciation)". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2015. 
  3. ^ Priyadarsini, KI (2014). "The chemistry of curcumin: from extraction to therapeutic agent". Molecules. 19 (12): 20091–112. doi:10.3390/molecules191220091. PMID 25470276. 
  4. ^ "Turmeric processing". Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala, India. 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Turmeric". Drugs.com. 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Brennan, James (15 Oct 2008). "Turmeric". Lifestyle. The National. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Nelson, K. M.; Dahlin, J. L.; Bisson, J; et al. (2017). "The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin: Miniperspective". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 60 (5): 1620–1637. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975. PMC 5346970Freely accessible. PMID 28074653. 
  8. ^ a b c "Turmeric". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  9. ^ Chattopadhyay, Ishita; Kaushik Biswas; Uday Bandyopadhyay; Ranajit K. Banerjee (10 July 2004). "Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications" (PDF). Current Science. Indian Academy of Sciences. 87 (1): 44–53. ISSN 0011-3891. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  10. ^ "Herbs at a Glance: Turmeric, Science & Safety". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health. 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  11. ^ "Turmeric". Unabridged Random House Dictionary. Dictionary.com. 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Tawney, C. H. (1924). The Ocean of Story, chapter 104. p. 13. 
  13. ^ Grieve, M. "Turmeric". botanical.com. Retrieved April 14, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Curcuma longa Linn". efloras.org. Flora of China, South China Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 30, 2013. 
  15. ^ Siewek, Fred (2013). Exotische Gewürze Herkunft Verwendung Inhaltsstoffe (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-0348-5239-5. 
  16. ^ "Kurkuma kaufen in Ihrem" (in German). Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  17. ^ Hänsel, Rudolf; Keller, Konstantin; Rimpler, Horst; Schneider, Gerhard, eds. (2013). Drogen A-D (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 1085. ISBN 978-3-642-58087-1. 
  18. ^ Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL (2006). "Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders". Nutr Cancer. 55 (2): 126–131. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5502_2. PMID 17044766. 
  19. ^ Hong, S. L; Lee, G. S; Syed Abdul Rahman, S. N; Ahmed Hamdi, O. A; Awang, K; Aznam Nugroho, N; Abd Malek, S. N (2014). "Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines". The Scientific World Journal. 2014: 397430. doi:10.1155/2014/397430. PMC 4142718Freely accessible. 
  20. ^ Hu, Y; Kong, W; Yang, X; Xie, L; Wen, J; Yang, M (2014). "GC-MS combined with chemometric techniques for the quality control and original discrimination of Curcumae longae rhizome: Analysis of essential oils". Journal of Separation Science. 37 (4): 404–11. doi:10.1002/jssc.201301102. PMID 24311554. 
  21. ^ Braga, M. E; Leal, P. F; Carvalho, J. E; Meireles, M. A (2003). "Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (22): 6604–11. doi:10.1021/jf0345550. PMID 14558784. 
  22. ^ Pereira Kamat, Melinda (16 August 2008), "A tradition wrapped in leaves", The Times of India, Goa, India, retrieved 16 August 2017 
  23. ^ "E100: Curcumin". UKfoodguide.net. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  24. ^ NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers (2006). Complete book on spices & condiments : (with cultivation, Processing & uses). Delhi: Asia Pacific Business Press. pp. 188–191. ISBN 9788178330389. 
  25. ^ Ravindran, P. N., ed. (2007). The genus Curcuma. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis. p. 244. ISBN 9781420006322. 
  26. ^ Berger, S; Sicker, D (2009). Classics in Spectroscopy. Wiley & Sons. p. 208. ISBN 978-3-527-32516-0. 
  27. ^ "Nabapatrika or Navapatrika – Nine leaves of plants used during Durga Puja". Hindu Blog. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "A Bangladeshi Wedding Journal – Gaye Holud: Pre-Wedding Ceremony". The Daily Star. November 11, 2014. Retrieved February 22, 2017. 
  29. ^ Singh K, S; Bhanu, BV (2004). People of India: Maharashtra, Volume 1. Popular Prakashan. p. 487. ISBN 9788179911006. 
  30. ^ Ratzel, Friedrich (1896). The History of Mankind. London: MacMillan. 
  31. ^ "Detention without physical examination of turmeric due to lead contamination". FDA.gov. US Food and Drug Administration. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  32. ^ "Producing and distributing food – guidance: Chemicals in food: safety controls; Sudan dyes and industrial dyes not permitted in food". gov.uk. Food Standards Agency, UK Government. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  33. ^ Daily, J. W.; Yang, M; Park, S (2016). "Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". Journal of Medicinal Food. 19 (8): 717–29. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705. PMC 5003001Freely accessible. PMID 27533649. 
  34. ^ Vaughn, A. R.; Branum, A; Sivamani, R. K. (2016). "Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence". Phytotherapy Research. 30 (8): 1243–64. doi:10.1002/ptr.5640. PMID 27213821. 

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