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Timeline of the Catholic Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches and the Church of the East,[1] the history of the Roman Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole. It is also, according to church historian, Mark A. Noll, the "world's oldest continuously functioning international institution."[2] This article covers a period of just under two thousand years.

Over time, schisms have disrupted the unity of Christianity. The major divisions occurred in c.144 with Marcionism,[3] 318 with Arianism, 1054 to 1449 (see East–West Schism) during which time the Orthodox Churches of the East parted ways with the Western Church over doctrinal issues (see the filioque) and papal primacy, and in 1517 with the Protestant Reformation. This Church has been the driving force behind some of the major events of world history including the Christianization of Western and Central Europe and Latin America, the spreading of literacy and the foundation of the universities, hospitals, the Western tradition of monasticism, the development of art and music, literature, architecture, contributions to the scientific method, just war theory and trial by jury. It has played a powerful role in global affairs, including the Reconquista, the Crusades, the Inquisition, the Investiture Controversy, the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 20th century.

Ministry of Jesus and founding

Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
Byzantine image depicting Jesus as Christ pantocrator
  • The calculations of Dionysius Exiguus put the birth of Jesus in the year that in consequence is called 1 BC, history places his birth some time between 6 and 1 BC.
  • 28 AD: Jesus' baptism, start of ministry, and selection of the Apostles. The Gospel of Luke indicates that Christ was baptized during the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar which is dated in 28 AD (found in Luke 3:1,21,22). Christian Gospels strongly suggest Peter as leader and spokesman of the Apostles of Jesus, being mentioned the most number of times in the Gospels. Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, James and John, constitute the inner circle of the Apostles of Jesus, being witnesses to specific important events of the life of Jesus; preachings of Jesus, such as the Sermon on the Mount; and performance of miracles, such as raising the dead back to life, feeding five-thousand, walking on water, etc.
  • 30 AD: Peter declares and other followers believe Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah promised by Yahweh according to the Jewish Scriptures and the predictions of the Hebrew prophets. Entry into Jerusalem, start of Passion of Christ. Jesus of Nazareth is crucified in Jerusalem under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius and Herod Antipas, after the Sanhedrin, under the High Priest Caiaphas, accuse Jesus of blasphemy. He was then crucified under Pontius Pilate. According to his followers, three days later, "God raised him from the dead". Forty days after his resurrection (Ascension), the Christian Gospels narrate that Jesus instructed His disciples thus: "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of time." (Matthew 28:18–20). Ten days later (Pentecost) Peter makes the first sermon converting 3,000 to be baptized.

Early Christianity

  • 64 AD: The Neronian Persecution begins under Nero after the great fire of Rome. Martyrdom of Saint Peter. Persecution of Christians continues intermittently until 313 AD.
  • 67 AD: Martyrdom of Saint Paul outside of Rome. Pope Linus becomes the first official pope.
  • 68 AD: Neronian Persecution ends with the suicide of Nero.
  • 70 AD: Fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple.
  • 76 AD: Martyrdom of Pope Linus.
  • 110 AD: Ignatius of Antioch uses the term Catholic Church in a letter to the church at Smyrna, in one of the letters of undisputed authenticity attributed to him. In this and other genuine letters he insists on the importance of the bishops in the church and speaks harshly about heretics and Judaizers.
  • 150 AD: Latin translations (the Vetus Latina) from the Greek texts of the Scriptures are circulated among non-Greek-speaking Christian communities.
  • 180 AD: Irenaeus's Adversus Haereses brings the concept of "heresy" further to the fore in the first systematic attempt to counter Gnostic and other aberrant teachings. In the same work, he taught that the most reliable source of apostolic guidance was the episcopacy of Rome.
  • 250 AD: Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
  • 312 AD: Emperor Constantine leads the forces of the Roman Empire to victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Tradition has it that, the night before the battle, Constantine had a vision that he would achieve victory if he fought under the Symbol of Christ; accordingly, his soldiers bore on their shields the Chi-Rho sign composed of the first two letters of the Greek word for "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΌΣ).

313–476

Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini
Head of Constantine's colossal statue at Musei Capitolini

477–799

Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

800–1453

Blessed Charlemagne
Blessed Charlemagne
Notre-Dame Cathedral – designed in the Gothic architectural style.
Notre-Dame Cathedral – designed in the Gothic architectural style.

1454–1599

Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

1600–1699

1700–1799

19th century

20th century

Blessed Karl of Austria.
Blessed Karl of Austria.
Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI

21st century

Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century
Benedict XVI, the first Pope elected in the 21st century

See also

References

  1. ^ The Orthodox Church and some other predominantly non-Western Churches are also apostolic in origin — i.e., they also trace their origins back to the founding of the Church at the time of the Apostles
  2. ^ The New Shape of World Christianity, Mark A. Noll (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009), 191.
  3. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Marcionites" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.: "...they were perhaps the most dangerous foe Christianity has ever known."
  4. ^ "Nuestra Senora del Pilar (Our Lady of the Pillar)". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved May 30, 2019. Unlike every other recorded apparition, this one took place during the earthly life of the Mother of God.
  5. ^ Chadwick, Henry, pp. 23–24.
  6. ^ "The Syro-Malabar Church Today: An Overview::The St. Thomas Christians::East Syrian (Chaldean)::Syro-Malabar Major Archiepiscopal Church".
  7. ^ "Syro Malabar Church Chronology".
  8. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. John the Evangelist" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  9. ^ St. John the Evangelist, ewtn.com, retrieved September 30, 2006
  10. ^ EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS, ed., Cyril C. Richardson (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 230.
  11. ^ THE STUDY OF SPIRITUALITY. eds., Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, S.J. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 102-3.
  12. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 107.
  13. ^ Gregerman, Adam (2016), "Origen's Contra Celsum", Building on the Ruins of the Temple, Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism, 165, Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, pp. 59–96, ISBN 978-3-16154-322-7
  14. ^ McMullen, p. 44.
  15. ^ De Imperatoribus Romanis – Constantine I, retrieved February 23, 2007
  16. ^ S.R.E. Humbert, Adversus Graecorium calumnias 6, in Patrologie Cursus Completus, series Latina, e.d. J.P.Migne, 1844, p.143
  17. ^ Duffy, p. 29.
  18. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, volume 3 (Washington: Catholic University Press, 2002), 556-557
  19. ^ Duffy, p. 30.
  20. ^ J. P. Rodriguez, with foreword by Orlando Patterson CHRONOLOGY OF WORLD SLAVERY (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999). 50.
  21. ^ Kristó, Gyula (2001). "The Life of King Stephen the Saint". In Zsoldos, Attila (ed.). Saint Stephen and His Country: A Newborn Kingdom in Central Europe – Hungary. Lucidus Kiadó. pp. 15–36. ISBN 978-963-86163-9-5.
  22. ^ Rule, Martin (1883), The Life and Times of St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of the Britons, Vol. I, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.
  23. ^ "Waldenses | Description, History, & Beliefs". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  24. ^ Rodriguez, p. 53.
  25. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 317.
  26. ^ Rodriguez, 57.
  27. ^ Wallace, Robert (1972) [1966]. The World of Leonardo: 1452–1519. New York: Time-Life Books.
  28. ^ Rodriguez, 61, 150.
  29. ^ Rodriguez, 62.
  30. ^ Coffee Was the “Devil’s Drink” Until One Pope Tried it and Changed History
  31. ^ "Suave Molecules of Mocha" Archived March 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization, New Partisan – A Journal of Culture, Arts and Politics, March 7, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2006
  32. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 382.
  33. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Melchites" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  34. ^ Jones, Wainwright and Yarnold, 425-6.
  35. ^ Rodriguez, 297.
  36. ^ Hubert Jedin, Church history, 619
  37. ^ Schism of SSPX Pete Vere, My Journey out of the Lefebvre Schism: All Tradition Leads to Rome, Catholic Education Resource Center, retrieved November 20, 2006
  38. ^ Benedict XVI, Meeting with the representatives of science in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensburg (September 12, 2006)
  39. ^ Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections from official Vatican website, retrieved October 18, 2006
  40. ^ "Three Stages in the Program of De-Hellenization" by Pope Benedict XVI, Zenit News Agency, retrieved October 18, 2006
  41. ^ Pope Is Regretful That His Speech Angered Muslims, Sep. 17, 2006, L.A. Times, retrieved October 18, 2006[dead link]
  42. ^ Al Qaeda threat over pope speech, Sep. 18, 2006, CNN.com retrieved October 18, 2006[dead link]
  43. ^ Qaeda-led group vows "jihad" over Pope's speech, Sep. 18, 2006, Reuters Archived October 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved October 18, 2006
  44. ^ Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007
  45. ^ Kleiber, Reinhard (2008). "Iran and the Pope Easing Relations". Quantara. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
  46. ^ "Message of His Holiness Pope Francis on the 100th anniversary of "Metz Yeghern" and proclamation of St. Gregory of Narek as a Doctor of the Church". vatican.va. April 12, 2015.
  47. ^ "Historic Mass dedicated to 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide begins at the Vatican (live)". Armenpress. April 12, 2015.
  48. ^ Erasmus (pseud.) (13 February 2016). "From the New World, a pope and a patriarch address old-world fights". economist.com (blog). London: The Economist. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
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  50. ^ "Unity call as Pope Francis holds historic talks with Russian Orthodox Patriarch". bbc.co.uk. BBC. February 12, 2016. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  51. ^ John Phillips, "Pope raises prospects of married men becoming priests," www.telegraph.co.uk, Nov. 2, 2017.
  52. ^ Richard P. Mc Brien, THE CHURCH, The Evolution of Catholicism (New York: Harper One, 2008), 450.
  53. ^ William Dailey, C.S.C., "Would a mass resignation of bishops hurt the US Church? Quite the opposite," www.catholicherald.co.uk/commentandblogs/2018/08/16.
  54. ^ Thomas Reese, S.J., "Pennsylvania grand jury report is a new low for Catholic Church," www.ncronline.org/news/accountability/signs-times/August 15,2018
  55. ^ Elisabetta Povoledo and Laurie Goodstein, "Pope Declares Death Penalty Always Wrong," NEW YORK TIMES, p.1.
  56. ^ Holy See recognizes Orthodox Church of Ukraine – Kyiv Patriarchate
  57. ^ "Ordinary Public Consistory for the Voting on Certain Causes of Canonization". Bollettino. Holy See Press Office (in Italian). Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  58. ^ a b Cindy Wooden (July 2, 2019). "Pope gives relics of St. Peter to Orthodox patriarch". Catholic News Service. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  59. ^ https://tass.com/society/1067305
  60. ^ Pope Francis meets with Bartholomew, Patriarch of Constantinople
  61. ^ Pope Francis meets with Orthodox Patriarch Bartholomew
  62. ^ Pope appoints 13 cardinals who reflect his inclusive vision for Catholic Church
  63. ^ Polish bishops open beatification process for parents of St John Paul II

Further reading

  • The History of the Catholic Church, From the Apostolic Age to the Third Millennium James Hitchcock, Ph.D. Ignatius Press, 2012 ISBN 978-1-58617-664-8
  • Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church. Crocker, H.W.
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Revised and expanded ed. New York: Image Books Doubleday, 2005. ISBN 0-385-51613-4

External links

This page was last edited on 20 November 2019, at 01:57
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