To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Fourth Crusade

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fourth Crusade
Part of the Crusades
ConquestOfConstantinopleByTheCrusadersIn1204.jpg

Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204
Date1202–1204
Location
Result

Crusader victory

Territorial
changes
  • Venetian authority asserted over Zara
  • Foundation of several Latin Crusader states in the Balkans
  • Partitioning of the Byzantine Empire into rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus
  • Belligerents

    Crusaders:

    Eastern Christian opponents:

    Latin Christian opponents:

    Commanders and leaders
    Strength

    4-5,000 knights
    8,000 infantry
    300 siege weapons

    10,000 sailors and marines
    60 war galleys
    100 horse transports

    50 troop transports

    10,000 Byzantine infantry
    5,000 Varangians

    20 war galleys

    The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first conquering the powerful Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate, the strongest Muslim state of the time. However, a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire.

    In late 1202, financial issues led to the Crusader army sacking Zara, which was then brought under Venetian control. In January 1203, en route to Jerusalem, the Crusader leadership entered into an agreement with the Byzantine prince Alexios Angelos to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore his deposed father as emperor. The intent of the Crusaders was then to continue to Jerusalem with promised Byzantine financial and military aid. On 23 June 1203, the bulk of the Crusaders reached Constantinople, while smaller contingents continued to Acre. After the siege of Zara the pope excommunicated the crusader army.

    In August, following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios was crowned co-emperor. However, in January 1204, he was deposed by a popular uprising. The Crusaders were no longer able to receive their promised payments from Alexios. Following the murder of Alexios on 8 February, the Crusaders decided on the outright conquest of the city. In April 1204, they captured and plundered the city's enormous wealth. Only a handful of the Crusaders continued to the Holy Land thereafter.

    The conquest of Constantinople was followed by the fragmentation of the Empire into three rump states centred in Nicaea, Trebizond and Epirus. The Crusaders then founded several Crusader states in former Byzantine territory, largely hinged upon the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The presence of the Latin Crusader states almost immediately led to war with the Byzantine successor states and the Bulgarian Empire. The Nicaean Empire eventually recovered Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire in 1261.

    The Crusade is considered to be one of the most prominent acts that solidified the schism between the Greek and Latin Christian churches, and dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire, paving the way for Muslim conquests in Anatolia and the Balkans in the coming centuries.

    YouTube Encyclopedic

    • 1/5
      Views:
      324 708
      1 273 947
      73 920
      43 854
      9 880
    • ✪ Sack of Constantinople 1204 - Fourth Crusade DOCUMENTARY
    • ✪ The Crusade That Ruined Everything
    • ✪ Fourth Crusade | 3 Minute History
    • ✪ The Fourth Crusade: A Concise Overview for Students
    • ✪ The Fourth Crusade and sack of Constantinople

    Transcription

    The Crusades are some of the most iconic and divisive wars fought in human history, and the image of knights in shining armour, had a lasting effect on generations of history enthusiasts. Yet, even among them, The Fourth Crusade is universally regarded as a failure, an example of the extent of human greed, and the tragedy of loss. In this video, we will tell the story of this doomed venture, and the repercussions that followed in its wake. This videos is sponsored by ExpressVPN. We use ExpressVPN as it provides a quick and easy way to make your internet activity private. Take back your internet privacy today and find out how you can get 3 months free, go to expressVPN.com/kingsandgenerals In 1187, Jerusalem was conquered by Saladin. As a response, the Christian world initiated the Third Crusade, and although the Crusaders managed to retake Acre and Jaffa, Jerusalem remained a part of the Ayyubid realm, and the conflict ended in a truce. Resolve to retake Jerusalem was still strong. By 1198, Pope Innocent III had begun a call for a fourth Crusade. An army, consisting mainly of soldiers from France and the Holy Roman Empire, was mustered through the Charisma of the Italian Count: Boniface of Montferrat. However, this army would still need ships to carry them across the Mediterranean, and thus the crusaders turned to the strongest maritime power of the era: The Republic of Venice. The Doge Enrico Dandolo, agreed to manufacture a fleet capable of transporting the Crusader army, for the price of 85,000 silver marks. The plan was now as follows: The Crusaders would sail south from Venice, and attack the center of the Muslim world: Egypt. After conquering the Ayyubid capital, they would then proceed to take Jerusalem by land. However, problems began when the Crusader army arrived in Venice in May of 1202. Out of an expected 33,500 soldiers, only 12,000 were present. This infuriated the Venetians, as they had incurred a great expense building a total of 50 war galleys and 450 transport ships for the Crusaders, who were incapable of paying their debt. Dandolo refused to allow the Crusaders to leave his city before the debt was paid. The Crusaders managed to collect up to 50,000 marks, but by doing this, they now risked starving. Not wanting their investment to have been a complete loss, the Doge Dandolo hatched a plan in order to use the Crusaders to serve the Venetian agenda. He proclaimed the debts would be wiped, if they were to take the city of Zara in the name of Venice. Zara, located on the eastern Adriatic coast, was a Catholic city, ruled by the Catholic king of Hungary. For an army endorsed by the Pope in Rome, attacking it was a problematic prospect. Knowing this, some of the Crusaders refused the Venetians’ deal, and headed home. But most of the army set sail across the Adriatic to fulfill the Doge’s request. When Pope Innocent III heard of this deal, he immediately threatened the Crusaders with excommunication. Count Boniface hid this letter from the army, and pushed on to Zara. When they reached the walls of the city, the peoples of Zara hung banners of crosses along the outer walls, professing their Catholic faith. Despite this, the Crusaders sieged, breached, then sacked the city, killing many. Furious at the disobeying of his orders, the Pope excommunicated all the Venetians and Crusaders involved in the sack, but the Crusade leaders once more hid this letter from the army, fearing it would cause panic and desertion. The Crusaders decided to winter in Zara, and plan their next move come the Spring. Meanwhile, Boniface of Montferrat had left the army and sailed to Southern Bavaria, to visit his cousin King Philip of Swabia. Here he met an exiled Prince of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios IV Angelos. It is here that we must take a brief pause, and contextualize the situation in the Byzantine empire. The Komnenian dynasty, which ruled between 1081 and 1180, managed to retake most of Anatolia from the Seljuks but, with the death of Manuel Komnenos in 1180, things had changed, as the new dynasty, the Angeloi, was weak and despotic. In 1185, Isaac II became the emperor, but he was highly corrupt, and in 1195 he had been blinded and usurped by his brother, Alexios III. Emperor Alexios fared no better than his predecessor, and revealed himself to be just as corrupt. Meanwhile, the son of the deposed Emperor Isaac, Alexios IV, had fled to Swabia to avoid the wrath of his uncle. It is here our story rejoins the Fourth crusade. The young prince saw an opportunity to use the Crusader army for his own means. He implored Boniface to lead the Crusaders to Constantinople and depose his uncle, Emperor Alexios III. In exchange, he offered to pay 200,000 silver marks, offered 10,000 Byzantine soldiers for the campaign into Egypt, and most importantly, swore that the Eastern Orthodox Church would be placed under the authority of the Pope in Rome. Many Crusaders were hesitant to accept, not wanting to attack yet another Christian city. The Venetians, never ones to turn down an opportunity to get rich, were fierce supporters of this plan. Doge Dandolo offered the Crusade leaders heavy bribes to convince them to sail to Constantinople. Thus, the Latin army and the young pretender Prince set sail for the capital of Eastern Christendom. On June 23rd, 1203, the Latin army came within sight of Constantinople. The Byzantines were aware of the impending arrival of the Crusaders. The city was defended by 15,000 soldiers, 5000 of whom were Varangians, an elite Imperial Guard made up of Saxons and Norsemen. It did not take long for fighting to begin. The massive crusader fleet crossed the Dardanelle strait and laid siege to the suburbs outside of Constantinople proper. The Latin cavalrymen used the cleverly constructed Venetian Horse-Transport ships, which carried the knights right onto the beach, allowing them to charge directly out onto the shore to meet their foes. The Crusaders were repulsed in brief skirmishes at Chalcedon and Chrysopolis, but won a beachfront entanglement outnumbered 80 to 500. Nothing conclusive was determined. The Latins now realized that in order to gain a foothold in the city, they would need to take Constantinople’s famous harbour, the Golden Horn, which was protected by a massive chain that prevented any ships from entering. Thus, the Crusader fleet sailed up the Bosphorus strait. Emperor Alexios III had anticipated this, and mustered a sizable defending force that waited on the shore, north of the suburb of Galata. The Crusaders charged right out of their horse transports and barreled down upon the Byzantine defenders in a full cavalry charge. The Greeks scattered, retreating to the Tower of Galata, where they fortified themselves. Back and forth fighting continued for a while, with the Crusaders barraging the tower, and being repulsed. Eventually, they breached the walls and chased out the Byzantines. By taking the tower, the Crusaders were able to lift the chain, and allow their fleet to sail into Constantinople’s harbour mouth. From their new foothold, they boarded the young royal upon a Venetian barge, and sailed up to the city walls, shouting out their good intentions, declaring themselves as restorers of the rightful Byzantine ruler. Instead, the sight of young Alexios IV brought out jeers from the local population, who hurled insults, rocks, and rotten fruit at the young pretender. This was a revelation, as Alexios IV had claimed that he still had substantial support. But the Crusaders were in too deep now to simply pack up and go home. The prelates within the Latin army insisted that they remained within their right in supporting their patron Prince. The siege resumed in the coming days, in the form of a two-pronged assault. The Venetian detachment sailed their ships down the city’s sea-wall and launched an assault, while the Crusaders, led by Count Boniface, assaulted the land-wall, northwest of the city. Here the Varangians proved their worth; the Nordic warriors met the Crusaders outside the land-wall, and inflicted heavy casualties. With the land front handled, they made for the sea. By this point, Venetian soldiers had secured a section of the sea-wall encompassing 25 towers. After fierce fighting, the Varangians routed the Venetians, who were forced back to their ships. The Venetians covered their retreat by lighting a wall of fire, which spread and devastated a large chunk of the city. It was at this point that the Byzantine Emperor finally sprung into full action. He rallied a host of 8,500 men, and rode with them out of the Gates of St. Romanus to finally meet the Crusader host head-on. Yet, this would end in anticlimax. Fear overcame the despotic Alexios III, and in his cowardice, he launched a full retreat back into the city walls before there had even been a fight. This remarkably shameful display disgraced the Emperor in the eyes of his people, and he quietly fled from the city, abandoning his post. The Imperial Court quickly deposed Alexios III, and reinstated the frail and blind Isaac II Angelos as Emperor. This move alarmed the Latins, who could only hope to collect the payment offered to them under Alexios IV. As such, they demanded that the young Prince be elevated to co-Emperor alongside his decrepit father. The Byzantines, wary of any further damage to their city, accepted. Thus, the first siege of Constantinople was successful, and the Crusaders and Venetians accomplished their goal in restoring Alexios IV to the Roman throne. An uneasy status-quo had developed between the people of Constantinople, and the Crusaders. The Latins demanded that the young new Emperor pay what was promised to them. 200,000 silver marks was a massive debt, and the fact that Alexios III had stolen a good chunk of the royal treasury when he fled the city did not help. As a result, the Crown was forced to collect precious Byzantine and Roman icons, many centuries old, and melt them down to produce enough silver. This blemished the reputation of the new Emperor in the eyes of his people, and paid only half of the debt. Things quickly deteriorated, and the Greeks of the city became more and more resentful not only toward the Crusaders, but all Latin peoples, including the minority that had lived in Constantinople for generations. A riot broke out and the Greek populace looted and burned the homes of Italian residents, killing many civilians. In a retaliatory fervor, the Venetians rallied a rabble of soldiers and stormed through the walls, attacking a mosque in one of the city’s Muslim communities, but were fought off by the Muslims and Greeks standing side by side. Once again, the Venetians set a fire to cover their retreat, burning yet another chunk of the city and leaving many homeless. It was becoming clear that Alexios IV would likely never pay the rest of his debt. When the Crusaders issued an ultimatum the young Emperor refused. At this point, Dandolo cried out: ‘Miserable youth, we dragged you out of the mire and to the mire we shall return you!’ During this period a Byzantine Courtier of the Doukas family, known as Mourtzouphlos, had been the main advocate for resistance against the Latins, and his popularity increased. In February of 1204 this shrewd politician declared that the Byzantine people were tired of the rule of the Latin-sympathizer Alexios IV. The emperor was strangled to death and Mourtzouphlos was publicly declared the new Roman Emperor as Alexios V. This change in leadership prompted the Crusaders to call for a meeting under a banner of peace. The Latin demands were heavy: they expected Mourtzouphlos to pay them 5,000 pounds of gold for their departure, swear his fealty to Pope Innocent III, and restore Alexios IV to the throne- the Latins were unaware he was dead. Before the Byzantines could reply, a Frankish cavalry charge thundered down the docks, scattering the Emperor and his guard. Some Crusaders trusted no deal made with the Greeks and it was now abundantly clear that hostilities would continue. By the end of February, the Crusaders had fully resolved to complete a full conquest of Constantinople. The prelates of the Crusade declared that the Greeks were heathens and traitors to the Christ. It seemed Mourtzouphlos knew a full invasion was soon to come. He urgently tried to sway the Varangian guard to his side. The Nordic mercenaries demanded more pay that the new Emperor could not provide, and thus they abandoned the fight. Constantinople was left with almost no garrison. On April 12th, the attack began. Favourable winds carried the bulk of the Venetian fleet right up towards the Theodosian sea-wall. Once more, from their ships the Latins managed to seize a section of the fortifications in the northwest part of the city. They commandeered the Blachernai palace and used it as a base from which they would strike out at the rest of the city. In order to defend their position, the Crusaders lit a wall of fire around the Blachernai district. This fire spread, destroying yet another chunk of the city. Mourtzouphlos tried to rally more defenders, but the people of Constantinople were now in a panic, and in no shape to resist. Mourtzouphlos fled the city, and Constantinople was left defenseless. And thus, the sack of Constantinople began. The Crusaders began a spree of looting, raping and massacring that was near unprecedented. Hundreds of thousands would die and countless priceless treasures were destroyed, or stolen. Reactions in Western Europe to the sack were mixed. Many expressed shock and horror at the Crusader’s actions, including Pope Innocent III, yet many defended the sack, claiming that the Greeks were traitors to Christ. Following the sack of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire was partitioned among western Latin powers and the rump Byzantine states. The largest was the Latin Empire, with Constantinople as its capital. Baldwin I, Count of Flanders and the most charismatic of the Crusaders, was chosen to rule as the Latin Emperor. The fracturing of the Byzantine Empire greatly weakened Christendom’s hold on Asia minor and the Aegean Sea. We release 2 new videos each week, so make sure you are subscribed to our channel and pressed the bell button. We would like to express our gratitude to our Patreon supporters and channel members, who make the creation of our videos possible. Now, you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the link in the description. This is the Kings and Generals channel, and we will catch you on the next one.

    Contents

    Background

    Ayyubid Sultan Saladin had conquered most of the Frankish, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the ancient city itself, in 1187. The Kingdom had been established 88 years before, after the capture and sack of Jerusalem in the First Crusade, which had been a Byzantine holding prior to the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. The city was sacred to Christians, Muslims and Jews, and returning it to Christian hands had been a primary purpose of the First Crusade. Saladin led a Muslim dynasty, and his incorporation of Jerusalem into his domains shocked and dismayed the Catholic countries of Western Europe. Legend has it that Pope Urban III literally died of the shock, but the timing of his death makes that impossible.[1] The crusader states had been reduced to three cities along the sea coast: Tyre, Tripoli, and Antioch.[2]

    The Third Crusade (1189–92) reclaimed an extensive amount of territory for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the key towns of Acre and Jaffa, but had failed to retake Jerusalem. The crusade had also been marked by a significant escalation in long standing tensions between the feudal states of western Europe and the Byzantine Empire,[3] centred in Constantinople. The experiences of the first two crusades had thrown into stark relief the vast cultural differences between the two Christian civilisations. The Latins (as the Byzantines referred to them because of their adherence to the Latin Rite) viewed the Byzantine preference for diplomacy and trade over war as duplicitous and degenerate, and their policy of tolerance and assimilation towards Muslims as a corrupt betrayal of the faith. For their part, the educated and wealthy Byzantines maintained a strong sense of cultural, organizational, and social superiority over the Latins.[4]

    Constantinople had been in existence for 874 years at the time of the Fourth Crusade and was the largest and most sophisticated city in Christendom.[5] Almost alone amongst major medieval urban centres, it had retained the civic structures, public baths, forums, monuments, and aqueducts of classical Rome in working form. At its height, the city held an estimated population of about half a million people[6] behind thirteen miles of triple walls. Its planned location made Constantinople not only the capital of the surviving eastern part of the Roman Empire but also a commercial centre that dominated trade routes from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea,[7] China, India and Persia.[8] As a result, it was both a rival and a tempting target for the aggressive new states of the west, notably the Republic of Venice.

    One of the leaders of the Third Crusade, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, openly plotted with the Serbs, Bulgarians, Byzantine traitors, and even the Muslim Seljuks against the Eastern Empire and at one point sought Papal support for a crusade against the Orthodox Byzantines.[9] Crusaders also seized the breakaway Byzantine province of Cyprus; rather than return it to the Empire, Richard I of England sold the island to the Knights Templar. Barbarossa died on crusade, and his army quickly disintegrated, leaving the English and French, who had come by sea, to fight Saladin. In 1195 Henry VI, son and heir of Barbarossa, sought to efface this humiliation by declaring a new crusade, and in the summer of 1197 a large number of German knights and nobles, headed by two archbishops, nine bishops, and five dukes, sailed for Palestine. There they captured Sidon and Beirut, but at the news of Henry's death in Messina along the way, many of the nobles and clerics returned to Europe. Deserted by much of their leadership, the rank and file crusaders panicked before an Egyptian army and fled to their ships in Tyre.

    Also in 1195, the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos was deposed in favour of his brother by a palace coup. Ascending as Alexios III Angelos, the new emperor had his brother blinded (a traditional punishment for treason, considered more humane than execution) and exiled. Ineffectual on the battlefield, Isaac had also proven to be an incompetent ruler who had let the treasury dwindle and outsourced the navy to the Venetians. His actions in wastefully distributing military weapons and supplies as gifts to his supporters had undermined the empire's defenses.[10] The new emperor was to prove no better. Anxious to shore up his position, Alexios bankrupted the treasury. His attempts to secure the support of semi-autonomous border commanders undermined central authority. He neglected his crucial responsibilities for defence and diplomacy. The emperor's chief admiral (his wife's brother-in-law), Michael Stryphnos, reportedly sold the fleet's equipment down to the very nails to enrich himself.

    Beginning of the Crusade

    Pope Innocent III succeeded to the papacy in January 1198, and the preaching of a new crusade became the prime goal of his pontificate, expounded in his bull Post miserabile.[11][12] His call was largely ignored by the European monarchs: the Germans were struggling against Papal power, and England and France were still engaged in warfare against each other. However, due to the preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, a crusading army was finally organised at a tournament held at Écry-sur-Aisne by Count Thibaut of Champagne in 1199.[13] Thibaut was elected leader, but he died in 1201 and was replaced by an Italian count, Boniface of Montferrat.[14]

    Boniface and the other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states in 1200 to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the stated objective of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian Geoffrey of Villehardouin. Earlier crusades focused on Palestine had involved the slow movement of large and disorganised land hosts across a generally hostile Anatolia. Egypt was now the dominant Muslim power in the eastern Mediterranean but also a major trading partner of Venice.[15] An attack on Egypt would clearly be a maritime enterprise, requiring the creation of a fleet. Genoa was uninterested, but in March 1201 negotiations were opened with Venice, which agreed to transport 33,500 crusaders, a very ambitious number. This agreement required a full year of preparation on the part of the Venetians to build numerous ships and train the sailors who would man them, all the while curtailing the city's commercial activities. The crusading army was expected to consist of 4,500 knights (as well as 4,500 horses), 9,000 squires, and 20,000 foot-soldiers.

    The majority of the crusading army that set out from Venice in early October 1202 originated from areas within France. It included men from Blois, Champagne, Amiens, Saint-Pol, the Île-de-France, and Burgundy. Several other regions of Europe sent substantial contingents as well, such as Flanders and Montferrat. Other notable groups came from the Holy Roman Empire, including the men under Bishop Martin of the Pairis Abbey and Bishop Conrad of Halberstadt, together in alliance with the Venetian soldiers and sailors led by the doge, Enrico Dandolo. The crusade was to be ready to sail on 24 June 1203 and make directly for the Ayyubid capital, Cairo. This agreement was ratified by Pope Innocent, with a solemn ban on attacks on Christian states.[16]

    Attack on Zara

    The crusaders conquering the City of Zadar, painted by Tintoretto
    The crusaders conquering the City of Zadar, painted by Tintoretto

    There was no binding agreement among the crusaders that all should sail from Venice. Accordingly, many chose to sail from other ports, particularly Flanders, Marseille, and Genoa. By May 1202, the bulk of the crusader army was collected at Venice, although with far smaller numbers than expected: about 12,000 (4–5,000 knights and 8,000 foot soldiers) instead of 33,500.[17] The Venetians had performed their part of the agreement: there awaited 50 war galleys and 450 transports – enough for three times the assembled army.[18] The Venetians, under their aged and blind Doge Dandolo, would not let the crusaders leave without paying the full amount agreed to, originally 85,000 silver marks. The crusaders could only initially pay 35,000 silver marks. The Doge threatened to keep them interned unless full payment was made so a further 14,000 marks was collected, and that only by reducing the crusaders to extreme poverty.[19] This was disastrous to the Venetians, who had halted their commerce for a great length of time to prepare this expedition. In addition, about 14,000 men or as many as 20–30,000 men (out of Venice's population of 60–100,000 people) were needed to man the entire fleet, placing further strain on the Venetian economy.[18][20]

    Dandolo and the Venetians considered what to do with the crusade. It was too small to pay its fee, but disbanding the force gathered would harm Venetian prestige and cause significant financial and trading loss. Dandolo, who joined the crusade during a public ceremony in the church of San Marco di Venezia, proposed that the crusaders pay their debts by intimidating many of the local ports and towns down the Adriatic, culminating in an attack on the port of Zara in Dalmatia.[21] The city had been dominated economically by Venice throughout the 12th century but had rebelled in 1181 and allied itself with King Emeric of Hungary and Croatia.[22][23][24] Subsequent Venetian attempts to recover control of Zara had been repulsed, and by 1202 the city was economically independent, under the protection of the King.[25]

    King Emeric was Catholic and had himself taken the cross in 1195 or 1196. Many of the crusaders were opposed to attacking Zara, and some, including a force led by the elder Simon de Montfort, refused to participate altogether and returned home. While the Papal legate to the Crusade, Cardinal Peter of Capua, endorsed the move as necessary to prevent the crusade's complete failure, the Pope was alarmed at this development and wrote a letter to the crusading leadership threatening excommunication.[26]

    In 1202, Pope Innocent III, despite wanting to secure papal authority over Byzantium, forbade the crusaders of Western Christendom from committing any atrocious acts against their Christian neighbours.[27] However, this letter was concealed from the bulk of the army who arrived at Zara on 10–11 November 1202, and the attack proceeded. The citizens of Zara made reference to the fact that they were fellow Catholics by hanging banners marked with crosses from their windows and the walls of the city, but nevertheless the city fell on 24 November 1202 after a brief siege. There was extensive pillaging, and the Venetians and other crusaders came to blows over the division of the spoils. Order was achieved, and the leaders of the expedition agreed to winter in Zara, while considering their next move.[28] The fortifications of Zara were demolished by the Venetians.

    When Innocent III heard of the sack, he sent a letter to the crusaders excommunicating them and ordering them to return to their holy vows and head for Jerusalem. Out of fear that this would dissolve the army, the leaders of the crusade decided not to inform their followers of this. Regarding the Crusaders as having been coerced by the Venetians, in February 1203 he rescinded the excommunications against all non-Venetians in the expedition.[29]

    Diversion to Constantinople

    Dandolo Preaching the Crusade by Gustave Doré
    Dandolo Preaching the Crusade by Gustave Doré

    The commercial rivalry between the Republic of Venice and the Byzantine Empire and the living memory of the Massacre of the Latins did much to exacerbate the feeling of animosity among the Venetians towards the Byzantines. According to the Chronicle of Novgorod Doge Enrico Dandolo had been blinded by the Byzantines during the 1171 expedition to Byzantium and thus held personal enmity towards the Byzantines.[30]

    Boniface of Montferrat, meanwhile, had left the fleet before it sailed from Venice, to visit his cousin Philip of Swabia. The reasons for his visit are a matter of debate; he may have realized the Venetians' plans and left to avoid excommunication, or he may have wanted to meet with the Byzantine prince Alexios IV Angelos, Philip's brother-in-law and the son of the recently deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos. Alexios IV had recently fled to Philip in 1201 but it is unknown whether or not Boniface knew he was at Philip's court. There, Alexios IV offered to pay the entire debt owed to the Venetians, give 200,000 silver marks to the crusaders, 10,000 Byzantine professional troops for the Crusade, the maintenance of 500 knights in the Holy Land, the service of the Byzantine navy to transport the Crusader Army to Egypt, and the placement of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the authority of the Pope, if they would sail to Byzantium and topple the reigning emperor Alexios III Angelos, brother of Isaac II. This tempting offer, for an enterprise that was short on funds, reached the leaders of the Crusade on 1 January 1203 as they wintered at Zara.[31] Doge Dandolo was a fierce supporter of the plan; however, in his earlier capacity as an ambassador to Byzantium and someone who knew the finer details of how Byzantine politics worked, it is likely he knew the promises were false and there was no hope of any Byzantine emperor raising the money promised, let alone raising the troops and giving the church to the Holy See. Count Boniface agreed and Alexios IV returned with the Marquess to rejoin the fleet at Corfu after it had sailed from Zara. Most of the rest of the crusade's leaders, encouraged by bribes from Dandolo,[29] eventually accepted the plan as well. However, there were dissenters. Led by Reynold of Montmirail, those who refused to take part in the scheme to attack Constantinople sailed on to Syria.[29] The remaining fleet of 60 war galleys, 100 horse transports, and 50 large transports (the entire fleet was manned by 10,000 Venetian oarsmen and marines) sailed in late April 1203.[32] In addition, 300 siege engines were brought along on board the fleet.[33] Hearing of their decision, the Pope hedged and issued an order against any more attacks on Christians unless they were actively hindering the Crusader cause, but he did not condemn the scheme outright.[34]

    When the Fourth Crusade arrived at Constantinople on 23 June 1203, the city had a population of approximately 500,000 people,[35] a garrison of 15,000 men (including 5,000 Varangians), and a fleet of 20 galleys.[36][37][38][39] For both political and financial reasons, the permanent garrison of Constantinople had been limited to a relatively small force, made up of elite guard and other specialist units. At previous times in Byzantine history when the capital had come under direct threat, it had been possible to assemble reinforcements from frontier and provincial forces. On this occasion, the suddenness of the danger posed by the Fourth Crusade put the defenders at a serious disadvantage.[35] The main objective of the crusaders was to place Alexios IV on the Byzantine throne so that they could receive the rich payments he had promised them. Conon of Bethune delivered this ultimatum to the Lombard envoy sent by the Emperor Alexios III Angelos, who was the pretender's uncle and had seized the throne from the pretender's father Isaac II. The citizens of Constantinople were not concerned with the cause of the deposed emperor and his exiled son; hereditary right of succession had never been adopted by the empire and a palace coup between brothers was not considered illegitimate in the way it would have been in the West. First the crusaders attacked and were repulsed from the cities of Chalcedon and Chrysopolis, suburbs of the great city. They won a cavalry skirmish in which they were outnumbered, defeating 500 Byzantines with just 80 Frankish knights.[40]

    Siege of July 1203

    The Crusader attack on Constantinople, from a Venetian manuscript of Geoffreoy de Villehardouin's history, c. 1330
    The Crusader attack on Constantinople, from a Venetian manuscript of Geoffreoy de Villehardouin's history, c. 1330

    To take the city by force, the crusaders first needed to cross the Bosphorus. About 200 ships, horse transports, and galleys delivered the crusading army across the narrow strait, where Alexios III had lined up the Byzantine army in battle formation along the shore, north of the suburb of Galata. The Crusader knights charged straight out of the horse transports, and the Byzantine army fled south. The Crusaders followed and attacked the Tower of Galata, which held the northern end of the massive chain that blocked access to the Golden Horn. The Tower of Galata held a garrison of mercenary troops of English, Danish, and Italian origin.[41] As the crusaders laid siege to the Tower, the defenders routinely attempted to sally out with some limited success, but often suffered bloody losses. On one occasion the defenders sallied out but were unable to retreat back to the safety of the tower in time, the Crusader forces viciously counterattacked, with most of the defenders being cut down or drowning in the Bosporus in their attempts to escape.[42] The tower was swiftly taken as a result. The Golden Horn now lay open to the Crusaders, and the Venetian fleet entered. The Crusaders sailed alongside Constantinople with 10 galleys to display the would-be Alexios IV, but from the walls of the city citizens taunted the puzzled crusaders, who had been led to believe that they would rise up to welcome the young pretender Alexios as a liberator.[43]

    On 11 July, the Crusaders took positions opposite the Palace of Blachernae on the northwest corner of the city. Their first attempts were repulsed, but on 17 July, with four divisions attacking the land walls while the Venetian fleet attacked the sea walls from the Golden Horn, the Venetians took a section of the wall of about 25 towers, while the Varangian guard held off the Crusaders on the land wall. The Varangians shifted to meet the new threat, and the Venetians retreated under the screen of fire. The fire destroyed about 120 acres (0.49 km2) of the city and left some 20,000 people homeless.[44]

    Alexios III finally took offensive action, leading 17 divisions from the St. Romanus Gate, vastly outnumbering the crusaders. Alexios III's army of about 8,500 men faced the Crusaders' seven divisions (about 3,500 men), but his courage failed, and the Byzantine army returned to the city without a fight.[45] The unforced retreat and the effects of the fire greatly damaged morale, and the disgraced Alexios III abandoned his subjects, slipping out of the city and fleeing to Mosynopolis in Thrace.[46] The Imperial officials quickly deposed their runaway emperor and restored Isaac II, robbing the crusaders of the pretext for attack.[46] The crusaders were now in the quandary of having achieved their stated aim while being debarred from the actual objective, namely the reward that the younger Alexios had (unbeknownst to the Byzantines) promised them. The crusaders insisted that they would only recognize the authority of Isaac II if his son was raised to co-emperor, and on 1 August the latter was crowned as Alexios Angelos IV, co-emperor.[46]

    Further attacks on Constantinople

    Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204
    Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204

    Alexios IV realised that his promises were hard to keep. Alexios III had managed to flee with 1,000 pounds of gold and some priceless jewels, leaving the imperial treasury short on funds. At that point the young emperor ordered the destruction and melting of valuable Byzantine and Roman icons in order to extract their gold and silver, but even then he could only raise 100,000 silver marks. In the eyes of all Greeks who knew of this decision, it was a shocking sign of desperation and weak leadership, which deserved to be punished by God. The Byzantine historian Nicetas Choniates characterized it as "the turning point towards the decline of the Roman state".[47]

    Forcing the populace to destroy their icons at the behest of an army of foreign schismatics did not endear Alexios IV to the citizens of Constantinople. In fear of his life, the co-emperor asked the crusaders to renew their contract for another six months, to end by April 1204. Alexios IV then led 6,000 men from the Crusader army against his rival Alexios III in Adrianople.[48] During the co-emperor's absence in August, rioting broke out in the city and a number of Latin residents were killed. In retaliation armed Venetians and other crusaders entered the city from the Golden Horn and attacked a mosque (Constantinople at this time had a sizable Muslim population), which was defended by Muslim and Byzantine residents[citation needed]. In order to cover their retreat the Westerners instigated the "Great Fire", which burnt from 19 to 21 August, destroying a large part of Constantinople and leaving an estimated 100,000 homeless.

    In January 1204, the blinded and incapacitated Isaac II died, probably of natural causes.[47] Opposition to his son and co-emperor Alexios IV had grown during the preceding months of tension and spasmodic violence in and around Constantinople. The Byzantine Senate elected a young noble Nicolas Canabus as emperor, in what was to be one of the last known acts of this ancient institution. However he declined the appointment and sought church sanctuary.[49]

    A nobleman Alexios Doukas (nicknamed Mourtzouphlos) became the leader of the anti-crusader faction within the Byzantine leadership. While holding the court rank of protovestilarios, Doukas had led Byzantine forces during the initial clashes with the crusaders, winning respect from both military and populace. He was accordingly well-placed to move against the increasingly isolated Alexios IV, whom he overthrew, imprisoned, and had strangled in early February. Doukas then was crowned as Emperor Alexios V. He immediately moved to have the city fortifications strengthened and summoned additional forces to the city.[50]

    The crusaders and Venetians, incensed at the murder of their supposed patron, demanded that Mourtzouphlos honour the contract that Alexios IV had promised. When the Byzantine emperor refused, the Crusaders assaulted the city once again. On 8 April Alexios V's army put up a strong resistance, which did much to discourage the crusaders.[47] The Byzantines hurled large projectiles onto the enemy siege engines, shattering many of them. Bad weather conditions were a serious hindrance to the crusaders. Fierce wind blew from the shore and prevented most of the ships from drawing close enough to the walls to launch an assault. Only five of the wall's towers were actually engaged and none of these could be secured; by mid-afternoon it was evident that the attack had failed.[47]

    The Latin clergy discussed the situation amongst themselves and settled upon the message they wished to spread through the demoralised army. They had to convince the men that the events of 9 April were not God's judgment on a sinful enterprise: the campaign, they argued, was righteous and with proper belief it would succeed. The concept of God testing the determination of the crusaders through temporary setbacks was a familiar means for the clergy to explain failure in the course of a campaign.[47] The clergy's message was designed to reassure and encourage the Crusaders. Their argument that the attack on Constantinople was spiritual revolved around two themes. First, the Greeks were traitors and murderers since they had killed their rightful lord, Alexios IV.[47] The churchmen used inflammatory language and claimed that "the Greeks were worse than the Jews",[47] and they invoked the authority of God and the pope to take action.

    Although Innocent III had again demanded that they not attack, the papal letter was suppressed by the clergy, and the crusaders prepared for their own attack, while the Venetians attacked from the sea. Alexios V's army stayed in the city to fight, along with the imperial bodyguard, the Varangians, but Alexios V himself fled during the night. An attempt was made to find a further replacement emperor from amongst the Byzantine nobility, but the situation had now become too chaotic for either of the two candidates who came forward to find sufficient support.

    Sack of Constantinople

    The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was the sack of the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople.
    The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was the sack of the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople.

    On 12 April 1204, the weather conditions finally favoured the crusaders. A strong northern wind aided the Venetian ships in coming close to the walls, and after a short battle approximately seventy crusaders managed to enter the city. Some were able to knock holes in the walls, large enough for only a few knights at a time to crawl through; the Venetians were also successful at scaling the walls from the sea, though there was fighting with the Varangians. The Anglo-Saxon "axe bearers" had been amongst the most effective of the city's defenders, but they now attempted to negotiate higher wages from their Byzantine employers, before dispersing or surrendering.[51] The crusaders captured the Blachernae section of the city in the northwest and used it as a base to attack the rest of the city. While attempting to defend themselves with a wall of fire, however, they burned even more of the city. This second fire left 15,000 people homeless.[48] The crusaders completely took the city on 13 April.

    The crusaders sacked Constantinople for three days, during which many ancient Greco-Roman and medieval Byzantine works of art were stolen or ruined. Many of the civilian population of the city were killed and their property looted. Despite the threat of excommunication, the crusaders destroyed, defiled and looted the city's churches and monasteries.[52][53] It was said that the total amount looted from Constantinople was about 900,000 silver marks. The Venetians received 150,000 silver marks that was their due, while the crusaders received 50,000 silver marks. A further 100,000 silver marks were divided evenly up between the crusaders and Venetians. The remaining 500,000 silver marks were secretly kept back by many crusader knights.[54][55]

    Speros Vryonis in Byzantium and Europe gives a vivid account of the sack:

    The Latin soldiery subjected the greatest city in Europe to an indescribable sack. For three days they murdered, raped, looted and destroyed on a scale which even the ancient Vandals and Goths would have found unbelievable. Constantinople had become a veritable museum of ancient and Byzantine art, an emporium of such incredible wealth that the Latins were astounded at the riches they found. Though the Venetians had an appreciation for the art which they discovered (they were themselves semi-Byzantines) and saved much of it, the French and others destroyed indiscriminately, halting to refresh themselves with wine, violation of nuns, and murder of Orthodox clerics. The Crusaders vented their hatred for the Greeks most spectacularly in the desecration of the greatest Church in Christendom. They smashed the silver iconostasis, the icons and the holy books of Hagia Sophia, and seated upon the patriarchal throne a whore who sang coarse songs as they drank wine from the Church's holy vessels. The estrangement of East and West, which had proceeded over the centuries, culminated in the horrible massacre that accompanied the conquest of Constantinople. The Greeks were convinced that even the Turks, had they taken the city, would not have been as cruel as the Latin Christians. The defeat of Byzantium, already in a state of decline, accelerated political degeneration so that the Byzantines eventually became an easy prey to the Turks. The Fourth Crusade and the crusading movement generally thus resulted, ultimately, in the victory of Islam, a result which was of course the exact opposite of its original intention.[52][53]

    When Innocent III heard of the conduct of his pilgrims he was filled with shame and rage, and he strongly rebuked them.

    According to a subsequent treaty, the empire was apportioned between Venice and the leaders of the crusade, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople was established. Boniface was not elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to consider him as such; the Venetians thought he had too many connections with the former empire because of his brother, Renier of Montferrat, who had been married to Maria Komnene, empress in the 1170s and 1180s. Instead they placed Baldwin of Flanders on the throne. Boniface went on to found the Kingdom of Thessalonica, a vassal state of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians also founded the Duchy of the Archipelago in the Aegean Sea. Meanwhile, Byzantine refugees founded their own rump states, the most notable of these being the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore Laskaris (a relative of Alexios III), the Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate of Epirus.

    Outcome

    Partition of the Byzantine Empire into The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, and Despotate of Epirus after 1204
    Partition of the Byzantine Empire into The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, and Despotate of Epirus after 1204

    Only a relatively small number of the members of the Fourth Crusade finally reached their originally intended goal of the Holy Land. Research indicates that about a tenth of the knights who had taken the cross in Flanders arrived to reinforce the remaining Christian states there, plus about half of those from the Île-de-France.[56] During the ensuing half century the unstable Latin Empire siphoned off much of Europe's crusading energy. The legacy of the Fourth Crusade was the deep sense of betrayal felt by the Greek Christians. With the events of 1204, the schism between the Churches in the East and West was not just complete but also solidified.[57]

    As an epilogue to the event, Pope Innocent III, the man who had unintentionally launched the ill-fated expedition, spoke against the crusaders thus:

    How, indeed, will the church of the Greeks, no matter how severely she is beset with afflictions and persecutions, return into ecclesiastical union and to a devotion for the Apostolic See, when she has seen in the Latins only an example of perdition and the works of darkness, so that she now, and with reason, detests the Latins more than dogs? As for those who were supposed to be seeking the ends of Jesus Christ, not their own ends, who made their swords, which they were supposed to use against the pagans, drip with Christian blood, they have spared neither religion, nor age, nor sex. They have committed incest, adultery, and fornication before the eyes of men. They have exposed both matrons and virgins, even those dedicated to God, to the sordid lusts of boys. Not satisfied with breaking open the imperial treasury and plundering the goods of princes and lesser men, they also laid their hands on the treasures of the churches and, what is more serious, on their very possessions. They have even ripped silver plates from the altars and have hacked them to pieces among themselves. They violated the holy places and have carried off crosses and relics.[58]

    Nevertheless, the Pope accepted the new situation. When the crusaders took some of the piles of money, jewels, and gold that they had captured in the sack of Constantinople back to Rome, Innocent III accepted the stolen items. Furthermore, at the Fourth Council of the Lateran the Pope welcomed and recognised to it western (Catholic) prelates from Sees established in the conquered lands – thus recognising their legitimacy over formerly Orthodox areas.[citation needed]

    The Latin Empire was soon faced with a number of enemies. Besides the individual Byzantine rump states in Epirus and Nicaea, and the also Christian Bulgarian Empire, there was also the Seljuk Sultanate. The Greek states fought for supremacy against both the Latins and each other, .[59]

    Several of the major Greek and Latin protagonists in the event died or were killed in the years following the fall of the city. The betrayal and blinding of Murtzuphlus by Alexios III led to his capture by the Latins and his execution in 1205. Not long after, Alexios III was captured by Boniface and sent to exile in Southern Italy. He died in Nicaea in 1211. In 1205, Kaloyan of Bulgaria crushed the Latin Crusaders with his Cuman light cavalry.[60] On 14 April 1205, one year after the conquest of the city, Emperor Baldwin was decisively defeated and captured at the Battle of Adrianople by the Bulgarians. In 1205 or 1206, the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan mutilated him and left him to die, while others suggest he was kept captive in the famous Baldwin's Tower in the Bulgarian capital Veliko Turnovo, where he died under unknown circumstances. The Venetian Doge Dandolo died in May 1205. On 4 September 1207, the Bulgarians killed Boniface in an ambush. He was succeeded by his infant son Demetrius of Montferrat, who ruled until he reached adulthood but was eventually defeated by Theodore I Doukas, the despot of Epirus and a relative of Murtzuphlus. The Kingdom of Thessalonica was restored to Byzantine rule in 1224.[61]

    Various Latin-French lordships throughout Greece – in particular, the Duchy of Athens and the principality of the Morea – provided cultural contacts with western Europe and promoted the study of Greek. There was also a French cultural work, notably the production of a collection of laws, the Assises de Romanie. The Chronicle of Morea appeared in both French and Greek (and later Italian and Aragonese) versions. Impressive remains of crusader castles and Gothic churches can still be seen in Greece. Nevertheless, the Latin Empire always rested on shaky foundations. Constantinople was re-captured by the Nicaean Greeks under Michael VIII Palaeologos in 1261, and commerce with Venice was re-established.

    During the middle of the 15th century, the Latin Church (Roman Catholic Church) tried to organise a new crusade aimed at restoring the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, which was gradually being torn down by the advancing Ottoman Turks. The attempt failed, however, as the vast majority of Greek civilians and a growing part of their clergy refused to recognize and accept the short-lived near-union of the Churches of East and West signed at the Council of Florence and Ferrara by the Ecumenical patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople. The Greek population, reacting to the Latin conquest, believed that the Byzantine civilization that revolved around the Orthodox faith would be more secure under Ottoman Islamic rule[citation needed]. Overall, religious-observant Greeks preferred to sacrifice their political freedom and political independence in order to preserve their faith's traditions and rituals in separation from the Roman See.

    In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, "crusades" on a limited scale were organised by the Kingdoms of Hungary, Poland, Wallachia, and Serbia. These were not the traditional expeditions aimed at the recovery of Jerusalem but rather defensive campaigns intended to prevent further expansion to the west by the Ottoman Empire.[62] During the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453, up to 2,000 Venetian and Genoese volunteers formed part of the approximately 9,000 defenders of the city. [63]

    Legacy

    "O City, City, eye of all cities, universal boast, supramundane wonder, nurse of churches, leader of the faith, guide of Orthodoxy, beloved topic of orations, the abode of every good thing! Oh City, that hast drunk at the hand of the Lord the cup of his fury! O City, consumed by fire..."

    Niketas Choniates laments the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders.[64]

    The prominent medievalist Steven Runciman wrote in 1954: "There was never a greater crime against humanity than the Fourth Crusade."[65] The controversy that has surrounded the Fourth Crusade has led to diverging opinions in academia on whether its objective was indeed the capture of Constantinople. The traditional position, which holds that this was the case, was challenged by Donald E. Queller and Thomas F. Madden in their book The Fourth Crusade (1977).[66]

    Constantinople was considered as a bastion of Christianity that defended Europe from the advancing forces of Islam, and the Fourth Crusade's sack of the city dealt an irreparable blow to this eastern bulwark. Although the Greeks retook Constantinople after 57 years of Latin rule, the Byzantine Empire had been crippled by the Fourth Crusade. Reduced to Constantinople, north-western Anatolia, and a portion of the southern Balkans, the empire fell to the Ottoman Turks who captured the city in 1453.[67]

    Eight hundred years later, Pope John Paul II twice expressed sorrow for the events of the Fourth Crusade. In 2001, he wrote to Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens, "It is tragic that the assailants, who set out to secure free access for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their brothers in the faith. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret."[68] In 2004, while Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, was visiting the Vatican, John Paul II asked, "How can we not share, at a distance of eight centuries, the pain and disgust."[69] This has been regarded as an apology to the Greek Orthodox Church for the massacres perpetrated by the warriors of the Fourth Crusade.[70]

    In April 2004, in a speech on the 800th anniversary of the city's capture, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I formally accepted the apology. "The spirit of reconciliation is stronger than hatred," he said during a liturgy attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France. "We receive with gratitude and respect your cordial gesture for the tragic events of the Fourth Crusade. It is a fact that a crime was committed here in the city 800 years ago." Bartholomew said his acceptance came in the spirit of Pascha. "The spirit of reconciliation of the resurrection... incites us toward reconciliation of our churches."[71]

    The Fourth Crusade was one of the last of the major crusades to be launched by the Papacy, though it quickly fell out of Papal control. After bickering between laymen and the papal legate led to the collapse of the Fifth Crusade, later crusades were directed by individual monarchs, mostly against Egypt. One subsequent crusade, the Sixth, succeeded in restoring Jerusalem to Christian rule for 15 years.

    In fiction and music

    • The Fourth Crusade is depicted in Poul Anderson's novel There Will Be Time from the point of view of a 20th-century time traveler who saves the life of a Byzantine girl during the carnage and falls in love with her.
    • Neal Stephenson's and Nicole Galland's novel The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O deals with events leading up to and during the Sack of Constantinople from the perspective of modern time travellers.
    • Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino begins shortly after the Sack of Constantinople.
    • The second volume of Judith Tarr's trilogy The Hound and the Falcon – titled The Golden Horn – also depicts the Fourth Crusade and Sack, showing it from its prelude through the aftermath in a historical fiction/fantasy setting that captures elements of both the Latin and Greek sides of the conflict.
    • The IVth Crusade is the title of British death metal band Bolt Thrower's fourth studio album released in 1992.
    • Bitter Crusade is a Chronicle, written by Zach Bush, James Maliszewski and Joshua Mosqueira Asheim, for White Wolf's Vampire: The Dark Ages, in which characters get involved in the events of the 4th Crusade.[72]

    See also

    References

    Notes

    1. ^ John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, (1995; repr., London: Folio Society, 2003), 169
    2. ^ Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. p. 136. ISBN 0-19-873097-7.
    3. ^ Haldon, John (2002). Byzantium at War. Oxford: Osprey. p. 87.
    4. ^ Phillips, Jonathan (2004). The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. New York: Viking. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-14-303590-9.
    5. ^ Nicolle, David (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978 1 84908 319 5.
    6. ^ Nicolle, David. The Fourth Crusade 1202-04. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.
    7. ^ Norman Davies, page 311, "Vanished Kingdoms. The History of Half-forgotten Europe", ISBN 978-0-141-04886-4
    8. ^ Sherrard, Philip (1967). Byzantium. Nederland: Time-Life Books. pp. 42–43.
    9. ^ John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, (1995; repr., London: Folio Society, 2003), 169–70
    10. ^ John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, (1995; repr., London: Folio Society, 2003)
    11. ^ Madden, Thomas F. (August 19, 2008). The Fourth Crusade: Event, Aftermath, and Perceptions: Papers from the Sixth Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East in Istanbul, Turkey. ISBN 0-7546-6319-1.
    12. ^ Runciman, Steven (1954). A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades (Volume 3). ISBN 0-14-013705-X.
    13. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1976). The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. American Philosophical Society. p. 7. ISBN 9780871691149.
    14. ^ Runciman, Steven (1954). A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades (Volume 3). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-521-34772-3.
    15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 15th Edition, page 306 Macropaedia Volume 5
    16. ^ Philips Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, Sheed & Ward, 1948, vol. 2, p. 370.
    17. ^ D. E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade The Conquest of Constantinople, 232
    18. ^ a b D. E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade The Conquest of Constantinople, 17
    19. ^ Robert de Clari, La Prise de Constantinople, xi–xii, in Hopf, Chroniques Greco-Romaines, pp. 7–9. Old French.
    20. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 57.
    21. ^ Zara is the today the city of Zadar in Croatia; it was called "Jadera" in Latin documents and "Jadres" by French crusaders. The Venetian (Italian) "Zara" is a later derivation of the contemporary vernacular "Zadra".
    22. ^ Person Page 10465. thePeerage.com.
    23. ^ Madden, Thomas F., and Donald E. Queller. The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
    24. ^ Emeric (king of Hungary). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
    25. ^ Phillips, The Fourth Crusade, pp. 110–11.
    26. ^ Philip Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 371, Sheed & Ward, 1948.
    27. ^ Hindley, Geoffrey (2003). The Crusades: A History of Armed Pilgrimage and Holy War. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. pp. 143, 152.
    28. ^ Runciman, Stephen (1975). A History of the Crusades – the Kingdom of Arce and the Later Crusades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0 521 20554 9.
    29. ^ a b c Runciman, Steven. The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, (1954; repr., London: Folio Society, 1994), 98
    30. ^ Madden (2003)
    31. ^ Richard, Jean. The Crusades c. 1071 – c. 1291. p. 247. ISBN 0-521-62566-1.
    32. ^ Phillips, Jonathan (2004). The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. New York: Viking. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-14-303590-9.
    33. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 113.
    34. ^ Runciman, Steven. The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, (1954; repr., London: Folio Society, 1994), 99
    35. ^ a b Nicolle, David (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 41. ISBN 978 1 84908 319 5.
    36. ^ D. Queller, The Fourth Crusade The Conquest of Constantinople, 185
    37. ^ Phillips, The Fourth Crusade, p. 157.
    38. ^ Treadgold, W. A Concise History of Byzantium, 187
    39. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 159.
    40. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 162.
    41. ^ Andrea, Alfred. Contemporary Sources For The Fourth Crusade. pp. 191–192.
    42. ^ Andrea, Alfred. Contemporary Sources For The Fourth Crusade. p. 193.
    43. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 164.
    44. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 176.
    45. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 177.
    46. ^ a b c Runciman, Steven. The Kingdom of Acre and the later Crusades, (1954; repr., London: Folio Society, 1994), 100
    47. ^ a b c d e f g Phillips, The Fourth Crusade
    48. ^ a b Phillips. The Fourth Crusade, p. 209.
    49. ^ Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. II, London, 1868, p. 471
    50. ^ Nicolle, David (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. pp. 25, 65. ISBN 978 1 84908 319 5.
    51. ^ Nicolle, David (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 77. ISBN 978 1 84908 319 5.
    52. ^ a b Vryonis, Speros (1967). Byzantium and Europe. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. p. 152.
    53. ^ a b Hughes, Philip. "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, Sheed & Ward, 1948, vol. 2, p. 372.
    54. ^ Konstam, Historical Atlas of The Crusades, 162
    55. ^ W. Treadgold, A History of Byzantine State and Society, 663
    56. ^ Nicolle, David (2011). The Fourth Crusade 1202–04 – the Betrayal of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 78. ISBN 978 1 84908 319 5.
    57. ^ page 310, volume 5; "Encyclopædia Britannica, Fifteenth Edition 1983, ISBN 0-85229-400-X
    58. ^ Pope Innocent III, Letters, 126 (given July 12, 1205, and addressed to the papal legate, who had absolved the crusaders from their pilgrimage vows). Text taken from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook by Paul Halsall. Modified. Original translation by J. Brundage.
    59. ^ Richard, Jean. The Crusades c. 1071 – c. 1291. pp. 252–57. ISBN 0 521 62369 3.
    60. ^ Bulgarian Folk Customs, Mercia MacDermott, pg 27
    61. ^ Thurbon, Colin (1981). The Venetians. Amsterdam: Time-Life Books Inc. pp. 25, 65. ISBN 0-7054-0633-4.
    62. ^ page 308, volume 5; "Encyclopædia Britannica, Fifteenth Edition 1983, ISBN 0-85229-400-X
    63. ^ D'Amato, Raffaele (2007). The Eastern Romans 330–1461 AD. Hong Kong: Concord Publications. p. 42. ISBN 962-361-089-0.
    64. ^ Choniates, Niketas; Magoulias, Harry J. (trans.) (1984). O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniatēs. Wayne State University Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-8143-1764-8.
    65. ^ Runciman. History of the Crusades. 3. p. 130.
    66. ^ Queller, D. E. & Madden, T. F. (1997). The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, 1201–1204. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    67. ^ Sherrard, Philip (1967). Byzantium. Nederland: Time-Life Books. pp. 166–67.
    68. ^ Pope John Paul II (2001). "In the Footsteps of St. Paul: Papal Visit to Greece, Syria & Malta –  Words". EWTN.
    69. ^ "Pope sorrow over Constantinople". BBC News. June 29, 2004.
    70. ^ Phillips. The Fourth Crusade. p. xiii.
    71. ^ Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (April 2004). "News". In Communion. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09.
    72. ^ Asheim,, Joshua. Bitter Crusade (1st ed.). White Wolf Publishing, Inc. p. 112. ISBN 1-58846-214-5.

    Bibliography

    Primary sources

    Secondary sources

    • "Crusades". Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006.
    • Angold, Michael, The Fourth Crusade, Harlow: Pearson, 2003
    • Charles Brand. Byzantium Confronts the West, 1180–1204, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1968
    • Godfrey, John. 1204: The Unholy Crusade. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980
    • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed., 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
    • Harris, Jonathan, 'Collusion with the infidel as a pretext for military action against Byzantium', in Clash of Cultures: the Languages of Love and Hate, ed. S. Lambert and H. Nicholson, Turnhout: Brepols, 2012, pp. 99–117
    • Hindley, Geoffrey. The Crusades: A History of Armed Pilgrimage and Holy War. New York, NY: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2003. New edition: The Crusades: Islam and Christianity in the Struggle for World Supremacy. New York, NY: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2004.
    • Lilie, Ralph-Johannes. Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096–1204. Translated by J. C. Morris and Jean E. Ridings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993; originally published in 1988.
    • Madden, Thomas F. (2003). Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7317-1.
    • Madden, Thomas F., and Donald E. Queller. The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997
    • Marin, Serban. A Humanist Vision regarding the Fourth Crusade and the State of the Assenides. The Chronicle of Paul Ramusio (Paulus Rhamnusius), Annuario del Istituto Romano di Cultura e Ricerca Umanistica vol. 2 (2000), pp. 51–57.
    • McNeal, Edgar, and Robert Lee Wolff. The Fourth Crusade, in A History of the Crusades (edited by Kenneth M. Setton and others), vol. 2, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962
    • Nicol, Donald M. Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
    • Noble, Peter S. Eyewitnesses of the Fourth Crusade – the War against Alexius III, Reading Medieval Studies v.25, 1999.
    • Phillips, Jonathan. The Fourth Crusade and the sack of Constantinople. New York: Viking, 2004. ISBN 978-0-14-303590-9.
    • Queller, Donald E. The Latin Conquest of Constantinople. New York, NY; London, U.K.; Sydney, NSW; Toronto, ON: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1971.
    • Queller, Donald E., and Susan J. Stratton. "A Century of Controversy on the Fourth Crusade", in Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History v. 6 (1969): 237–77; reprinted in Donald E. Queller, Medieval Diplomacy and the Fourth Crusade. London: Variorum Reprints, 1980.
    • Thomas F. Madden. Crusades: The Illustrated History

    Further reading

    • Angold, Michael. The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context. Harlow, NY: Longman, 2003.
    • Bartlett, W. B. An Ungodly War: The Sack of Constantinople and the Fourth Crusade. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000.
    • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades, London: Bloomsbury, 2nd ed., 2014. ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
    • Harris, Jonathan, "The problem of supply and the sack of Constantinople", in The Fourth Crusade Revisited, ed. Pierantonio Piatti, Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008, pp. 145–54. ISBN 978-88-209-8063-4.
    • Kazhdan, Alexander "Latins and Franks in Byzantium", in Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh (eds.), The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001: 83–100.
    • Kolbaba, Tia M. "Byzantine Perceptions of Latin Religious ‘Errors’: Themes and Changes from 850 to 1350", in Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh (eds.), The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 2001: 117–43.
    • Nicolle, David. The Fourth Crusade 1202–04: The betrayal of Byzantium, Osprey Campaign Series #237. Osprey Publishing. 2011. ISBN 978-1-84908-319-5.

    External links

    This page was last edited on 22 July 2019, at 09:54
    Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.