To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Council of Cardinals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Council of Cardinals (also called C9 because it contained 9 cardinal members for some time), also known as the Council of Cardinal Advisers, is a group of cardinals of the Catholic Church appointed by Pope Francis to serve as his advisers. The Council was formally established on 28 September 2013.


The Council of Cardinals was named under abbreviations referring to the number of cardinals advisers which, over time, it comprised:[1] C8 (8 cardinals),[2] C9 (9 cardinals), C6 (6 cardinals), C7 (7 cardinals).[1]


The appointment of a group of 8 advisors and one secretary to support the pope and the reform of the Roman Curia was announced on 13 April 2013, one month after his election.[3][4][5] The same group was formally established as the Council of Cardinals on 28 September of the same year by a chirograph of Pope Francis.[6][7]

Secretary of State Pietro Parolin was added as member of the Council in July 2014.[8] The Holy See used the expression "Council of the nine" (Consiglio dei nove in Italian) in September 2014.[9]

In 2018, Marco Mellino was named as adjunct secretary[10][11] of the Council's secretary Marcello Semeraro.[4] Pope Francis later removed three of the Council's 9 members in late 2018.[12][13]

Francis appointed another cardinal as member in 2020, and also replaced secretary Marcello Semeraro by Marco Mellino.[14][15]

In March 2023, three cardinal advisors were removed, and five new cardinal advisors were appointed; the three other cardinals and the secretary were kept (re-appointed). This made the current total of 9 cardinal advisers and one secretary.[16][17][18] On 24 April 2023, the new Council of Cardinals held their first meeting, which Pope Francis presided over.[19]


On 13 April 2013, the Holy See stated the cardinals had been appointed "to advise [the Pope] in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia, 'Pastor Bonus'".[3] In a chirograph dated 28 September 2013, Pope Francis stated the Council had the goal "of assisting me in the governance of the universal Church and of studying a project for the revision of the Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus on the Roman Curia", and that "said Council will be a further expression of episcopal communion and assistance to the munus petrinum which the Episcopate across the world is able to offer".[7]

The Council of Cardinals was thus created primarily to assist Pope Francis in the reform of the Roman Curia. Said reform was promulgated in 2022 through the apostolic constitution Praedicate evangelium. The Council continues to exist and to perform various activities, despite having achieved its main goal.[1]

Due to the advisory role of the body, some publications have likened it to a privy council.[relevant?][20][21]

Leadership and membership

The council currently comprises 9 cardinals, assisted by Bishop Marco Mellino as its secretary:[16][17][18]

  1. Italy Pietro Parolin, Cardinal Secretary of State (since 2014[8])
  2. Spain Fernando Vérgez Alzaga, President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Vatican City State (since 2023[16][22])
  3. Democratic Republic of the Congo Fridolin Ambongo Besungu OFMCap, Archbishop of Kinshasa (since 2020[14][23])
  4. India Oswald Gracias, Archbishop of Bombay (since 2013[3][4])
  5. United States Seán Patrick O'Malley OFMCap, Archbishop of Boston and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors (since 2013[4])
  6. Spain Juan José Omella Omella, Archbishop of Barcelona (since 2023[16][22])
  7. Canada Gérald Lacroix, Archbishop of Quebec (since 2023[16][22])
  8. Luxembourg Jean-Claude Hollerich, Archbishop of Luxembourg (since 2023[16][22])
  9. Brazil Sérgio da Rocha, Archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia (since 2023[16][22])

At the time of its formation, the council had eight members. Cardinal Parolin was not among the council's original membership, but attended the meetings regularly and, in July 2014, was confirmed by the Holy See Press Office as a ninth member of the council.[24]

Former members

Former secretaries

Former adjunct secretaries


  1. ^ a b c Condon, Ed. (7 December 2022). "What is the Council of Cardinals for, anymore?". The Pillar. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  2. ^ Condon, Ed. "Can Pope Francis' Council of Cardinals still deliver on reform?". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "COMUNICATO DELLA SEGRETERIA DI STATO, 13.04.2013". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Pope appoints advisors for Curia reform". Catholic News Agency. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  5. ^ Pianigiani, Gaia; Donadio, Rachel (13 April 2013). "Pope Francis Names Advisory Panel at Vatican". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  6. ^ "The Pope Institutes a Council of Cardinals to Assist in the Governance of the Universal Church". Vatican Information Service. 30 September 2013.
  7. ^ a b Pope Francis (28 September 2013). "Chirograph by which a Council of Cardinals is Established to Assist the Holy Father in the Governance of the Universal Church and to Study Possible Revisions of the Apostolic Constitution "Pastor Bonus" on the Roman Curia". The Holy See.
  8. ^ a b "Consiglio di Cardinali - Briefing del Direttore della Sala Stampa, 2 luglio 2014". Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  9. ^ "Sesta riunione del Santo Padre con i Cardinali Consiglieri (15-17 settembre 2014)". Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  10. ^ a b "Alba, Papa Francesco nomina monsignor Marco Mellino Vescovo e Segretario aggiunto del C9". Albese News (in Italian). 28 October 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Resignations and Appointments, 27.10.2018" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 27 October 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d "Briefing by the Director of the Holy See Press Office, Greg Burke, on the 27th Meeting of the Council of Cardinals with the Holy Father Francis, 12.12.2018". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  13. ^ a b c d Brockhaus, Hannah (12 December 2018). "Three cardinals dropped from C9 as reform process nears end". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Resignations and Appointments, 15.10.2020". Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  15. ^ "DRC's Cardinal Besungu appointed to Council of Cardinals". Vatican News. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Comunicato della Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 07.03.2023". Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  17. ^ a b "Pope renews Council of Cardinals". Vatican News. 7 March 2023. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  18. ^ a b "Pope renews cabinet of cardinal advisers, adds new members". AP NEWS. 7 March 2023. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  19. ^ "Pope presides over the first meeting of the new Council of Cardinals". Vatican News. 24 April 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  20. ^ Agnew, Paddy (15 April 2013). "Pope Francis appoints new 'privy council'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  21. ^ "Cardinal Monsengwo, original member of pope's privy council, dies". 12 July 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Mares, Courtney (7 March 2023). "Pope Francis adds Hollerich and four other cardinals to his council of advisers". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  23. ^ a b c d "DRC's Cardinal Besungu appointed to Council of Cardinals". Vatican News. 15 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Pope and "C9" express esteem for Von Freyberg and changes are on the horizon for the IOR". La Stampa. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Pope's eight cardinal advisors say the Curia is not the only thing they'll be reforming". Vatican Insider. 25 June 2013.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 27 September 2023, at 05:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.