To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Timeline of Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]

Chalcolithic

  • 4500–3500 BCE: First settlement established near Gihon Spring (earliest archaeological evidence).

Bronze Age: Canaanite city

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE

Iron Age

The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Independent Israelite capital

Jerusalem becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Judah and, according to the Bible, for the first few decades even of a wider united kingdom of Judah and Israel, under kings belonging to the House of David.

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian period

Persian (Achaemenid) period

Hellenistic period

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Under Alexander, the Ptolemaies, and Seleucids

Hasmonean kingdom

Roman period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6CE
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6CE
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)

Early Roman period

Events from the New Testament (Canonical Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Epistles -Pauline and Catholic- and the Book of Revelation) offer a narrative regarded by most Christians as Holy Scripture. Much of the narrative lacks historical anchors and Christian apologists have tried to calculate a historical chronology of events without reaching consensual conclusions. All such events and dates listed here are presented under this reservation, and are generally lacking non-sectarian scholarly recognition. They are marked in the list with a cross [†].

Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
  • 7–26 CE: Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Judea and Galilee.[34]
  • c. 28–30 CE [†]: Three-year Ministry of Jesus, during which a number of key events took place in Jerusalem, including:
"Flevit super illam" (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
"Flevit super illam" (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
The siege of Jerusalem, 70 CE (David Roberts, 1850)
The siege of Jerusalem, 70 CE (David Roberts, 1850)

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.
The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Byzantine period

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem

Early Muslim period

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632   Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661   Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)

Fatimid and Seljuk rule

The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent
The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent

Crusader/Ayyubid period

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1187)

Crusader states in 1180
Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 10991. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubids and Second Crusader Kingdom

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099–1187). During the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192–1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229–39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241 and 1244.[57]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382

Mamluk period

Ottoman period

Early Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, showing Jerusalem
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Late Ottoman period

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes–Picot Agreement
Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes–Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

After 1948

Partition into West (Israel) and East (Jordan)

Reunification after 1967

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 1967 5–11 June: The Six-Day War. Israel captures the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.

Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods

Reunification of JerusalemOccupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by JordanBritish EmpireOttoman EmpireMamluk Sultanate (Cairo)Ayyubid EmpireKingdom of JerusalemAyyubid EmpireKingdom of JerusalemFatimid CaliphateSeljuq EmpireFatimid CaliphateIkhshididAbbasid CaliphateTulunidAbbasid CaliphateUmayyad CaliphateRashidun CaliphateByzantine EmpireSassanid EmpireByzantine EmpireRoman EmpireHasmonean KingdomSyrian WarsAchaemenid EmpireNeo-Babylonian EmpireLate Period of ancient EgyptNeo-Babylonian EmpireNeo-Assyrian EmpireKingdom of JudahUnited Monarchy of IsraelJebusiteEgyptian New KingdomCanaan

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.. According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. ^ a b c d e Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. ^ Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. ^ Jane M. Cahill (2003). "Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy". In Vaughn, Andrew; Killebrew, Ann. E. (eds.). Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-58983-066-0.
  6. ^ Crouch, C. L. (1 October 2014). Israel and the Assyrians: Deuteronomy, the Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon, and the Nature of Subversion. SBL Press. ISBN 978-1-62837-026-3. Judah's reason(s) for submitting to Assyrian hegemony, at least superficially, require explanation, while at the same time indications of its read-but-disguised resistance to Assyria must be uncovered... The political and military sprawl of the Assyrian empire during the late Iron Age in the southern Levant, especially toward its outer borders, is not quite akin to the single dominating hegemony envisioned by most discussions of hegemony and subversion. In the case of Judah it should be reiterated that Judah was always a vassal state, semi-autonomous and on the periphery of the imperial system, it was never a fully-integrated provincial territory. The implications of this distinction for Judah's relationship with and experience of the Assyrian empire should not be underestimated; studies of the expression of Assyria's cultural and political powers in its provincial territories and vassal states have revealed notable differences in the degree of active involvement in different types of territories. Indeed, the mechanics of the Assyrian empire were hardly designed for direct control over all its vassals' internal activities, provided that a vassal produced the requisite tribute and did not provoke trouble among its neighbors, the level of direct involvement from Assyria remained relatively low. For the entirety of its experience of the Assyrian empire, Judah functioned as a vassal state, rather than a province under direct Assyrian rule, thereby preserving at least a certain degree of autonomy, especially in its internal affairs. Meanwhile, the general atmosphere of Pax Assyriaca in the southern Levant minimized the necessity of (and opportunities for) external conflict. That Assyrians, at least in small numbers, were present in Judah is likely - probably a qipu and his entourage who, if the recent excavators of Ramat Rahel are correct, perhaps resided just outside the capital - but there is far less evidence than is commonly assumed to suggest that these left a direct impression of Assyria on this small vassal state... The point here is that, despite the wider context of Assyria's political and economic power in the ancient Near East in general and the southern Levant in particular, Judah remained a distinguishable and semi-independent southern Levantine state, part of but not subsumed by the Assyrian empire and, indeed, benefitting from it in significant ways.
  7. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  8. ^ Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  9. ^ Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-664-22068-6.
  10. ^ http://studentreader.com/jerusalem/#Edict-of-Cyrus Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  11. ^ a b Betlyon, John Wilson (1986). "The Provincial Government of Persian Period Judea and the Yehud Coins". Journal of Biblical Literature. Society of Biblical Literature. 105 (4): 633–642 [637-638]. doi:10.2307/3261210. JSTOR 3261210. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  12. ^ Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE. Oxford Handbooks. OUP Oxford. pp. 142–143. ISBN 9780191662553. Retrieved 24 September 2020. For the Sidonian revolt of King Tennes.
  13. ^ Richard Gottheil, Gotthard Deutsch, Martin A. Meyer, Joseph Jacobs, M. Franco (1906). "Jerusalem". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 September 2020 – via JewishEncyclopedia.com.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, Chapter 7. William Whiston edition, London 1737. Accessed 23 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Maccabean Revolt". Virtualreligion.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  16. ^ Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  17. ^ Barthold Georg Niebuhr; Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr (1852). Lectures on Ancient History. Taylor, Walton, and Maberly. p. 465.
  18. ^ "Josephus, chapter 10". Christianbookshelf.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  19. ^ Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Concept Publishing Company. 1893. ISBN 9788172680954.
  20. ^ Sievers, 142
  21. ^ Martin Sicker (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-275-97140-3.
  22. ^ "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Pr-inside.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  23. ^ Aram Topchyan; Aram Tʻopʻchʻyan (2006). The Problem of the Greek Sources of Movses Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Isd. ISBN 978-90-429-1662-3.
  24. ^ Jacob Neusner (1997). A History of the Jews in Babylonia. 2. Brill Archive. p. 351.
  25. ^ "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  26. ^ "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  27. ^ Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  28. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 75
  29. ^ Dave Winter (1999). Israel Handbook: With the Palestinian Authority Areas. Footprint Handbooks. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-900949-48-4.
  30. ^ Emil Schürer; Géza Vermès; Fergus Millar (1973). History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-567-02242-4.
  31. ^ "Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"". Ccel.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  32. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  33. ^ A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, p. 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, p. 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  34. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, vol. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, p. 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  35. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then—if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment—there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  36. ^ See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  37. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  38. ^ Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  39. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge William Beveridge?] consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  40. ^ Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  41. ^ Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-58983-200-8
  42. ^ The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
  43. ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  44. ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  45. ^ "Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."". Islamicity.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  46. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  47. ^ Leslie J. Hoppe (2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5081-3.
  48. ^ Theophilus (of Edessa) (2011). Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. Liverpool University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84631-698-2.
  49. ^ Elizabeth Jeffreys; Fiona K. Haarer (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21-26 August, 2006. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7546-5740-8.
  50. ^ Miriam Greenblatt (2002). Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages. Benchmark Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7614-1487-2.
  51. ^ Majid Khadduri (2006). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6.
  52. ^ a b Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  53. ^ Ross Burns (2005). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-415-27105-9.
  54. ^ Singh, Nagendra. 2002. "International Encyclopedia of Islamic Dynasties"'
  55. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. Historic Cities of the Islamic World
  56. ^ Runciman, Steven. 1951. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1 The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 279–290. ISBN 0-521-06161-X
  57. ^ Adrian J. Boas (2001). Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City Under Frankish Rule. London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 9780415230001.
  58. ^ Larry H. Addington (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Midland book. Indiana University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780253205513. ... in the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II ...concluded a treaty with the Saracens in 1229 that placed Jerusalem under Christian control but allowed Muslim and Christian alike freedom of access to the religious shrines of the city. ... Within fifteen years of Frederick's departure from the Holy Land, the Khwarisimian Turks, successors to the Seljuks, rampaged through Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem in 1244. (Jerusalem would not be ruled again by Christians until the British occupied it in December 1917, during World War I.)
  59. ^ Denys Pringle (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5. During the period of Christian control of Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244 ...
  60. ^ Annabel Jane Wharton (2006). Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-226-89422-5. (footnote 19): It is perhaps worth noting that the same sultan, al-Malik al-Kamil, was later involved in the negotiations with Emperor Frederick II that briefly reestablished Latin control in Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244.
  61. ^ Hossein Askari (2013). Conflicts in the Persian Gulf: Origins and Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-137-35838-7. Later, during the years 1099 through 1187 AD and 1229 through 1244 AD, Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem ...
  62. ^ Moshe Ma'oz, ed. (2009). The Meeting of Civilizations: Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84519-395-9. (Introduction by Moshe Ma'oz) ... When the Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem (AD 1099–1187, 1229–1244) ...
  63. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Jerusalem (After 1291)". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  64. ^ Jerusalem Timeline From David to the 20th century Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ "10 Facts about the Walls of Jerusalem". eTeacher Hebrew. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  66. ^ Ambraseys, N. (2009). Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: A Multidisciplinary Study of Seismicity up to 1900 (First ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 444–451. ISBN 978-0521872928.
  67. ^ Thomas Augustine Prendergast (2004). Chaucer's Dead Body: From Corpse to Corpus. Psychology Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-96679-5.
  68. ^ Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin (1993). The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith, and Society. BRILL. p. 192. ISBN 90-04-09705-8.
  69. ^ Asali, K.J. Jerusalem in History. Brooklyn, New York: Olive Branch Press, p. 215. ISBN 978-1-56656-304-8
  70. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History, Or, The Present State of All Nations: Describing Their Respective Situations, Persons, Habits, and Buildings, Manners, Laws and Customs ... Plants, Animals, and Minerals. p. 461.
  71. ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, p. 220. Mendon Association, 1824.
  72. ^ "Batei Mahseh Square". Jerusalem Municipality. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  73. ^ "Mishkenot Sha'ananim". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  74. ^ Mishkenot Sha'ananim Archived 10 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^ Hasson, Nir (18 April 2011). "A new state-funded project lets photo albums tell the history of the Land of Israel – Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  76. ^ Simon Goldhill (2009). Jerusalem: City of Longing. Harvard University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-674-03772-4.
  77. ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0. The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumours spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad.
  78. ^ Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  79. ^ Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  80. ^ 'The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, 19 August 1929; p. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  81. ^ Prince-Gibson, Eetta (27 July 2006). "Reflective truth". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  82. ^ Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba; Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004, ISBN 965-517-190-6, p.104
  83. ^ "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0-905035-32-1. p. 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948
  84. ^ "Palestine and Palestinians", p. 117.
  85. ^ "Trump Jerusalem move sparks Israeli-Palestinian clashes", BBC News, 7 December 2017
  86. ^ "Paraguay becomes third country to open embassy in Jerusalem". Retrieved 23 May 2018.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 13 July 2021, at 23:44
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.