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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"[1]
Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"[1]
Sidon's Sea Castle, built by the Crusaders as a fortress of the Holy Land in Sidon, Lebanon
Sidon's Sea Castle, built by the Crusaders as a fortress of the Holy Land in Sidon, Lebanon

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ Eretz HaKodesh, Latin: Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah or الديار المقدسة Ad-Diyar Al-Muqaddasah) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Traditionally, it is synonymous with both the biblical Land of Israel and the region of Palestine. The term usually refers to a territory roughly corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, and parts of southern Lebanon and southwestern Syria. It is considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Part of the significance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, the holiest city to Judaism, the historical region of Jesus' ministry, and the site of the Isra and Mi'raj event in Islam.

The holiness of the land to Christianity was part of the motivation for the Crusades, as European Christians sought to win back the Holy Land from the Muslims, who had conquered it from the Christian Byzantine Empire.

Many sites in the Holy Land have long been pilgrimage destinations for adherents of the Abrahamic religions, including Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Bahá'ís. Pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy Land.[2]

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  • ✪ Holy Land Tour: Jerusalem and the South
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  • ✪ End of Days Prophetic Events Are Taking Place In The Holy Land

Transcription

Our tour of the holy city of Jerusalem began with the enormous 37 acre temple mount. This huge foundation structure was built by King Herod during the life of Christ, with the purpose of expanding the smaller temple platform so the structure could accommodate the huge number of pilgrims that came here during the Jewish feasts. Most of the upper portions of the structure were destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD, only leaving the foundation walls to tell the story of this wonder of the world. As we climbed up to the sacred mount and passed through security, we felt a keen awareness of the sacredness of this site. Here once stood Solomon's and Herod's temple, and here the Savior gave many discourses, and cleansed the temple, His Father's house. We started the tour by first learning of the washing rituals of the Muslims, who prior to each daily prayer, wash various parts of their body in preparation to commune with God. We then came to the east stairs of the Dome of the Rock, where we looked over the Kidron Valley to the Garden of Gethsemane and to the thousands of Jewish and Islamic tombs. As we climbed the eastern steps, we came into view of the breathtaking Dome of the Rock, completed in 691 AD. The building covers the rock, where according to Jewish tradition, is where Abraham was to offer Isaac as a sacrifice. The mosque is built of thousands of colorful mosaic tiles, grand arches, beautiful stone work, and a gilded golden dome. As there have never been formal excavations on the temple mount, there are many opinions as to where the ancient Jewish temple actually stood. Several scholars, including our tour guide, Brother Don Parry, believe that the temple stood to the north of the Dome, at the location of the smaller Dome of the Spirits. This opinion, in part, comes from the fact that this area is directly in line with the Golden Gate. We concluded our tour of the temple mount, leaving from the northern gate, near the Lion Gate of the old city. As we left the precincts of the temple structure, we came to the gardens, church and archaeological remains of the pool of Bethesda. This pool is where Jesus healed a lame man, commanding him to take up his bed and walk. Most of the remains are actually of later Byzantine and Crusader churches built over the pool. The only visible remains of the Herodian pool are the steps located deep beneath the later churches. While in the beautiful St. Anne's Church we also took advantage of the incredible acoustics, singing a favorite hymn as a group. We next walked the Via Dolorosa, or way of the cross, visiting several churches that mark the traditional path that Jesus took while carrying the cross to Golgotha. After walking through part of the old city, with its many steps, ramps, arched ways and narrow streets, we finally came to the Western Wall, the most sacred site for Jews today. While here, we witnessed several Bar Mitzvahs of young Jewish boys, explored beneath Wilson's arch, watched as Jews ritually washed before prayer, and reverently observed as Jews from around the world left prayers within the cracks of the stones. We then traveled down the Kotel tunnel, an excavated tunnel that transverses the western wall below the modern city of Jerusalem. The tunnel gives a unique look at the ancient wall of the Temple Mount, including one of the largest building blocks in the world, being 40 feet long and 10 feet tall, and estimated to weigh 570 tons. We then walked through the long tunnel that runs the length of the western wall, eventually arriving at the Strouthion Pool, likewise built by King Herod. Our last stop was to visit the ancient remains of the city of David. Here we saw the likely site of David's palace, the huge stone stepped structure which held up the palace, and the later remains of several homes dating to the time of Christ built on these same ancient stepped stones. We then walked through the secret tunnel, which led to the Gihon spring. Because the spring was located outside the city wall and low in the Kidron Valley, the ancient Cannanites and early Israelites used this passageway to access the waters without actually having to leave the fortified city walls. Later King Hezekiah decided to cut a new tunnel through the entire city of David, to bring the waters of the Gihon spring inside the city walls. The tunnel workers started from opposite sides and somehow met in the center. The tunnel is an ancient marvel of human engineering. As you exit from Hezekiah's tunnel, you come to the first century Pool of Siloam, which is the location where Jesus healed a blind man, commanding him to wash in the waters of this pool. We then climbed up part of the ancient steps, and through the Herodian drainage tunnel leading up to the Temple Mount. On Tuesday, our sixth day of the tour, we left Jerusalem to go into the southern desert to visit Masada, Qumran, and the Dead Sea. Masada is a fortified palace built by Herod on a huge mountain overlooking the Dead Sea. Though the entire region is barren and dry, Herod built this palace as a safe place in time of war, with Roman styled buildings, waterfalls, fountains and luscious gardens. The fortified mountain later became the last stand for the Jewish rebels, who unsuccessfully from 66-70 AD sought their independence from the grip of Rome. We next came to Qumran, the ancient home to a Jewish sect who were know for their daily washings in the numerous ritual baths, or mikvahs, and who wrote and hid away what is now known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. To finish our day, we swam, or better stated, floated in the Dead Sea. Because the Dead Sea contains one third salt, you can actually hold up your hands and feet above the surface of the water, and still not sink. A few of us decided to add a little extra weight to see if that would do the trick. On Wednesday, we once again left Jerusalem to travel to Bethlehem, the birth place of the Savior. We first visited the Shepherd's field church, which marks the traditional site of where the angels appeared to the shepherds to bring them glad tidings of great joy. We then came to the traditional site of the birth of Christ at the Church of the Nativity. The church was originally built under the direction of Constantine in 327 AD over a cave, which had been revered by earlier Christians as the grotto or cave where Jesus was born. We then returned to Jerusalem and toured the Israeli museum, admiring the enormous and incredible model of Jerusalem and Herod's temple in the first century. The model is one of the best representations of the city, and is an amazing tool to visualize the Jerusalem Jesus would have known. We then went through the Shrine of the Book, where Brother Don Parry taught us from his vast knowledge and understanding of the Dead Sea Scrolls. What an experience, to listen to one of the leading scholars of the Dead Sea scrolls, while standing in the Shrine of the Book! We then visited the Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum, which stands as a somber witness of the atrocities that were committed against the Jews during World War II. The last day of our official tour began on the hillside of the Mt. of Olives in the Garden of Gethsemane. While sitting within the beautifully landscaped garden, we pondered and learned of the atonement of the Savior. We learned of how the word Gethsemane means olive press, and of how the Savior was pressed down, bearing our sins and sorrows. We discussed the importance of the Tabernacle, the Day of Atonement, and the high priest, and how each of these pointed to the atoning sacrifice of the Savior. We then toured the Church of All Nations, built over the rock, where tradition says that Jesus prayed while in Gethsemane. The church is designed to create the atmosphere of night, with stars on the ceiling, blue light coming in through the stained glass windows, and angels holding up their hands in prayer, to symbolize that night of nights. One of the murals, depicting when the soldiers fell back at the words of Christ when he spake "I AM", shows that even the trees and flames of the torches fell back at the power of the Savior's words. We next came to an overlook of the city of Jerusalem from the Mt. of Olives. The view gives you a full perspective for the size of the Temple Mount, and for the grandeur and beauty of Jerusalem. We then drove to the BYU Jerusalem Center where we walked the halls of this sacred school of the Lord. In the chapel, we heard a gorgeous organ recital as we overlooked the breathtaking view of the old city of Jerusalem. Several of us also tried our hand at an ancient olive crusher located at the center. Some were more successful than others… Our next stop was the traditional tomb of King David, which interestingly enough is located directly below the traditional site of the Last Supper. How poignant, that King David be memorialized by the Jews under the commemorative room where Jesus Christ, the descendant of David and heir to his kingdom, would hold his last Passover meal, and institute the sacrament. We next came to the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu which is built over the possible site of the imprisonment of Jesus and of the home of Caiaphas the high priest. This is also the traditional site where it is said that Peter denied the Savior three times before the cock crowed. To finish our Holy Land tour, we visited the Garden Tomb and the hill of Golgotha. Here we learned of the crucifixion and burial of the Savior in the borrowed tomb of Joseph of Arimathea. Each of us had the chance to enter the tomb, and to feel of the spirit and power of this sacred site. It is difficult to describe the feelings that we each had as we thought of the Savior of the world, and of this culminating act of the resurrection which took place at this tomb, or at a similar tomb nearby. To conclude the day, within the confines of the garden, we gathered and bore testimony of Jesus Christ, of His life, His mission, and of His atonement. Though the trip had now concluded for most of us, we felt gratitude in our hearts for what we had learned, seen and felt. We all had come away with a stronger desire to be better followers of the man, who 2000 years ago, walked these very streets where we had walked.

Contents

Judaism

Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. The holiness of Israel attracted Jews to be buried in its holy soil. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel is like being buried under the altar."[3][4][5]
Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. The holiness of Israel attracted Jews to be buried in its holy soil. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel is like being buried under the altar."[3][4][5]
Olives trees, like this one in Qefin, have intrinsic holiness in Judaism, especially during the Sabbatical Year. This "seventh year holiness" carries with it many religious laws.[6]
Olives trees, like this one in Qefin, have intrinsic holiness in Judaism, especially during the Sabbatical Year. This "seventh year holiness" carries with it many religious laws.[6]

Jews do not commonly refer to the Land of Israel as "Holy Land" (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ Eretz HaKodesh). The Tanakh explicitly refers to it as "holy land" in only one passage.[7] The term "holy land" is further used twice in the deuterocanonical books.[8][9] The holiness of the Land of Israel is generally implied in the Tanakh by the Land being given to the Israelites by God, that is, it is the "promised land", an integral part of God's covenant. In the Torah many mitzvot commanded to the Israelites can only be performed in the Land of Israel,[10] which serves to differentiate it from other lands. For example, in the Land of Israel, "no land shall be sold permanently" (Lev. 25:23). Shmita is only observed with respect to the land of Israel, and the observance of many holy days is different, as an extra day is observed in the Jewish diaspora.

According to Eliezer Schweid:

The uniqueness of the Land of Israel is...'geo-theological' and not merely climatic. This is the land which faces the entrance of the spiritual world, that sphere of existence that lies beyond the physical world known to us through our senses. This is the key to the land's unique status with regard to prophecy and prayer, and also with regard to the commandments[11]

From the perspective of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the holiness of Israel had been concentrated since the sixteenth century, especially for burial, in the "Four Holy Cities": Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias - as Judaism's holiest cities. Jerusalem, as the site of the Temple, is considered especially significant.[12] Sacred burials are still undertaken for diaspora Jews who wish to lie buried in the holy soil of Israel.[13]

According to Jewish tradition, Jerusalem is Mount Moriah, the location of the binding of Isaac. The Hebrew Bible mentions the name "Jerusalem" 669 times, often because many mitzvot can only be performed within its environs. The name "Zion", which usually refers to Jerusalem, but sometimes the Land of Israel, appears in the Hebrew Bible 154 times.

The Talmud mentions the religious duty of colonising Israel.[14] So significant in Judaism is the act of purchasing land in Israel, the Talmud allows for the lifting of certain religious restrictions of Sabbath observance to further its acquisition and settlement.[15] Rabbi Johanan said that "Whoever walks four cubits in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed entrance to the World to Come".[16][17] A story says that when R. Eleazar b. Shammua' and R. Johanan HaSandlar left Israel to study from R. Judah ben Bathyra, they only managed to reach Sidon when "the thought of the sanctity of Palestine overcame their resolution, and they shed tears, rent their garments, and turned back".[17] Due to the Jewish population being concentrated in Israel, emigration was generally prevented, which resulted in a limiting of the amount of space available for Jewish learning. However, after suffering persecutions in Israel for centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Rabbis who had found it very difficult to retain their position moved to Babylon, which offered them better protection. Many Jews wanted Israel to be the place where they died, in order to be buried there. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel is like being buried under the altar."[3][4][5] The saying "His land will absolve His people" implies that burial in Israel will cause one to be absolved of all one's sins.[17][18]

Christianity

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in Christianity, as it is the purported site of Christ's resurrection.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in Christianity, as it is the purported site of Christ's resurrection.
Crusader castle of Toron in the village of Tibnin, Lebanon
Crusader castle of Toron in the village of Tibnin, Lebanon

For Christians, the Land of Israel is considered holy because of its association with the birth, ministry, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, whom Christians regard as the Savior or Messiah, and because it is the land of the Jewish people (according to the Bible). Christian books, including editions of the Bible, often had maps of the Holy Land (considered to be Galilee, Samaria, Judea). For instance, the Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae (Travel book through Holy Scripture) of Heinrich Bünting (1545-1606), a German Protestant pastor, featured such a map.[19] His book was very popular, and it provided "the most complete available summary of biblical geography and described the geography of the Holy Land by tracing the travels of major figures from the Old and New testaments."[19]

As a geographic term, the description "Holy Land" loosely encompasses modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, Lebanon, western Jordan and south-western Syria.

Islam

Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem
Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem

In the Qur'an, the term Arabic: الأرض المقدسة‎ (Al-Ard Al-Muqaddasah, English: "Holy Land") is used in a passage about Musa (Moses) proclaiming to the Children of Israel: "O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin." (Surah 5:21) The Quran also refers to the land as being 'Blessed'.[20][21][22]

Jerusalem (referred to as Al-Quds (Arabic: الـقُـدس‎, "The Holy")) has particular significance in Islam. The Quran refers to Muhammad's experiencing the Isra and Mi'raj as "a Journey by night from Al-Masjidil-Haram to Al-Masjidil-Aqsa, whose precincts We did bless ..." (17:1).[20] Ahadith infer that the "Farthest Masjid" is in Al-Quds; for example, as narrated by Abu Hurairah: "On the night journey of the Apostle of Allah, two cups, one containing wine and the other containing milk, were presented to him at Al-Quds (Jerusalem). He looked at them and took the cup of milk. Angel Gabriel said, "Praise be to Allah, who guided you to Al-Fitrah (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your Ummah would have gone astray". However, some modern scholars argue that the 'Farthest Mosque' was a building or prayer-site just outside Medina.[23][24] The present building of Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem had not been built in Muhammad's day, and the Quran does not contain any other reference to Jerusalem, apart from the reference to the change of the Qiblah from Jerusalem to Mecca. Jerusalem was Islam's first Qiblah (direction of prayer) in Muhammad's lifetime, however, this was later changed to the Kaaba in the Hijazi city of Mecca, following a revelation to Muhammad by the Archangel Jibril,[25] by which it is understood by scholars[who?] that it was in answer to the rejection by the Jews of Muhammed's Prophetship.

The exact region referred to as being 'blessed' in the Qur'an, in verses like [17:1], [21:71] and [34:18],[20][21][22] has been interpreted differently by various scholars. Abdullah Yusuf Ali likens it to a wide land-range including Syria and Lebanon, especially the cities of Tyre and Sidon; Az-Zujaj describes it as, "Damascus, Palestine, and a bit of Jordan"; Muadh ibn Jabal as, "the area between al-Arish and the Euphrates"; and Ibn Abbas as, "the land of Jericho".[26] This overall region is referred to as "Ash-Shām" (Arabic: الـشَّـام‎).[27][28]

Bahá'í faith

Bahá'ís consider Acre and Haifa sacred as Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, was exiled to the prison of Acre from 1868 and spent his life in its surroundings until his death in 1892. In his writings he set the slope of Mount Carmel to host the Shrine of the Báb which his appointed successor `Abdu'l-Bahá erected in 1909 as a beginning of the terraced gardens there. The Head of the religion after him, Shoghi Effendi, began building other structures and the Universal House of Justice continued the work until the Bahá'í World Centre was brought to its current state as the spiritual and administrative centre of the religion.[29][30] Its gardens are highly popular places to visit[31] and Mohsen Makhmalbaf's 2012 film The Gardener featured them.[32] The holiest places currently for Bahá'í pilgrimage are the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre and the Shrine of the Báb in Haifa which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1889). Facsimile-atlas to the Early History of Cartography: With Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries. Kraus. pp. 51, 64.
  2. ^ Metti, Michael Sebastian (2011-06-01). "Jerusalem - the most powerful brand in history" (PDF). Stockholm University School of Business. Retrieved 1 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b Ketubot (tractate) 111, quoted in Ein Yaakov
  4. ^ a b Michael L. Rodkinson (Translator) (2010). The Babylonian Talmud: all 20 volumes (Mobi Classics). MobileReference. p. 2234. ISBN 978-1-60778-618-4. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  5. ^ a b Moshe Gil (1997). A history of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press. p. 632. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  6. ^ Seasons in Halacha, Pinchos Yehoshua Ellis, pg. 74.
  7. ^ Zechariah 2:16
  8. ^ Wisdom 12:3
  9. ^ 2 Maccabees 1:7
  10. ^ Aharon Ziegler, Halakhic positions of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik: Volume 4, KTAV Publishing House, 2007, p.173
  11. ^ The Land of Israel: National Home Or Land of Destiny, By Eliezer Schweid, Translated by Deborah Greniman, Published 1985 Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, ISBN 0-8386-3234-3, p.56.
  12. ^ Since the 10th century BCE. "For Jews the city has been the pre-eminent focus of their spiritual, cultural, and national life throughout three millennia." Yossi Feintuch, U.S. Policy on Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0-313-25700-0
  13. ^ Joseph Jacobs, Judah David Eisenstein. "PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
  14. ^ Isaac Herzog (1967). The Main Institutions of Jewish Law: The law of obligations. Soncino Press. p. 51. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  15. ^ Yosef Zahavi (1962). Eretz Israel in rabbinic lore (Midreshei Eretz Israel): an anthology. Tehilla Institute. p. 28. Retrieved 19 June 2011. If one buys a house from a non-Jew in Israel, the title deed may be written for him even on the Sabbath. On the Sabbath!? Is that possible? But as Rava explained, he may order a non-Jew to write it, even though instructing a non-Jew to do a work prohibited to Jews on the Sabbath is forbidden by rabbinic ordination, the rabbis waived their decree on account of the settlement of Palestine.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ a b c "PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  18. ^ "Why Do Jews Fly Their Dead to Israel for Burial?". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  19. ^ a b Bünting, Heinrich (1585). "Description of the Holy Land". World Digital Library (in German).
  20. ^ a b c Quran 17:1–16
  21. ^ a b Quran 21:51–82
  22. ^ a b Quran 34:10–18
  23. ^ Mordechai Kedar (15 Sep 2008). "The myth of al-Aqsa:Holiness of Jerusalem to Islam has always been politically motivated". Ynetnews.
  24. ^ Martin Kramer. "The Jewish Temples: The Temples of Jerusalem in Islam". Jewish Virtual Library.
  25. ^ Quran 2:142–177
  26. ^ Ali (1991), p. 934
  27. ^ Article "AL-SHĀM" by C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 9 (1997), page 261.
  28. ^ Kamal S. Salibi (2003). A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. I.B.Tauris. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-1-86064-912-7. To the Arabs, this same territory, which the Romans considered Arabian, formed part of what they called Bilad al-Sham, which was their own name for Syria. From the classical perspective however Syria, including Palestine, formed no more than the western fringes of what was reckoned to be Arabia between the first line of cities and the coast. Since there is no clear dividing line between what are called today the Syrian and Arabian deserts, which actually form one stretch of arid tableland, the classical concept of what actually constituted Syria had more to its credit geographically than the vaguer Arab concept of Syria as Bilad al-Sham. Under the Romans, there was actually a province of Syria. with its capital at Antioch, which carried the name of the territory. Otherwise. down the centuries, Syria like Arabia and Mesopotamia was no more than a geographic expression. In Islamic times, the Arab geographers used the name arabicized as Suriyah, to denote one special region of Bilad al-Sham, which was the middle section of the valley of the Orontes river, in the vicinity of the towns of Homs and Hama. They also noted that it was an old name for the whole of Bilad al-Sham which had gone out of use. As a geographic expression, however, the name Syria survived in its original classical sense in Byzantine and Western European usage, and also in the Syriac literature of some of the Eastern Christian churches, from which it occasionally found its way into Christian Arabic usage. It was only in the nineteenth century that the use of the name was revived in its modern Arabic form, frequently as Suriyya rather than the older Suriyah, to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham: first of all in the Christian Arabic literature of the period, and under the influence of Western Europe. By the end of that century it had already replaced the name of Bilad al-Sham even in Muslim Arabic usage.
  29. ^ Jay D. Gatrella; Noga Collins-Kreinerb (September 2006). "Negotiated space: Tourists, pilgrims, and the Bahá'í terraced gardens in Haifa". Geoforum. 37 (5): 765–778. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.01.002. ISSN 0016-7185. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  30. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Arc-buildings of; Bahá'í World Centre". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 45–46, 71–72. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  31. ^ Leichman, Abigail Klein (7 September 2011). "Israel's top 10 public gardens". Israel21c.org. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  32. ^ Dargis, Mahohla (8 August 2013). "The Cultivation of Belief - 'The Gardener,' Mohsen Makhmalbaf's Inquiry Into Religion". New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  33. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2008-07-08). "Three new sites inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". Retrieved 2008-07-08.

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Palestine, Holiness of". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

This page was last edited on 15 January 2019, at 09:21
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